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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)

On-line version ISSN 2448-4865Print version ISSN 0026-1742


MENDOZA-ALDABA, Isis Isadora  and  FORTOUL, Teresa I.. Dry eye syndrome. A literature review. Rev. Fac. Med. (Méx.) [online]. 2021, vol.64, n.5, pp.46-54.  Epub Feb 03, 2022. ISSN 2448-4865.

Air pollution is continuously present as its sources have increased. In the season of high insolation, scarce wind, and lack of rain there is an increase in the signs and symptoms of high concentrations of pollution, mainly there is an increase in respiratory symptoms, but little has been reported from the eye, which is directly exposed to the environment. Dry eye syndrome (SOS) is defined as “a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of ocular discomfort, impaired vision and instability of the tear film with potential damage to the ocular surface”.

Around 5 to 34% of the world population suffers from SOS and the prevalence increases with age, being more frequent in women (2:1). Risk factors include hormonal changes, nutritional deficiencies, air pollution, dyslipidemia and obesity. Environmental factors such as decrease in atmospheric humidity, prolonged exposure to screens, air purity, extreme temperatures, UV radiation and high levels of particulate matter (PM) participate in the same way.

SOS is a multifactorial disorder. It is divided into 2 groups: “dry eye with poor tear production (aqueous-deficient)” and “dry eye with increased evaporation of the tear film (hyperevaporative)” and the mixture of both types, hyperevaporative/deficient aqueous, are more than 80% of the cases. The most frequently reported symptom is a foreign body sensation. They also report burning, itching, excessive mucus secretion, not being able to secrete a tear, burning sensation, photosensitivity, red eye, pain, and blurred vision. The diagnosis of SOS is made by the clinical history, physical examination and symptoms reported by the patient. Treatment requires proper diagnosis of the cause and to decrease the different components that cause the symptoms. It is important to apply treatments that reduce the dysfunction of the meibomian glands, which are a relevant component in the pathophysiology of this disease.

Keywords : Dry eye; Meibomian gland; multifactorial disease; air pollution; tear film.

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