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Abanico veterinario

On-line version ISSN 2448-6132Print version ISSN 2007-428X

Abanico vet vol.9  Tepic  2019 

Original articles

Comparison of the forage tree species consumption by Pecari tajacu in captivity

1Campus of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Autonomous University of Yucatán. Merida, Yucatán, Mexico


The objective was to compare consumption of dry matter (CMS) of Mucuna fruit (M. deeringiana), forages of ramón (B. alicastrum), jabín (P. piscipula), and Moringa (M. oleifera) in Collared Peccary male adults (P. tajacu). The study was carried out in two parts, the first one was executed with Latin square design (DCL) 4x4 with two repetitions, and three forages with ground Mucuna fruit were offered. In the second part, the preferred forage was eliminated in the first test and DCL 3x3 was applied. Variance analysis was used for 4x4 and 3x3 DCL respectively, and Tukey test between means. Linear regression models were adjusted between the CMS and nutrient contents of each forage. The CMS in the first part showed a significant difference between the Moringa forages and the rest of them. In the second test, the CMS presented a significant difference between Ramón and the two remaining forages. Three linear regression models were highly significant, between CMS and crude protein content (PC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and total phenols (FT). It is concluded that peccaries have the preference for M. oleifera, which has the highest values in PC, FT and the lowest in NDF.

Keywords: intake of forage; Collared Peccary; Mucuna deeringiana; Brosimum alicastrum; Piscidia piscipula; Moringa oleífera


Various nutritional studies of Pecari tajacu show that they consume fresh fodder and silage (Montes et al., 2012; Borges-Ventura et al., 2014). Montes et al (2012) reported that they consume G.ulmifolia preferably on B. alicastrum and P. purpureum (P <0.05); however, there is no significant difference between G. ulmifolia and L. leucocephala (P> 0.05).

Additionally, Montes-Pérez et al. (2018), reported that collared peccaries showed preference for consumption of silage mixture containing 55% of B. aliscastrum with 40% of P. purpureum and 5% of molasses, on mixtures with other proportions of the same ingredients (P <0.05); including the ovarian activity of peccaries subjected to diets containing 50% silage and 50% corn and local fruits. Compared with animals subjected to diets based only on corn and fruits, they show no differences (P> 0.05) in blood levels of progesterone, or alteration in the proportion of females in estrus, or in the duration of ovarian cycles for 35 days continuous.

On the other hand, Oliveira et al., 2009 reported that collared peccaries can use urea as a source of non-protein nitrogen; like ruminants, up to 2% of the diet on dry basis; therefore, its digestive physiology is similar to ruminants. Also, Oliveira et al. (2009) and Montes-Pérez et al. (2012) state that the digestive physiology of the collared peccary (P. tajacu) is more similar to that of ruminants than to non-ruminants, because the digestive apparatus of the collared peccary (P. tajacu) has four compartments: the glandular stomach, a gastric pouch and two blind sacs, where volatile fatty acids are produced, because the microflora of the compound stomach ferments the food. Volatile fatty acids serve as a nutrient to animals; however, the amount of volatile fatty acids produced in the stomach of the peccary is low, the rest is generated throughout the digestive system (Sowls, 1997).

It is important to know that there are numerous forages that have not been tested for consumption in this species, and therefore the potential they have to be integrated into the systems of breeding and intensive production of breeding feet, meat or by-products has not been described; in addition, the selection of food substrates of forage tree species that have high nutritional content and adapted to tropical and subtropical climates, are adequate to include them in these animal production systems, since it directs the concept of the integration of wildlife species within of the agroecosystem (Gallego-Burbano et al., 2012).

Based on this context, the objective is to compare the consumption of four types of fodder: dry and ground fruit of mucuna (M. deeringiana), fresh foliage of ramón (B. alicastrum), jabín (P. piscipula) and moringa (M. oleifera) by collared peccary (P. tajacu) in captivity.


The present work was carried out in the facilities of the Wildlife Management and Conservation Unit (UMA) Xmatkuil in the Mérida municipality, Yucatán, México; located at 200 51' 20'' North latitude and 890 36' 55'' West longitude, 10 meters above sea level. The climate is subhumid warm type, Awo classification (Orellana et al., 2010).

Four collared peccaries (P. tajacu), adult males with average weights of 20 ± 1 kg were used. The specimens were housed in a corral with a surface of 100 m2, and the animals were subject to the same sanitary, nutritional and containment management, according to the management plan of the UMA. The bromatological analysis of the forage species was carried out in the nutrition laboratory of the Campus of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, where the techniques of Ankom Technology (without year a, b) for the determination of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and fiber were applied neutral detergent (FDN). For crude protein (PC), the technique of AOAC (2005) was used; the condensed tannins (TC) were analyzed as described by Makkar and Becker (1993) and the total phenols (FT) by the methodology of Makkar (2003).

The experiment was carried out in two stages, the first one was applied a Latin box design (DCL) 4 x 4. The test was carried out in a time of 4 hours in the morning, during 4 days. In each feeder the forages were placed to test, the distance between them was 4 meters, in the north, south, east and west positions. Fodders were rotated daily, according to the distribution of the standard MCI; this test was carried out with two repetitions of the design. The response variable was the individual average of the dry matter consumption (CMS) of each forage. In the second stage, three forage species were tested using a standard 3x3 DCL, eliminating the preferred forage in the first test; feeders were placed in the north, south and east positions, for three days for four hours each day. Two replications of the design were also made.

At the end of the period of each daily test they were provided with the daily diet that is based on fruits and vegetables of the season (cucumber, pumpkin and papaya). The response variable was the same as in the first part. The amount of food consumed was estimated by the difference of the food offered and the rejected in dry matter. The analysis of variance for the 4x4 and 3x3 Latin boxes, respectively was applied. After the multiple comparison of means of each treatment by the Tukey test, simple linear regression models were also fitted between the means of CMS and the content of crude protein (PC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid (FDA), total phenols (FT) and condensed tannins (TC) of forages (Microsoft Corp, 1990-1995).


The highest value of dry matter was that of mucuna fruit (M. deeringiana), followed by ramón (B. alicastrum), jabín (P. piscipula) and moringa (M. oleifera); the highest FDN and FDA value was that of jabín (P. piscipula), and the lowest of moringa (M. oleifera). While for TC the highest was for jabín (P. piscipula) and in the rest it was not detectable. For FT the highest value corresponds to moringa (M. oleifera), and the lowest to ramón (B. alicastrum) (Table 1).

Table 1 Results of bromatological analysis of the species evaluated on a dry basis 

Forage species PC (%) FDN (%) FDA (%) TC (%) FT (%)
Ramón (B. alicastrum) 13.27 38.56 22.07 0 1.61
Jabín (P. piscipula) 18.29 51.08 33.38 2.68 1.63
Mucuna (M. deeringiana) 16.43 39.99 23.65 0 1.71
Moringa (M. oleífera) 30.96 18.99 21.46 0 1.87

Test 1. The analysis of variance of the Latin 4x4 chart showed a highly significant difference between the treatments (P <0.01). The moringa forage (M. oleifera) presented the highest mean of consumption with respect to the others (P <0.01). A significant difference was observed (P <0.05) between the consumption of mucuna (M. deeringiana) and ramón (B. alicastrum); but there are no differences (P> 0.05) between jabín (P. piscipula) and mucuna (M. deeringiana).

Test 2. There was a statistically significant difference (P <0.01) between the consumptions of dry matter of ramón (B. alicastrum), jabín (P. piscipula) and mucuna (M. deeringiana); but between these last two there are no significant differences (P> 0.05). Table 2 shows the multiple comparisons of dry mass consumption means on dry basis of each treatment in the two tests.

Table 2 Mean dry matter consumption (CMS) on dry basis by the collared peccary (P. tajacu) (g MS / animal) in the two preference tests with four and three forage species 

Forage species Stage 1. Consumption of dry matter (g / animal) ± standard error Stage 2 Consumption of dry matter (g / animal) ± standard error
Ramón (B. alicastrum) 83.10 a ± 19.73 311.93 a* ± 30.90
Jabín (P. piscipula) 13.99 ab ± 19.73 5.08 b ± 30.90
Mucuna (M. deeringiana) 0 b ± 19.73 3.736 b ± 30.90
Moringa (M. oleífera) 274.41 c* ± 19.73 -------

Literal difference in the mean values of dry matter consumption of each stage, indicates significant difference (P <0.05), the asterisk (*) in the literal indicates highly significant difference (P <0.01)

Table 3 shows the simple linear regression models, determination coefficient and significance value between dry matter consumption (CMS) with crude protein content (PC), acid detergent fiber (FDA), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total phenols (FT) and condensed tannins (TC) of the four forages tested in collared peccary. It is observed that the simple linear regression models of dry matter consumption (CMS) with PC, NDF and FT were significant; but those that correspond to CMS with FDA and TC are not.

Table 3 Linear regression models, coefficient of determination (R2) and significance values (P) corresponding to dry matter consumption (CMS) by Pecari tajacu, with crude protein (PC), acid detergent fiber (DFA), detergent fiber neutral (NDF), total phenols (FT) and condensed tannins (TC) in forages M. oleifera, B. alicastrum, P. piscipula, M. deeringiana

Dry matter consumption (CMS) CMS= -153.304 + 12.247*PC CMS = 353.879 - 10.5592*FDA CMS = 371.906 - 7.63134*FDN CMS = -1187.54 + 748.366*FT CMS = 110.401 - 32.8064*TC
R2 68.5007 26.2156 78.6966 59.2737 14.6443
Value of P 0.0009 0.0888 0.0001 0.0034 0.2195


In test 1, the preferred forage (P <0.01) was moringa (274.41 gMS/animal), well above the ramón (83.10g MS/animal) which was the second most consumed.

In test 2 the total consumption of the three species (320.75 g MS/animal) was lower than that of test 1 (371,515 g MS/animal); however, consumption in test 2, ramón (B. alicastrum) increased almost 4 times (P <0.01) with respect to the first test; which shows that it is the second forage species preferred by P. tajacu.

The forage that presented the highest PC content was moringa (M. oleifera) (30.96%), as well as the lower content of NDF (18.99%) and FDA (21.46%); which could favor its assimilation in the digestive system of the collared peccary (P. tajacu); the opposite of ramón (B. alicastrum), which was the species with the lowest PC value (13.27%); however, it was the second preferred forage species, possibly because it had a low content of NDF (38.56%) and FDA (22.07%); after the moringa (M. oleifera).

The species that presented lower consumptions of dry matter (CMS), were jabín (P. piscipula) and mucuna (M. deeringiana); whose PC values were above ramón (B. alicastrum) (18.29, and 16.43% respectively), but lower than that of moringa (M. oleifera), however, its NDF contents (51.08 and 39.99%) and FDA ( 33.38 and 23.65%), presented superior values with respect to the preferred forages.

These findings indicate that the combination of high values of ADF and NDF influences the ingestive behavior of the forages by the collared peccary (P. tajacu), which is also consistent with the negative slope values of the linear regression models between CMS and FDA and FDN.

Paredes et al. (2014), showed that there is a decrease of the CMS in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as the amount of NDF increases, since where a higher NDF content was found because the forages with more cell wall, affects the passage time of food in the digestive system and digestibility of dry matter; Quiroz-Cardoso et al. (2015) mention that in sheep and lambs the consumption of fruits and palatability of A. farnesiana, A. macilenta, A. cochliacantha (legumes), show negative correlation with the contents of NDF and FDA in forages tested; but the fruits of A. farnesiana and A. cochliacantha are more consumed because they have lower content of NDF and ADF. These findings allow supporting the consumption behavior presented by the collared peccary (P. tajacu), and at the same time confirm that their feeding behavior is similar to ruminants; also that his stomach is composed, but does not play the role of rumination; therefore, it is considered pseudo-disruptive or pre-interrupting (Montes-Pérez et al., 2012).

Di-Marco (2011) makes reference in that a forage is of high quality when it has less than 50% of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and more than 15% of crude protein; this supports what was found in this study on the preference for moringa (M. oleifera), since due to its high PC content and low levels of NDF, they make this forage high quality, compared to the rest of the forages.

The relationship between the TC and CMS is not significant, this result may be due to two possible circumstances, the first to the absence of TC content in the forages tested, except in P. piscipula, and the second to the low amount of TC in this last forage, whose content is less than 5%; value that is considered the limit to avoid the decrease of the voluntary consumption of fodder in ruminants; however, values between 2 and 4% of MS trigger an increase in forage consumption, due to the fact that they favor the intestinal absorption of proteins (Márquez and Suárez, 2008).

However, the regression between CMS and FT contained in forages was significant, which is different from that reported by García et al. (2008), who report that in goats they found no relationship between the content of FT, alkaloids and lactone compounds. Probably the consumption of fodder by peccaries is the combination of the high level of PC, low amount of NDF and ADF, and high amount of FT; combination that corresponds to the moringa. Gutiérrez et al. (2008), report that they are around 8000 compounds that are measured in the bromatological analysis in FT; among them the most studied are the flavonoids, which have the property of being antioxidants, and therefore decrease the oxidative damage caused by free radicals in the energy metabolism.


Moringa forage (M. oleifera), had more preference in dry matter consumption by collared peccary (P. tajacu), and followed by Ramon (B. alicastrum). The higher quantity of PC and NDF contained in the forages increase and decrease respectively, in dry matter consumption by P. tajacu.


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Received: September 19, 2018; Accepted: February 20, 2019

*Responsible and correspondence author: Montes-Pérez Rubén. Campus of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Autonomous University of Yucatán. Mérida-Xmatkuil road, km 15.5, Mérida. Yucatán, Mexico, CP. 97315

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