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Botanical Sciences

On-line version ISSN 2007-4476Print version ISSN 2007-4298

Bot. sci vol.95 n.4 México Oct./Dec. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1111 

Taxonomy and Floristics

Floristic, vegetational and geographic characteristics of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, Mexico

Florística, vegetación y características geográficas de la Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, México

Maite Lascurain-Rangel1  * 

Sergio Avendaño-Reyes2 

Miguel Cházaro-Basañez3 

Daniel Geissert-Kientz4 

Rafael Villegas-Patraca5 

César Augusto Gallo-Gómez5 

Celso Gutiérrez-Báez6 

1 Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Mexico.

2 Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Herbario XAL, Mexico.

3 Facultad de Biología. Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.

4 Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Red Ecología Funcional, Mexico.

5 Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Unidad de Servicios Profesionales Altamente Especializados, Mexico.

6 Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Mexico.

Abstract:

Background:

Explored botanically from the 19th century, the Sierra de Chiconquiaco is recognized for its large vegetal and topographical heterogeneity. However, the available floristic information is sparse and its geographic characteristics remain undefined. The objective of this study was therefore to integrate floristic, vegetal and geographic information in order to identify areas that have experienced floristic exploration as well as potential sites for conservation.

Question:

Under which criteria can the Sierra be geographically delimited? What kind of floristic and vegetational studies have been carried out? How many species of plants have been registered? Which sites have been more widely explored? Which of them have conservation and research potentials?

Study site and years of study:

Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, Mexico, 2010-2014.

Methods:

A bibliographical and records review of the XAL and MEXU herbariums, works and field survey were carried out. Through analysis of geomorphological attributes in a geographic information system, the boundaries of the Sierra were established, revealing an area of 3,632 km2, featuring 22 municipalities and an altitudinal range of 50 to 3,000 m a.s.l.

Results:

Seven vegetation types were described, as well as a floristic list of 3,016 species, including 72 type localities, 36 endemics, 57 registered in the NOM-059, 2010 and 195 in the CITES.

Conclusions:

Nine potential areas for conservation of flora were detected, as well as six that were scarcely documented in the herbaria. This study provides a relevant contribution to the knowledge, use and conservation of the vegetal resources of Mexico.

Key words: floristic inventory; vegetational; botanic collections; geographic delineation; conservation zones

Resumen:

Antecedentes:

Explorada botánicamente desde el siglo XIX, la Sierra de Chiconquiaco destaca por su amplia heterogeneidad vegetal y topográfica. Sin embargo, la información florística disponible era dispersa y sus características geográficas indefinidas. Por este motivo, el objetivo de este estudio fue llevar a cabo una síntesis geográfica, florística y de vegetación, con el fin de identificar áreas exploradas florísticamente y sitios con potencial para la conservación.

Preguntas:

¿Bajo qué criterios se delimita geográficamente a la Sierra? ¿Qué estudios florísticos y de vegetación se han llevado cabo? ¿Cuántas especies de plantas se registran? ¿Cuáles sitios son más explorados?

Sitio de estudio y fechas:

Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Veracruz, Mexico, 2010-2014.

Métodos:

Registros de los herbarios XAL y MEXU, trabajos de campo. Mediante el análisis de atributos geomorfológicos en un sistema de información geográfica, se establecieron los límites de la Sierra, que abarca una extensión de 3,632 km2, 22 municipios y un intervalo altitudinal de 50 a 3,000 m s.n.m.

Resultados:

Siete tipos de vegetación, una lista florística de 3,016 especies, que incluye 72 localidades tipo, 36 endémicas, 57 registradas en la NOM-059, 2010 y 195 en CITES.

Conclusiones:

Se detectaron nueve áreas potenciales para la conservación de la flora y seis escasamente documentadas en los herbarios. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento, uso y conservación de los recursos vegetales del país.

Palabras clave: inventario florístico; vegetación; colecciones botánicas; delimitación geográfica; zonas de conservación

Floristic inventories and studies of vegetation are necessary in order to evaluate the plant diversity of a region, formulate actions of restoration, determine the risk category status of species and provide data pertaining to land use, conservation, environmental impact and fragmentation (Prance 1977, Bojórquez-Tapia et al. 1994, Norris et al. 2001, Villaseñor 2003, Jayakumar et al. 2011).

The Sierra de Chiconquiaco, also known as the Sierra de Misantla or Sierra de Naolinco, is a region in Mexico where the information generated by the botanic collections, floristic inventories and vegetation studies since the 19th century, has never been effectively integrated. This is despite the fact that, from a biogeographic perspective, it is a critical zone in terms of the distribution of many tropical tree genera, particularly in the lowlands (Gómez-Pompa 1966). There have been two important floristic and vegetation studies carried out in the Sierra. One was presented by Gómez-Pompa (1966), who describes the area as a “region of 1,500 km2, artificially circumscribed to the north by the Martínez de la Torre to Nautla road, parallel to the Nautla river, to the east by the Gulf of Mexico, to the west by the Martínez de la Torre to Misantla road and to the south by the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. This author describes the following vegetation types and plant associations: deciduous forest, tropical sub-perennial high forest (including forests of species of Lauraceae, Pseudolmedia glabrata (Liebm.) C.C. Berg. and Brosimum alicastrum Sw. and riparian forest); oak forests (several types) and mangroves. Similarly, the author conducted a taxonomic and ecological analysis of the trees and shrubs, including the most important plant families of that area. The other important reference is by Gutiérrez-Baez (1993), who studied the vegetation in nine municipalities (525 km2). His work indicates that this region presents topographic heights featuring pine forests (2,100-2,500 m a.s.l.), intermediate areas with deciduous forest (1,100-2,100 m a.s.l.) and lowlands with tropical high sub-evergreen forest (400-1,100 m a.s.l.).

The Sierra de Chiconquiaco is considered a refuge for a wide diversity of plant species, belonging to different communities, including many useful plants (Gómez-Pompa 1966, Gutiérrez-Báez 1994, Zamora-Crescencio & Avendaño-Reyes 1998, Ambrosio-Montoya & Avendaño-Reyes 1999, Lascurain-Rangel et al. 2013, López-Acosta et al. 2014). However, according to the data of land use and vegetation of the Serie V (INEGI 2013), pastures occupy increasingly large areas providing clear evidence of land use changes that put conservation of the forest ecosystems at risk (Ellis & Martínez-Bello 2010).

Despite the fact that the Sierra de Chiconquiaco has been mentioned in different studies (López-Infanzón 1991, Gutiérrez-Báez 1993, Ferrari et al. 2005), no clear geographic delineation is available, which complicates the location and analysis of the distribution of floristic and vegetal resources present in the area. The first official reference is presented by the Carta Estatal de Regionalización Fisiográfica (INEGI 1988), in which the Subprovince 14 Chiconquiaco is identified and mapped at a scale of 1:1,000,000 as a division of the Province X-Volcanic belt. This subprovince features different landform systems, such as mountains, low hills, plateaus and valleys as the most important. However, its geographic boundary extends towards the south and thus includes the low part and the piedmont of the Cofre de Perote-Pico de Orizaba mountain range, from Xalapa-Actopan to Huatusco, which do not belong to the Sierra de Chiconquiaco.

The general objective of this study was therefore to summarize geographic and floristic information from the vegetation and botanic collections from the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. The specific objectives were: a) to propose its geographical delineation based on landform criteria; b) to integrate the floristic and vegetation studies that have been conducted to date; c) to produce a list of plant species from the records of herbarium databases, including those of type locality, endemics and those registered in the NOM-059 SEMARNAT 2010, d) to identify priority sites with little history of botanic exploration and e) to propose potential sites for conservation and research.

Materials and methods

Study area. The Sierra de Chiconquiaco is a montane massif that traverses the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico from west to east, at latitude 19º N. The name Chiconquiaco comes from the Náhuatl Chikon-kiaho-ko meaning “in the seven rains”, the name given by the indigenous Totonac people in honor of the god of the storms. It is also the name of a municipality and settlement, located in the central part of the montane massif. From a biogeographic perspective, its vegetation belongs to the Holarctic realm, to the Mesoamerican Montane region and to the Sierras Meridionales floristic province. The coastal area corresponds to the Neotropical realm, to the Caribbean floristic region and to the province of the Gulf of Mexico coast (Rzedowski 1978), which extends in a continuous strip along the coast of the states of Veracruz and Tabasco, as well as some adjacent low portions of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Puebla, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Campeche (Morrone 2005).

Delineation and zonation. Delineation of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco is based on morpho-structural features derived from the state physiographic regionalization (INEGI 1988) and from the geomorphological regionalization of Veracruz (Geissert 1999). In general, it was established delimited to the north by the fluvial plain of the Nautla river, to the northeast, east and southeast by the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, to the south by the tectonic depression of Actopan and to the west by the canyon of the Bobos river. The precise boundary was traced manually on a shaded relief model produced from the DEM “Continuo de Elevaciones Mexicano 3.0” of INEGI (2015). Hydrological characterization was conducted with the information of the Conjunto de Datos Vectorial Hidrológico of INEGI (1999), climatic characterization with the Conjunto de Datos Vectorial Climático of INEGI (2000) and soil characterization with the Conjunto de Datos Vectorial Edafológico of INEGI (2007).

Geomorpho-geological zonation of the Sierra of Chiconquiaco was also conducted from the Continuo de Elevaciones Mexicano 3.0, using ArcGis Desktop 10.2. This continuum of elevations is constantly updated and, unlike other elevation models (SRTM-NASA, ASTER GDEM-METI), its spatial resolution of 15 meters per pixel provides greater detail. The landforms were obtained following Priego et al. (2003), based on the vertical dissection of the relief. The values were re-categorized into three landform types: steep mountainous (> 400 m/km2), gentle mountainous (100-400 m/km2) and hills and minor elevations (40-100 m/km2). The map of slopes was derived from the same continuum of elevations and featured four slope classes: low (< 5º), moderate (5-20º), steep to very steep (20-45º) and abrupt (> 45º). The geological information came from the Conjunto de Datos Vectorial Geológico by INEGI (1986). To create the partial maps that led to the final results, the following ArcGis tools were used: Create Fishnet, Dissolve, Interpolate to raster, Clip, Intersect, Eliminate, Smooth polygon and Slope. For the definitive geomorpho-geological zonation, the minimum mapping unit criterion was applied, which consists of only representing polygons greater than 500 ha. The cartography and inputs were processed in Projection UTM Zone 14 Q.

Floristic and vegetation studies. The type localities, presence of 19th century collectors, floristic and vegetation studies, endemics and species registered in the NOM-059 SEMARNAT (2010) were identified with bibliographic support. Databases of the herbarium XAL and MEXU were chosen to generate a floristic list of species within an altitudinal range of 50 to 3,000 m a.s.l., since they contain information from many collections in the study zone. A raster map of density of points or sites was obtained from the geographic coordinates of the collections, as well as areas that presented the least historical collection effort.

Results and discussion

Geographic characteristics. The polygon of the Sierra of Chiconquiaco presents in its central part a variable length of 70-75 km (east-west) and a width of 50-55 km (north-south) covering an area of 3,632 km2. The maximum altitude is close to 3,000 m a.s.l. in the central portion, while the minimum is between 35 and 50 m a.s.l. adjacent to the peripheral coastal plain. The municipalities of Acatlán, Chiconquiaco, Coacoatzintla, Colipa, Juchique de Ferrer, Landero y Coss, Miahuatlán, Misantla, Naolinco, Tatatila, Tenochtitlan, Tepetlán, Tlacolulan, Tonayán and Yecuatla, as well as part of the municipalities of Actopan, Alto Lucero, Altotonga, Atzalan, Nautla, Martínez de la Torre and Vega de Alatorre (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Map of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco and municipalities. 

Topography of the central-western sector (11 % of the area) comprises steep slopes of 20 to ≥ 45º with relative heights of over 600 m (Figure 2). This is the result of destruction by Pliocene-Quaternary fluvial erosion of upper Tertiary age andesitic and basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic flows (breccia). As a result, deep ravines were excavated in the northern mountainside, while the Quaternary lava flows on the southern side protected the topography from fluvial dissection (Geissert-Kientz 1999).

Figure 2 Slope gradient in the Sierra of Chiconquiaco. 1) Low < 5 °; 2) Moderate 5-20°; 3) Steep 20-45°; 4) Abrupt > 45°. 

Landforms of moderate (5-20°) and steep slopes (20-45°) occupy most of the Sierra of Chiconquiaco (76 % of the area), overwhelming sedimentary rocks (limestone and sandstone) on the northern mountainside and igneous extrusive rocks on the southern side. The rest of the area is covered by hills and minor elevations, with slopes of less than 20º, over different geological substrates, mainly on the northern side (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Landforms and geology of the slopes, sedimentary rocks, limestone; 2 Steep slopes, igneous extrusive rocks; 3 Moderate slopes, sedimentary rocks, sandstone; 4 Moderate slopes, sedimentary rocks, limestone; 5 Moderate slopes, igneous extrusive rocks; 6 Hills and minor elevations, sedimentary rocks, limestone; 7 Hills and minor elevations, sedimentary rocks, limestone- alluvial plain; 8 Hills and minor elevations, sedimentary rocks, conglomerate; 9 Hills and minor elevations, igneous extrusive rocks and 10 Hills and minor elevations, igneous extrusive rocks- alluvial plain. 

The first stage of structural deformation began with the tectonic uplift of the Paleozoic geological basement along a dominant east-west direction (López-Infanzón 1991). This basement was subsequently covered by marine formations that produced the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone and limestone-lutite, forming the geological structure of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Finally, the products of Cenozoic igneous activity covered the previous formations and, in its central part, a basaltic plateau formed between the Miocene and lower Pliocene (Ferrari et al. 2005). Quaternary lava flows, associated with volcanic monogenetic cones, occurred in the vicinity of Naolinco to the southwest, Chiconquiaco in the center and between Plan de las Hayas and Candelaria to the east, in the direction of Palma Sola.

The summits of the central part of this area constitute the divide of the “Nautla river and others” watershed that belongs to Hydrologic Region 27 (Tuxpan-Nautla) towards the north, and the “Río Jamapa and others” watershed of the Hydrologic Region 28 (Papaloapan) towards the south. Within the Sierra de Chiconquiaco, all of the main rivers (Bobos, Misantla, Colipa, Sedeño, Naolinco) and their tributaries are montane in character and flow quickly through ravines of variable depths.

According to Köppen’s system modified by García (1988), the following climatic groups are distinguished from north to south: warm humid with abundant summer rains (type Am(f)) in the northern and northeastern sectors, at elevations below 250 m a.s.l.; warm humid with rains throughout the year (type Af(m)) in a northern strip between 250 and 400 m a.s.l.; semi-warm with rains throughout the year (type (A)C(fm)) up to around 1000 m a.s.l. in the southwest sector and up to 1,800 m a.s.l. in the central and central-eastern sectors. Above these altitudes, the climate changes to temperate humid with rains throughout the year (type C(fm)) or temperate humid with summer rains (C(m)). Descending the southeast sector, the climate becomes semi-warm with abundant summer rains (type (A)C(m)) and, finally, warm subhumid with summer rains (type Aw1(w)) at altitudes below approximately 400 m a.s.l. towards Actopan and Mozomboa.

The representative soil types are: a) on the northern mountainside, Luvisols on landforms below approximately 1,000 m a.s.l., over both sedimentary and igneous materials; Andosols on slopes above 1,000 m a.s.l. (central and western sectors, between Chiconquiaco and Altotonga), exclusively over volcanic ash deposits; Phaeozems on the upper valley fluvial plains and Vertisols on the lower fluvial and coastal plains (from Martínez de la Torre to Vega de Alatorre); b) on the southern mountainside, Andosols extend in the central-western (Altotonga-Las Vigas) and central-southern (Naolinco-Alto Lucero) sectors; Phaeozems in the eastern sector (Plan de las Hayas/Alto Lucero towards the coast) and Vertisols at the bottom of the valleys and on the narrow coastal plains to the south of Emilio Carranza.

Collectors, floristic and vegetation studies. Collections began in 1829 with the German botanists Christian Julius Wilhelm Schiede and Ferdinand Deppe. Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal and Adelbert von Chamisso subsequently described various species. Schiede and Deppe visited this region in order to search for roots of the Xalapa Jalapa (Ipomoea purga Wender., and wild vanilla (Vanilla spp.). They travelled from Xalapa to El Espinal, Almolonga and Paso del Toro (Malpaís de Naolinco), Naolinco, via Cuesta Grande de Chiconquiaco to Acatlán and to Misantla by Cumbre del Obispo and Papantla. They returned to Xalapa via Hueytamalco, Puebla and Cuesta Grande de Jalacingo and Valle de Perote.

From 1841 to 1843, the Danish botanist Michael Frederick Liebmann conducted intensive collections in Mexico, most of which took place in Veracruz, Puebla and Oaxaca, and produced 8,000 records (Rzedowski et al. 2009). The main interest of this author was ferns and he published a book in 1849 about this group of plants in Mexico. Liebmann left Veracruz in 1841 accompanied by the Russian botanist Wilhelm Friedrich von Karwinski (1780-1855) and both travelled to Papantla, Colipa, Yecuatla, Misantla, Tlapacoyan and Teziutlán. Karwinski separated from Liebmann at El Pital (close to San Rafael) and travelled to Papantla.

In 1905, the German botanist Karl Albert Purpus (1851-1941) established himself in the Hacienda de El Mirador, in the municipality of Totutla (Veracruz state), and travelled from there to different regions of the country to collect plant specimens. On various occasions, he crossed the entire Sierra de Chiconquiaco from Naolinco (Sousa 1969).

Gómez-Pompa (1966) mentioned Ludwig Hahn, George Lewis Fisher and Carl August Ehrenberg, who collected specimens in this Sierra, without recording the exact dates. Between 1950 and 1970, Isabel Kelly and Ladislao Paray also collected specimens. In 1962, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales (INIF), through the Comisión de Estudios Sobre la Ecología de las Dioscóreas, sampled the vegetation of certain areas of the Sierra. Manuel Martínez collected a notable 700 specimens, from 1960 to 1965, and Gómez-Pompa obtained more than 2,000 records, almost always accompanied by Ramón Riba (Gómez-Pompa 1966). From 1970 up to the early 1990s, Francisco Ventura Aburto collected around 1900 specimens for the herbarium of the Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas. The work of Celso Gutiérrez between 1980 and 1988 is both for the number of specimens collected and the broad range of sites visited, and comprises more than 1,200 records. Roberto Acosta Pérez collected more than 700 specimens in the Sierra Manuel Díaz, located to the southeast of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco, close to the lagoon of La Mancha (Acosta 1986). Miguel Cházaro and his students Luis Robles, Pedro Padilla, Juan Márquez, Apolonia Hernández and Patricia Hernández, collected specimens intermittently from 1981 to the present in locations such as the volcano of Acatlán, Planta del Pié, Barranca de Rincón Grande, Monte de Oro, Cerro de La Magdalena and Las Magdalenitas, Malpaís de Almolonga-Tepetlán, Monte Real, Moxillon, among others, collecting around 500 records. Collectors with more than 100 records in different sites of this Sierra include: Antonio Lot Helgueras, Armando Rincón Gallardo, Carlos Vázquez Yanes, Fructuoso Vázquez Blanco, Mario Vázquez Torres, Gonzalo Castillo Campos, Juan Alba Landa, Javier Chabelas Polito, Jesús Dorantes López, Juan Ismael Calzada, Lorin I. Nevling, Mirna Ambrosio Montoya, Michael Nee, Ma. Teresa Mejía-Saulés and Roberto Ortega Ortiz.

A further result of the different explorations conducted in the Sierra of Chiconquiaco is that 72 species have been recorded with the type locality, 35 of which were early described by D.F. von Schlechtendal and/or F. von Chamisso (Table 1). In recent decades, the studies undertaken became more diverse and featured different approaches. Acosta (1986) produced an inventory of the flora of the Sierra Manuel Díaz; Ortega-Ortiz (1981) observed the edge effect on tree densities in fragments of tropical montane cloud forest in Coacoatzintla; Pavón-Hernández (1992) studied the spatial distribution of Tilia mexicana Schltdl. in Naolinco; Bravo-Navarro (1993) conducted an ethnobotanical study in the municipality of Naolinco; Álvarez-Aquino (1997)) carried out a population study of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana (Martínez) A.E. Murray in Acatlán; Zamora-Crescencio & Avendaño-Reyes (1998) studied the vegetation of the municipality of Yecuatla; Ambrosio-Montoya & Avendaño-Reyes (1999) recorded the useful plants of the municipality of Misantla; Williams-Linera et al. (1996) studied the tropical montane cloud forest across an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz; Godínez-Ibarra & López-Mata (2002) recorded the northern limit of distribution of the tropical medium sub-evergreen forest in Santa Gertrudis, in the municipality of Vega de Alatorre; Torres-Cantú (2009) produced an inventory of bromeliads, and Cortés-Flores (2009) of orchids, in the watersheds of the Nautla, Misantla and Colipa rivers; Casildo (2004) produced a floristic inventory in the region Cerro de los Muertos, in the municipality of Altotonga; Gómez-Ortega (2010) contributed to the knowledge of the vegetation and flora of the municipality of Acatlán. Ethnobotanic and management systems of Oecopetalum mexicanum Greenm. & C.H. Thomps., were studied by Lascurain-Rangel et al. (2013) and López-Acosta et al. (2014). Finally, Carbajal-Hernández et al. (2014) recorded 81 species of ferns in the region.

Table 1 Species with the locality type of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. Described by D.F von Schlechtendal and/or F. von Chamisso and other authors. DF (Deciduous Forest); THSEF (Tropical High Sub-Evergreen Forest); OF (Oak Forest); TMEF (Tropical Medium Evergreen Forest); TLDF (Tropical Low Deciduous Forest). 

Species/Publication year Family Vegetation
Aspidosperma megalocarpon Müll. Arg. 1859-1861 Apocynaceae THSEF
Bactris mexicana Mart.1844 Arecaceae THSEF
Bartlettina sordida (Less.) R.M. King & H. Rob. 1971 1831 Asteraceae DF
Begonia multistaminea Burt-Utley 1983 Begoniaceae DF
B. nelumbonifolia Schldl. & Cham. 1830 Begoniaceae DF
Centradenia grandifolia (Schltdl.) Endl. 1843 Melastomataceae DF
C. inaequilateralis G. Don. 1832 Melastomataceae DF
Centropogon grandidentatus (Schltdl.) Zahlbr. 1891 Campanulaceae DF
Ceratozamia morettii Vázq. Torres & Vovides 1998 Zamiaceae DF
Cestrum endlicheri Miers 1846 Solanaceae DF
C. fasciculatum Miers 1846 Solanaceae DF
Chusquea enigmaticaRuiz-Sánchez, Mejía-Saulés & L. G. Clark. 2014 Poaceae DF
Clidemia petiolaris Triana. 1872 1830 Melastomataceae THSEF
Columnea schiedeana Schldl. 1833 Gesneriaceae THSEF
Croton schiedeanus Schltdl. 1846 Euphorbiaceae THSEF
Cuphea calaminthifolia Schltdl. 1838 Lythraceae DF
C. salicifolia Cham. & Schltdl 1830 Lythraceae DF
Deppea purpusii Standl. 1921 Rubiaceae DF
Desmodium plicatum Cham. & Schltdl. 1830 Fabaceae DF
D. psilophyllum Schltdl. 1838 Fabaceae OF
Desmopsis galeottiana Saff., 1916 Annonaceae TMEF
Didymaea alsinoides (Schltdl. & Cham.) Standl. 1938 1831 Rubiaceae DF
Diospyros riojae Gómez-Pompa. 1964 Ebenaceae OF
Epidendrum tuxtlense Hágsater, García-Cruz & L. Sánchez.1999 Orchidaceae DF
Equisetum myriochaetum Schldl. & Cham. 1830 Equisetaceae THSEF
Eugenia mozomboensis P.E. Sánchez. 1986 Myrtaceae TLDF
Eupatorium araliifolium Less. 1831 Asteraceae THSEF
Euphorbia lancifolia Schldl. 1832 Euphorbiaceae THSEF
Ficus lapathifolia Miq. 1867 Moraceae THSEF
Goeppertia misantlensis (Lascur.) Borchs. & S. Suárez. 1996 2012 Marantaceae DF
Gunnera mexicana Brandegee. 1922 Gunneraceae DF
Heterocentron elegans Kuntze, 1891 Melastomataceae DF
Hydrangea nebulicola Nevling & Gómez Pompa. 1968 Hydrangeaceae DF
Ipomoea purga Wender. 1833 Convolvulaceae DF
Leandra cornoides Cogn. 1886 Melastomataceae OF
Lepidonia mexicana (Less.) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk. 1987 1831 Asteraceae DF
Leucaena pulverulenta Benth. 1842 Mimosaceae TLDF
Licaria misantlae (Brandegee) Kosterm. 1937 Lauraceae THSEF
Lysiloma auritum (Schltdl.) Benth. 1844 Fabaceae THSEF, OF
Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht. 1864 Magnoliaceae DF, OF
Mahonia russellii N.P. Taylor. 1989 Berberidaceae DF
Monstera florescanoana Croat, T. Krömer & Acebey. 2010 Araceae DF
Nama linearis D.L. Nash. 1979 Boraginaceae OF
Nelsonianthus tapianus (B.L. Turner) C. Jeffrey. 1992 1989 Asteraceae DF
Odontonema callistachyum Kuntze. 1891 Acanthaceae THSEF
Oecopetalum mexicanum Greenm. & C.H. Thomps. 1914 Icacinaceae THSEF
Persea schiedeana Nees. 1836 Lauraceae THSEF
Perymenium gymnolomoides (Less.) DC. 1836 Asteraceae TMEF, OF
Piper misantlense C. DC. 1869 Piperaceae THSEF
P. schiedeanum Steud. 1841 Piperaceae TLDF
Pleopeltis fallax (Schltdl. & Cham.) Mickel & Beitel. 1830 1987 Polypodiaceae THSEF
Protium copal (Schltdl. & Cham.) Engl. 1883 Burseraceae THSEF
Prunus tetradenia Koehne 1915 Rosaceae THSEF, DF
Pteris pulchra Schltdl. & Cham. 1830 Pteridaceae THSEF
Quetzalia schiedeana (Loes.) Lundell. 1970 1900 Celastraceae DF
Rhynchoglossum azureum (Schltdl.) B.L. Burtt 1962 1833 Gesneriaceae DF
Rhynchosia erythrinoides Schltdl. & Cham. 1830 Fabaceae THSEF
Ruellia jussieuoides Schltdl. 1831 Acanthaceae THSEF
Salvia chazaroana B.L.Turner. 2009 Lamiaceae DF
Saurauia leucocarpa Schltdl. 1836 Actinidiaceae DF
Sinclairia andromachioides (Less.) Sch. Bip. ex Hemsl. Rydb. 1879-1888 Asteraceae THSEF
Stenostephanus haematodes (Schltdl.) T.F. Daniel. 1999 1832 Acanthaceae DF
Tibouchina purpusii Brandegee. 1913 Melastomataceae DF
T. schiedeana Cogn. 1891 Melastomataceae THSEF
Tilia mexicana Schltdl. 1837 Malvaceae DF
Vaccinium leucanthum Schltdl. 1834 1833 Ericaceae DF
Vernonia arctioides Less. 1831 Asteraceae DF
Wimmeria concolor Schltdl. & Cham. 1831 Celastraceae TMEF, DF
Xylopia trunciflora Cham. & Schltdl. 1831 Annonaceae THSEF
Zamia inermis Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres. 1983 Zamiaceae TLDF
Zanthoxylum elegantissimum P. Wilson. 1910 Rutaceae DF
Zygia cognata (Schltdl.) Britton & Rose. 1928 1838 Fabaceae THSEF

Vegetation types of the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. Based on the studies of Gómez-Pompa (1966)) and Gutiérrez-Báez (1993), and with the aim of standardizing the terminology, the vegetation classification by Miranda & Hernández X. (1963) was applied. Seven vegetation types were thereby identified (Table 2):

Table 2 Vegetation types, area and cover percentage on the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. (Source: INEGI 2013. Set of vectorial data of land use and vegetation, scale 1:250,000, Series V. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. México). 

Vegetation type km2 Percentage
of total
Oak - pine forest 22.29 0.61
Deciduous forest 210.62 5.80
Sub-evergreen tropical forest; medium sub-evergreen tropical forest 73.92 2.04
Tropical low deciduous forest 71.13 1.96
Riparian vegetation 14.68 0.40
Oak forest 7.86 0.22
Secondary vegetation 534.71 14.72
Other vegetation types 3.70 0.10
Pasture 1,829.09 50.37
Agriculture 849.53 23.39
Bodies of water 5.75 0.16
Urban areas 8.49 0.23

Bosque de pino-encino (Oak-Pine forest).- This type of forest is found on the northern mountainside from 2,100 to 3,000 m a.s.l., comprising communities of Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl., Cupressus lusitanica Mill., Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana and Hamamelis virginiana L. (Gutiérrez-Báez 1993). According to observations made by the present authors on the mountains of La Magdalena and Las Magdalenitas (municipalities of Tlacolulan and Tonayan) on the southern mountainside between 2,400 and 2,900 m a.s.l., the Oak-Pine forest is dominated by Pinus patula Schiede & Deppe ex Schltdl., associated with Quercus glabrescens Benth., Q. crassifolia Bonpl. and Q. rugosa Née. This vegetation type is located on steep and moderate slopes over extrusive igneous rock.

Bosque caducifolio (Deciduous forest).- This vegetation type covers the majority of the area (Table 2) and is located between 1,100 and 2,100 m a.s.l., from the middle to the summits of both the northern and southern sides (Gutiérrez-Báez 1993). The dominant arboreal species are: Alchornea latifolia Sw., Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta (Schltdl.) Furlow, Bejaria aestuans Loefl, Capparidastrum quiriguense (Standl.) Cornejo & Iltis, Clethra mexicana DC., Cupressus lusitanica Mill., Diospyros riojae Gómez-Pompa, Drypetes lateriflora (Sw.) Krug & Urb., Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana, Guarea glabra Vahl, Hamamelis virginiana, Juglans pyriformis Muhl., Liquidambar styraciflua L., Matudaea trinervia Lundell, Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. Hook. f. ex A. Gray, Podocarpus matudae Lundell, Quercus affinis M. Martens & Galeotti, Q. castanea Née, Q. ghiesbreghtii M. Martens & Galeotti, Q. lancifolia Schltdl. & Cham., Q. laurina Bonpl., Q. germana Schltdl. & Cham., Q. polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham., Q. rugosa Née, Q. salicifolia Née, Q. sartorii Liebm., Q. xalapensis Bonpl., Symplocos coccinea Humb. & Bonpl., S. limoncillo Bonpl. and Taxus globosa Schltdl. (Gómez-Pompa 1966, Gutiérrez-Báez 1993, Zamora-Crescencio & Avendaño-Reyes 1998). In one of the highest sites (2,250 m a.s.l.), known locally as Planta del Pié (municipality of Chiconquiaco), Williams-Linera et al. (1996) identified the most notable arboreal species as: Ageratina ligustrina (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob., Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta, Clethra mexicana, Cleyera theaeoides (Sw.) Chosy, Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst., Ilex discolor var. tolucana (Hemsl.) Edwin ex T.R.Dudley, Osmanthus americanus, Ocotea helicterifolia (Meisn.) Hemsl., Quercus salicifolia, Saurauia leucocarpa Schltdl., Ternstroemia sylvatica Cham. & Schltdl., Viburnum rhombifolium Hemsl., and Weinmannia pinnata L. Other species described as new are also found: Ardisia liebmannii Oerst., Bactris mexicana Mart., Begonia multinervia Liebm., Goeppertia misantlensis (Lascur.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, Centradenia grandifolia (Schltdl.) Endl., Chamaedorea pinnatifrons Oerst., Cuphea calaminthifolia Schltdl., Deppea purpusii Standl., Diospyros riojae, Epidendrum tuxtlense Hágsater, García-Cruz & L. Sánchez, Gunnera mexicana Brandegee, Hydrangea nebulicola Nevling & Gómez Pompa, Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht., Oecopetalum mexicanum, Persea schiedeana Nees, Prunus tetradenia Koehne, Rumex obtusifolius L., Saurauia leucocarpa, Tibouchina purpusii Brandegee, Tilia mexicana, Vaccinium leucanthum Schltdl. and Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. The deciduous forest is randomly distributed on steep and moderate slopes over extrusive igneous rocks, steep slopes with limestone, moderate slopes upon sandstone and limestone.

Selva alta subperennfolia (Tropical high sub-evergreen forest).- This vegetation type is found the lowlands, between 400 and 850 m a.s.l., on low hills with low slopes. It was called “tropical Lauraceae forest” by Gómez-Pompa (1966) due to the predominance of species of this family. It is possible to find fragments of this vegetation type in the riparian zones of the streams, with trees of between 20 and 30 m in height. The physiognomically important species include: Alchornea latifolia, Beilschmiedia anay (S.F. Blake) Kosterm., B. mexicana (Mez) Kosterm., Brosimum alicastrum, Calatola costaricensis Standl., C. mollis Standl., Cymbopetalum penduliflorum Baill., Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch., Drypetes lateriflora, Ficus microcarpa L.f., Guarea grandifolia DC., Ocotea sp., Oecopetalum mexicanum, Persea schiedeana, Protium copal (Schltdl. & Cham.) Engl., Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham., and Tapirira mexicana Marchand, among others. The tropical high sub-evergreen forest is located on moderate slopes with different geological (extrusive igneous, sandstone and limestone), hills and minor elevations over extrusive igneous rock and on alluvial plains and minor elevation hills over sandstone.

The ecotone of deciduous forest and tropical high sub-evergreen forest, indicated by Gutiérrez-Báez (1993), corresponds to a transition between both vegetation types on wet soils between 850 and 1,100 m a.s.l. The typical species of this association are: Calatola mollis, Coccoloba hirtella Lundell, Drypetes laterifolia, Ficus aurea Nutt, Meliosma alba Walp., Nectandra sp., Oecopetalum mexicanum, Platanus mexicana Moric., Protium copal, Pseudolmedia glabrata, Talauma mexicana G. Don, Tapirira mexicana and Ulmus mexicana Planch.

Selva mediana subperennifolia (Tropical sub-evergreen forest).- Godínez-Ibarra & López-Mata (2002) reported this vegetation type in Santa Gertrudis (municipality of Vega de Alatorre) at an altitude of between 400 and 651 m a.s.l. The canopy is greater than 20 m in height and the following floristic components are representative: Psychotria L. spp., Brosimum alicastrum, Ficus L. spp. Cojoba arborea (L.) Britton & Rose, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Trophis racemosa (L.) Urb., Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, Aphananthe monoica (Hemsl.) J.-F. Leroy, Dendropanax arboreus, Cedrela odorata L., Pleuranthodendron lindenii (Turcz.) Sleumer and Nectandra ambigens (S.F. Blake) C.K. Allen. As with the tropical high sub-evergreen forest, the medium sub-evergreen forest is located on moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks, sandstone and limestone, on hills and minor elevations over extrusive igneous rock and sandstone, and on alluvial plains.

Selva baja caducifolia (Tropical low deciduous forest, secundary vegetation).- Acosta (1986) described this vegetation type in the Sierra Manuel Díaz (municipality of Actopan) with the following notable floristic components: Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) G. Nicholson, Cochlospermum vitifolium Spreng., Ipomoea wolcottiana Rose, Plumeria rubra L., Bursera simaruba, Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Breitten & Baker f. and Lysiloma divaricatum (Jacq.) Benth.. This vegetation type covers the slopes of the mountain close to the Gulf of Mexico coast, up to 900 m a.s.l. Dorantes & Acosta (1975) also described the tropical low deciduous forest near Farallón (municipality of Actopan) as presenting the following principal woody components: Annona globiflora Schltdl., Bursera simaruba, Caesalpinia cacalaco Bonpl., Cochlospermum vitifolium, Cordia dentata Poir., Diospyros verae-crucis Standl., Ehretia tinifolia L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb., Euphorbia schlechtendalii Boiss., Luehea candida Mart., Lysiloma acapulcense (Kunth) Benth., Tabebuia chrysantha and T. rosea DC. This vegetation type is distributed on steep slopes with extrusive igneous rocks, moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks and sandstone and on hills and minor elevations with extrusive igneous rock and sandstone.

Encinares (Oak).- This vegetation type is found between 300 and 400 m a.s.l. and, according to Zamora-Crescencio & Avendaño-Reyes (1998), on flat areas on the northern mountainside over clay soils. The arboreal stratum does not exceed 10 m in height and is dominated by Quercus oleoides, accompanied by Piscidia piscipula (L.) Sarg., Dendropanax arboreus, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., Bursera simaruba, Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., among other species. According to Gómez-Pompa (1977), the oak forests can be divided into the temperate and warm climatic groups. The temperate oak forests, or those of medium height, are found between 1,000 and 1,300 m a.s.l., in duripan soils (locally called “tepetate”) in Mesa de Guadalupe, Alto de Tío Diego, Alto Lucero and Alto del Tizar (Cházaro-Basáñez 1992). This is an arboreal community of 8-15 m in height, of which the notable floristic components are: Quercus peduncularis Née, Q. polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham., Q. sapotifolia Liebm. and Zinowiew integerrima (Turcz.) Turcz. Ortega-Ortiz (1981) also described an oak forest close to El Espinal (municipality of Naolinco), composed of Quercus polymorpha and Quercus castanea Née. The oak forests of warm regions, or tropical oak forest, are found at an altitude of 10 to 400 m a.s.l., between Colipa and Vega de Alatorre (Gómez-Pompa 1966), as well as in the vicinity of Laguna Verde-Palma Sola (Gómez-Pompa 1972) and on the heights of Los Atlixcos and Topilitos (municipality of Vega de Alatorre) (Cházaro-Bazañez 1992). The landforms on which it is found correspond to moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks, hills and minor elevations over sandstone and on alluvial plains.

Riparia (Riparian).- This vegetation type azonal distribution and is found along permanent or temporary streams, brooks and rivers. Its characteristic species are: Platanus mexicana, Salix humboldtiana Willd., Salix exigua Nutt., Ficus insipida Willd. and Syzigium jambos (L.) Alston, and its accompanying species are: Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. and Pithecellobium lanceolatum Benth. (Zamora-Crescencio & Avendaño-Reyes 1998). Regarding landforms and geology, riparian vegetation has a ubiquitous distribution and can be found on moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks and sandstone, on hills and minor elevations with extrusive igneous rocks, sandstone and conglomerate and on the alluvial plains.

Number of species recorded on the Sierra de Chiconquiaco and rarely explored sites. According to the database of the herbarium XAL and MEXU, there were 3,016 species recorded up to correspond to 35 % of the flora of Veracruz (Villaseñor 2016). The taxa exclusively endemic to the Sierra are: Ceratozamia morettii Vázq. Torres & Vovides, Chusquea enigmatica Ruiz-Sánchez, Mejía-Saulés & L. G. Clark, recently described on the volcano of Acatlán (Ruiz-Sánchez et al. 2014), Eugenia mozomboensis P.E. Sánchez, Monstera florescanoana Croat, T. Krömer & Acebey, Nama linearis D.L. Nash, Piper colipanum C. DC., Salvia chazaroana B.L.Turner, Zamia inermis Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres. Castilleja eggeri and Echeveria cuquita. The latter two species are currently being described.

The floristic information remains incomplete, since the 4,320 (XAL) specimens collected only cover 30 % (1,061 km2) of the total area. The remaining 70 % (2,570 km2) has undergone little or no collection. The zones with limited history of collection are described below, labelled as zones I to VI and shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Zones with little history of collection. Zone I, Centro del municipio de Alto Lucero; Zone II, Municipio de Actopan; Zone III, Sierra La Bandera; Zone IV, Barrancas de Chiconquiaco-Tepetlán; Zone V, Laderas bajas del norte de la Sierra de Chiconquiaco y Zone VI, Laderas escarpadas. 

Zone I, Centro del municipio de Alto Lucero (126 km2).- The zone corresponds to tropical low deciduous forest in Mesa de Tigres and El Tabacal, oak forests located in Las Mesitas, Rancho Nuevo, La Cañada and close to Topiltepec (Arroyo de la Peña and Arroyo de los Cedros), Barranca Hernández and Río de la Barranca to the south of Topilito de Zaragoza. The zone is located on moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rock.

Zone II, Municipio de Actopan (140 km2).- The zone is characterized by tropical low deciduous forest located east of San José Pastorías and San José de la Punta, north of Agua Fría and northeast of Llano de Zárate, Cerro de Tres Picos (Sierra Manuel Díaz) and surroundings. In the vicinity of the mountain La Paila (near Monte de Oro) to the extreme southeast of the municipality of Alto Lucero, towards the coast and between the lagoons of Farallón and Laguna Verde, oak forest communities predominate, while in the northern part of the municipality an area of tropical low deciduous forest extends in the localities of Rancho Italia and Cerro de los Metates in the ravines of the Limón river. The zone is of moderate to steep slopes on extrusive igneous rocks, moderate slopes on sandstone, hills and minor elevations upon extrusive igneous rocks associated with alluvial plains, as well as hills and minor elevations built on sandstone.

Zone III, Sierra La Bandera (63 km2).- The zone corresponds to a tropical medium sub-evergreen forest located in the Sierra La Bandera and to the south of Santa Gertrudis, with the possible presence of secondary vegetation of tropical high evergreen forest. It also includes riparian vegetation along the Juchique river. This zone features moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks and sandstone, and hills and minor elevations.

Zone IV, Barrancas de Chiconquiaco-Tepetlán (32 km2).- The zone comprises deciduous and oak forests at Loma Alta, Vista Hermosa, the gullies of El Huérfano, La Sombra, Cerro Totola and Xucuyul (municipality of Chiconquiaco), and in the north of the municipality of Tepetlán in Colonia Cuauhtémoc and the locality of Ocote. The sites of the Rincón Grande canyon, Tepetlán and “malpaís” de San Lorenzo Tepetlán have had little collection. In general, this is a zone of steep and moderate slopes with extrusive igneous rocks.

Zone V, Laderas bajas del norte de la Sierra de Chiconquiaco (94 km2).- The zone extends to the north of the municipality of Misantla, south of Nautla, west of Vega de Alatorre and center of Colipa. The secondary vegetation of tropical high and medium sub-evergreen forest is present in Misantla: El Diamante, the mountains Quebrado and Vista Hermosa; in the municipality of Nautla: the mountains Dos Hermanos and Peña Colorada, El Salto and Pilancones; in Vega de Alatorre: Agua Santa and El Tepe; in Colipa, the mountain El Tigre and El Ocotillo. The zone is characterized by moderate slopes on extrusive igneous rocks and sandstone, hills and minor elevations with extrusive igneous rocks, and sandstone, associated with alluvial plains.

Zone VI, Laderas escarpadas (260 km2).- It corresponds to the most extensive zone (nine municipalities), where no collection has occurred in the remnants of deciduous forest vegetation. The zone forms a strip that traverses the Sierra of Chiconquiaco from east to west and also includes fragments of secondary tropical high and medium subevergreen forest in the south of the municipality of Atzalan, near the mountains Huizozoco, Naranjal, Plan de la Luz and Martinica, as well as in the northeast of the municipality of Altotonga, on the peaks of Relicario, Cerro de los Muertos and Loma del Arco. Likewise, pine-oak and pine vegetation is found on the La Cebollana-Tlacolulan altitudinal gradient in the municipality of Tlacolulan. Steep and moderate slopes, extrusive igneous rocks and limestone characterize the zone.

Zones of interest for conservation and research. The Serie V (INEGI 2013) regarding land use and vegetation indicates that the overall surface covered by vegetation does not exceed 25 % of the total area. Remnants of vegetation presenting different degrees of disturbance only remain on the abrupt slopes. Among these nine zones with potential for conservation and future research were recognized and labelled as ZCR 1 to 9 (Figure 5). Five of them are the zones with less botanical ZCR 1 (corresponds to Zone I), ZCR 2 (Zone II), ZCR 3 (Zone III), ZCR 4 (Zone IV), and ZCR 5 (Zone VI). The rest of the zones with interest for conservation a future research are associated with cultivated crops and pastures and correspond to:

Figure 5 Potential sites for conservation and priority zones for conservation by CONABIO (2004). 1) Centro del municipio de Alto Lucero; 2) Municipio de Actopan; 3) Sierra La Bandera, 4) Barrancas de Chiconquiaco-Tepetlán; 5) Laderas escarpadas en general; 6) Barrancas de Yecuatla; 7) Barranca Diamante; 8) Barranca Chapopote and 9) Laderas al este del cerro Acatlán. I) Pico de Orizaba-Cofre de Perote; II) Dunas costeras del centro de Veracruz and III) Encinares tropicales de la planicie costera Veracruzana. 

ZCR 6. Barrancas de Yecuatla (70 km2), located between the Zones IV and VI with little history of collection, as a strip of deciduous forest to the southwest of Yecuatla, and the localities of Los Brincos towards the south, Chiconquillo to the east and the mountain Pesmón to the west.

ZCR 7. Barranca Diamante (50 km2), located to the southeast of Zone V, with little collection and formed by isolated fragments of tropical high and medium sub-evergreen forest, in the localities of La Planilla to the north, El Naranjal to the south, El Mango towards the east and El Tigre to the west. This zone also includes gallery vegetation along the limits of the municipalities of Vega de Alatorre and Misantla.

ZCR 8. Barranca Chapopote (27 km2), delimited by Rincón Grande to the north, Alto Tío Diego to the south, Las Palomas to the east and Los Cedros to the west, contains sites with deciduous and oak forests that cross the municipality of Tepetlán in a northeast-southeast direction.

ZCR 9. Laderas al este del cerro Acatlán (17 km2), which mostly comprise deciduous forest and diverse fragments of oak forest to the southeast. In other areas of the Sierra of Chiconquiaco, there are numerous disperse fragments of oak forests in the El Tecuán canyon, oak and tropical medium sub-evergreen forests in Los Atlixcos and gallery vegetation to the east of Misantla, along the river of the same name.

According to CONABIO (2004), three of the Veracruz state priority zones for conservation cover the Sierra de Chiconquiaco and correspond to approximately 13 % of its total area (Figure 5): “Pico de Orizaba-Cofre de Perote”, comprising a small area (0.03 km2), “Coastal dunes of central Veracruz” with 27 km2 and “Tropical oak forests of the Veracruz coastal plain” which presents the largest area (447 km2).

According to the NOM-059-SEMARNAT (2010), 57 species at risk are recorded in the flora of this Sierra (Appendix 1). They are mainly related to the genus Chamaedorea Willd. and Tillandsia L., with four species each. In that same inventory there are 198 species referenced in CITES (2015), there are registered 36 endemic species from Veracruz (Castillo-Campos et al. 2005), that can be found there. Among them, it is worth mentioning the genus Eugenia L. and Calyptranthes Sw. with three species each one (Table 3).

Table 3 Endemic species registered in the Sierra de Chiconquiaco. (Adaptaded from Castillo-Campos et al. 2005). 

Species Family
Alophia veracruzana Goldblatt & T.M. Howard Iridaceae
Amphitecna tuxtlensis A.H. Gentry Bignoniaceae
Aristolochia asclepiadifolia Brandegee Aristolochiaceae
Begonia multistaminea Burt-Utley Begoniaceae
Begonia pudica L.B. Sm. & B.G. Schub. Begoniaceae
Bomarea gloriosa M. Roem. Alstroemeriaceae
Bursera cinerea Engl. Burseraceae
Calyptranthes karwinskyana O. Berg Myrtaceae
Calyptranthes schiedeana O. Berg Myrtaceae
Calyptranthes schlechtendaliana O. Berg Myrtaceae
Ceratozamia morettii Vázq. Torres & Vovides Zamiaceae
Cestrum endlicheri Miers Solanaceae
Chusquea enigmatica Ruiz-Sánchez, Mejía-Saulés & L. G. Clark Poaceae
Chusquea mulleri Munro Poaceae
Costus dirzoi García-Mend. & Ibarra-Manr. Costaceae
Cuphea nitidula Kunth Lythraceae
Dioscorea cruzensis R. Knuth Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea spiculiflora Hemsl. var. fasciculocongesta Sosa & B.G. Schub. Dioscoreaceae
Eugenia colipensis O. Berg Myrtaceae
Eugenia mozomboensis P.E. Sánchez Myrtaceae
Eugenia trunciflora (Schltdl. & Cham.) ex O. Berg Myrtaceae
Goeppertia misantlensis (Lascur.) Borchs. & S. Suárez Marantaceae
Hampea integerrima Schltdl. Malvaceae
Hydrangea nebulicola Nevling & Gómez Pompa Hydrangeaceae
Maianthemum macrophyllum (M. Martens & Galeotti) La Frankie Convallariaceae
Mammillaria eriacantha Link & Otto ex Pfeiff. Cactaceae
Mammillaria sartorii J.A. Purpus Cactaceae
Monstera florescanoana Croat, T. Krömer & Acebey Araceae
Nama linearis D.L. Nash Boraginaceae
Oncidium stramineum Lindl. Orchidaceae
Physalis greenmanii Waterf. Solanaceae
Piper colipanum C. DC. Piperaceae
Salvia chazaroana B.L.Turner Lamiaceae
Selaginella pulcherrima Liebm. Selaginellaceae
Tillandsia tricolor Schltdl. & Cham. Bromeliaceae
Zamia inermis Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres Zamiaceae

Oncidium stramineum Lindl., Mammillaria eriacantha Link & Otto ex Pfeiff. y M. sartorii J.A. Purpus are endemic to Veracruz (Castillo-Campos et al. 2005) and are registered in CITES (2015) appendix II. Tillandsia tricolor Schltdl. & Cham. and Hydrangea nebulicola Nevling & Gómez Pompa, are endemic to Veracruz and are also registered in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT (2010); Zamia inermis Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres, is in appendix II, endemic to Veracruz and in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT (2010).

Conclusion

Through analysis of geomorphological attributes in a geographic information system, the boundaries of the Sierra of Chiconquiaco were established. Based on a bibliographic review, records of the herbaria, studies and field exploration, seven vegetation types were described, as well as a floristic list of species. Six zones scarcely documented in the herbaria and nine potential areas for conservation and research were detected.

Regarding land use and vegetation of its total area, pastures occupy 50 %, agriculture 23 %, secondary vegetation 19 %, conserved vegetation 7 % and of water and urban zones occupy the remaining 0.7 %. This is an indication that there is still 25 % of land covered by vegetation with different degrees of disturbance in the region. The nine zones of interest for conservation (786 km2) together account for only 22 % of the area. Due to the hitherto scarce exploration, these zones could have the potential for the discovery of new species and endemisms. In this Sierra, different types of arboreal vegetation still exist in an altitudinal range between 800 and 2,500 m a.s.l., where deciduous forest occupies the largest area and extends in a strip towards the municipalities of Hueytamalco, Teziutlán, Zongozotla, Zapotitlán de Méndez, Tlaola and Pahuatlán, among others in the state of Puebla.

Floristic importance of the area. The eight exclusively endemic species have rarely been collected and some are of recent description. It is therefore possible to find them in other sites. Evaluation of endemism and its distribution and abundance will be crucial in order to formulate and undertake measures for its protection through conservation strategies. This contribution is considered a baseline from which future studies can be conducted in the Sierra of Chiconquiaco related to floristic inventories, quality and estimation of the vegetation cover, land use change, strategies of natural resource management and detection of priority areas for conservation and restoration based on native species and those of traditional use. Floristic and vegetation studies at regional level will continue to be of great importance to the knowledge, use and conservation of biodiversity and to measures for the mitigation of the environmental deterioration of this particular site in Veracruz.

Dedication

The authors dedicate this contribution to Dr. Arturo Gómez-Pompa for his important studies in the Sierra de Chiconquiaco visionary of the conservation and use of biodiversity of Mexico, and professional guidance.

Acknowledgements

We thank to Gonzalo Castillo-Campos and Mario Vázquez Torres for their valuable comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. We are grateful to Melissa Covarrubias, Gregoria Zamora, Víctor Luna and Israel Acosta for the support in organizing information the database of plants, and Reyna Paula Zárate for the organization of the manuscript and literature. To Clarissa Ramírez and Gabriela Díaz for mapping the plants collections. This study was supported in part by sabbatical grant to the first author from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt), Project 233738.

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Associate Editor: Juan Nuñez Farfán

Appendix 1

SCIENTIFIC NAME CITES NOM- 059
ACANTHACEAE
Aphelandra schiedeana Cham. & Schltdl.
Barleria discolor Nees
Barleria oenotheroides Dum. Cours.
Blechum brownei Juss.
Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.
Chileranthemum trifidum Oerst.
Dicliptera acuminata Juss.
Dicliptera unguiculata Nees
Dyschoriste decumbens (A. Gray) Kuntze
Dyschoriste quadrangularis (Oerst.) Kuntze
Elytraria bromoides Oerst.
Elytraria imbricata (Vahl) Pers.
Glockeria gracilis Nees
Hansteinia gracilis Oerst.
Henrya insularis Nees
Hypoestes lasiostegia var. sanguinolenta (Van Houtte) Benoist
Hypoestes phyllostachya Baker
Jacobinia paniculata Oerst.
Justicia fulvicoma Cham. & Schltdl.
Justicia aurea Schltdl.
Justicia borrerae Hemsl.
Justicia breviflora Rusby
Justicia campechiana Standl.
Justicia candelariae (Oerst.) Leonard
Justicia comata (L.) Lam.
Justicia macrantha Benth.
Justicia pectoralis Jacq.
Justicia sessilis Jacq.
Justicia spicigera Schltdl.
Odontonema callistachyum Kuntze
Pseuderanthemum praecox (Benth.) Leonard
Pseuderanthemum standleyi Leonard in Standl.
Ruellia coerulea Morong
Ruellia erythropus Lindau
Ruellia inundata Kunth
Ruellia jussieuoides Standl.
Ruellia spissa Leonard
Siphonoglossa canbyi (Greenm.) Hilsenb.
Spathacanthus hahnianus Baill.
Spathacanthus parviflorus Leonard
Stenandrium dulce Nees
Stenostephanus haematodes (Schltdl.) T.F. Daniel
Tetramerium nervosum Nees
Tetramerium scorpioides (L.) Hemsl.
Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Thunbergia convolvulifolia Baker
Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.
ACERACEAE
Acer negundo L.
ACTINIDIACEAE
Saurauia cana B.T. Keller & Breedlove
Saurauia leucocarpa Schltdl.
Saurauia pedunculata Hook.
Saurauia scabrida Hemsl.
Saurauia villosa DC.
ADOXACEAE
Sambucus canadensis L.
Viburnum caudatum Greenm.
Viburnum ciliatum Greenm.
Viburnum microcarpum Schltdl. & Cham.
Viburnum rhombifolium Hemsl.
Viburnum tiliifolium Hemsl.
AIZOACEAE
Trianthema portulacastrum L.
ALISMATACEAE
Echinodorus andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Small
ALLIACEAE
Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton
ALSTROEMERIACEAE
Bomarea acutifolia Herb.
Bomarea edulis Herb.
Bomarea gloriosa M. Roem.
ALTINGIACEAE
Liquidambar styraciflua Oerst.
AMARANTHACEAE
Achyranthes aspera L.
Alternanthera flavescens Kunth
Alternanthera gracilis Loes.
Alternanthera lanceolata Schinz
Amaranthus scariosus Benth.
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Blutaparon vermiculare (L.) Mears
Celosia argentea L.
Celosia nitida Vahl
Chamissoa altissima Kunth
Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
Chenopodium graveolens Willd.
Chenopodium murale L.
Cyathula achyranthoides Moq.
Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq.
Gomphrena nana Standl.
Gomphrena pilosa Moq.
Gomphrena serrata L.
Hebanthe grandiflora (Hook.) Borsch & Pedersen
Iresine arbuscula Uline & W.L. Bray
Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Iresine hebanthoides Suess.
Iresine herbstii Hook.
Iresine herrerae Conz. & S.F. Blake
Iresine interrupta Benth.
Iresine latifolia Moq.
Iresine nigra Uline & W.L. Bray
Pleuropetalum sprucei Standl.
AMARYLLIDACEAE
Allium glandulosum Link & Otto
Crinum americanum L.
Crinum x powellii hort. ex Baker
Manfreda scabra (Ortega) McVaugh
Zephyranthes carinata Herb.
ANACARDIACEAE
Astronium graveolens Jacq.
Comocladia engleriana Loes.
Pistacia mexicana Kunth
Rhus terebinthifolia Schltdl. & Cham.
Spondias mombin L.
Tapirira mexicana Marchand
Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze
ANEMIACEAE
Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw.
Anemia tomentosa (Sav.) Sw.
ANNONACEAE
Annona cherimola Miller
Annona globiflora Schltdl.
Annona longiflora S. Watson
Annona muricata L.
Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal
Cymbopetalum baillonii R.E. Fr.
Cymbopetalum penduliflorum Baill.
Desmopsis galeottiana Saff.
Desmopsis trunciflora (Schltdl. & Cham.) G.E. Schatz
Guatteria amplifolia Triana & Planch.
Mosannona depressa (Baill.) Chatrou
Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill.
Tridimeris hahniana Baill.
Xylopia trunciflora Schltdl. & Cham.
APIACEAE
Ammi majus L.
Angelica nelsonii J.M. Coult. & Rose
Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth.
Arracacia aegopodioides J.M. Coult. & Rose
Arracacia nelsonii J.M. Coult. & Rose
Arracacia rigida J.M. Coult. & Rose
Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville
Cicuta maculata var. maculata L.
Coriandrum sativum L.
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson
Daucus montanus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Spreng.
Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche
Eryngium deppeanum Schltdl. & Cham.
Eryngium foetidum L.
Eryngium nasturtiifolium Juss. ex F. Delaroche
Foeniculum vulgare Hill
Micropleura renifolia Lag.
Prionosciadium thapsoides (DC.) Mathias
Sanicula liberta Cham. & Schltdl.
Spananthe paniculata Jacq.
Tauschia nudicaulis Schltdl.
APOCYNACEAE
Allamanda cathartica L.
Alstonia longifolia (A. DC.) Pichon
Apocynum cannabinum L.
Asclepias curassavica L.
Asclepias similis Hemsl.
Asclepias woodsoniana Standl. & Steyerm.
Aspidosperma megalocarpon Müll. Arg.
Blepharodon mucronatum (Schltdl.) Decne.
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don
Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br.
Cynanchum mexicanum Brandegee
Echites microcalyx A. DC.
Fernaldia pandurata (A. DC.) Woodson
Forsteronia myriantha Donn. Sm.
Forsteronia spicata G. Mey.
Funastrum clausum Schltr.
Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey.
Gonolobus chloranthus Schltdl.
Gonolobus erianthus Decne.
Gonolobus niger (Cav.) R. Br. ex Schult.
Gonolobus uniflorus Kunth
Mandevilla acutiloba (A. DC.) Woodson
Mandevilla subsagittata (Ruiz & Pav.) Woodson
Mandevilla torosa (Jacq.) Woodson
Marsdenia macrophylla E. Fourn.
Matelea nigrescens (Schltdl.) Woodson
Matelea sugillata W.D. Stevens
Matelea velutina (Schltdl.) Woodson
Mesechites trifidus Müll. Arg.
Metastelma barbigerum Scheele
Metastelma latifolium Rose
Metastelma pringlei A. Gray
Metastelma schlechtendalii Decne.
Oxypetalum cordifolium (Vent.) Schltr.
Pentalinon andrieuxii (Müll. Arg.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin
Plumeria rubra L.
Polystemma viridiflorum Decne.
Prosthecidiscus guatemalensis Donn. Sm.
Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.
Rhabdadenia biflora Müll. Arg.
Sarcostemma clausum Schult.
Sarcostemma elegans Decne.
Sarcostemma pannosum Decne.
Stemmadenia donnell-smithii (Rose) Woodson
Stemmadenia litoralis (Kunth) L. Allorge
Tabernaemontana alba Mill.
Thevetia ahouai (L.) A. DC.
Thevetia peruviana K. Schum.
Tintinnabularia gratissima J.F. Morales
Tonduzia longifolia (DC.) Markgr.
Trachelospermum difforme (Walter) A. Gray
Vinca major L.
AQUIFOLIACEAE
Ilex discolor Hemsl. var. tolucana (Hemsl.) Edwin ex T.R. Dudley
Ilex pringlei Standl.
ARACEAE
Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don
Anthurium andicola Liebm.
Anthurium crassinervium (Jacq.) Schott
Anthurium harrisii G. Don
Anthurium pentaphyllum G. Don
Anthurium podophyllum Kunth
Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl.
Anthurium schlechtendalii Kunth
Anthurium umbrosum Liebm.
Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott
Arisaema macrospathum Benth.
Dieffenbachia oerstedii Schott
Monstera acuminata K. Koch
Monstera florescanoana Croat, T. Kromer & Acebey
Monstera lechleriana Schott
Philodendron advena Schott
Philodendron guttiferum Kunth
Philodendron inaequilaterum subsp. Inaequilaterum Liebm.
Philodendron jacquinii Schott
Philodendron radiatum Schott
Philodendron sagittifolium Liebm.
Philodendron seguine subsp. lingua-bovis Grayum
Syngonium neglectum Schott
Syngonium podophyllum Schott
Xanthosoma mexicanum Liebm.
Xanthosoma robustum Schott
Zantedeschia aethiopica Spreng.
ARALIACEAE
Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch.
Hydrocotyle mexicana Cham. & Schltdl.
Hydrocotyle umbellata L.
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.
Oreopanax capitatus (Jacq.) Decne. & Planch.
Oreopanax echinops Decne. & Planch.
Oreopanax flaccidus Marchal
Oreopanax liebmannii Marchal
Oreopanax peltatus Linden
Oreopanax xalapensis Decne. & Planch.
ARECACEAE
Acrocomia aculeata Lodd. ex Mart.
Bactris mexicana Mart.
Bactris trichophylla Burret
Chamaedorea concolor Mart.
Chamaedorea elatior Mart.
Chamaedorea elegans Mart.
Chamaedorea klotzschiana H. Wendl.
Chamaedorea monostachys Burret
Chamaedorea oblongata Mart.
Chamaedorea oreophila Mart.
Chamaedorea pinnatifrons Oerst.
Chamaedorea sartorii Liebm.
Sabal mexicana Mart.
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Aristolochia asclepiadifolia Brandegee
Aristolochia pentandra Jacq.
ASPARAGACEAE
Agave angustifolia Haw.
Agave applanata Koch
Agave filifera Salm-Dyck
Agave obscura Schiede
Agave pendula Schnittsp.
Agave polyacantha Haw.
Agave univittata Haw.
Agave xalapensis Roezl ex Jacobi
Beaucarnea recurvata Lem.
Beschorneria calcicola García-Mend.
Beschorneria yuccoides subsp. dekosteriana (K. Koch) García-Mend.
Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Chev.
Echeandia longipedicellata Cruden Echeandia parviflora Baker
Maianthemum macrophyllum (M. Martens & Galeotti) La Frankie
Maianthemum paniculatum (M. Martens & Galeotti) La Frankie
Maianthemum scilloideum (M. Martens & Galeotti) LaFrankie
Nolina humilis S. Watson
Yucca guatemalensis Baker
ASPLENIACEAE
Asplenium achilleifolium (M. Martens & Galeotti) Liebm.
Asplenium alatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Asplenium auriculatum Sw.
Asplenium auritum Sw.
Asplenium blepharodes D.C. Eaton
Asplenium cristatum Lam.
Asplenium cuspidatum Lam.
Asplenium formosum Willd.
Asplenium hastatum Klotzsch ex Kunze
Asplenium miradorense Liebm.
Asplenium monanthes L.
Asplenium pumilum Sw.
Asplenium repandulum Kunze
Asplenium resiliens Kunze
Asplenium salicifolium L.
Asplenium scolopendrium L.
Asplenium serra Langsd. & Fisch.
Asplenium sessilifolium Desv.
Asplenium sphaerosporum A.R. Sm.
ASTERACEAE
Achillea lanulosa Nutt.
Achillea millefolium L.
Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen
Acourtia veracruzana B.L. Turner
Ageratina aschenborniana (S. Schauer) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina bellidifolia (Benth.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina chiapensis (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina choricephala (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina crassiramea (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina enixa (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina havanensis (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina ligustrina (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina petiolaris (Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina pichichensis (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Ageratina vernalis (Vatke & Kurtz) R.M. King & Rob.
Ageratina wrightii (A. Gray) R.M. King & H. Rob
Ageratum conyzoides L.
Ageratum corymbosum Zuccagni
Ageratum houstonianum Mill.
Aldama dentata La Llave
Alloispermum integrifolium (DC.) H. Rob.
Alloispermum scabrum (Lag.) H. Rob.
Alomia echioides (Less.) B.L. Rob.
Ambrosia peruviana All.
Archibaccharis asperifolia S.F. Blake
Archibaccharis hirtella (DC.) Heering
Archibaccharis intermedia (S.F. Blake) B.L. Turner
Archibaccharis schiedeana (Benth.) J.D. Jacks.
Archibaccharis serratifolia S.F. Blake
Archibaccharis sescenticeps (S.F. Blake) S.F. Blake
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.
Artemisia mexicana Willd. ex Spreng.
Aster exilis Elliott
Aster schaffneri Sch. Bip. ex S.D. Sundb. & A.G. Jones
Aster subulatus Michx.
Astranthium xanthocomoides (Less.) Larsen
Baccharis conferta Kunth
Baccharis rhexioides Kunth
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
Baccharis serratifolia Kunth
Baccharis serrifolia DC.
Baccharis thesioides Kunth
Baccharis trinervis Pers.
Baltimora geminata (Brandegee) Stuessy
Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Kunth) H. Rob. & Brettell
Bartlettina karwinskiana (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Bartlettina oresbia (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Bartlettina sordida (Less.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Bartlettina tuerckheimii (Klatt) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Bartlettina xalapana (B.L. Turner) B.L. Turner
Bidens aurea (Aiton) Sherff
Bidens triplinervia Kunth
Brickellia diffusa (Vahl) A. Gray
Brickellia pacayensis J.M. Coult.
Brickellia paniculata (Mill.) B.L. Rob.
Calea ternifolia Kunth
Calea urticifolia DC.
Calendula officinalis L.
Calyptocarpus vialis Less.
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Bernh.
Cirsium conspicuum Sch. Bip.
Cirsium lappoides Sch. Bip.
Cirsium mexicanum DC.
Cirsium pinetorum Greenm.
Clibadium surinamense L.
Conyza bonariensis (L) Cronquist
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist
Conyza coronopifolia Kunth
Conyza laevigata (Rich.) Pruski
Critonia daleoides DC.
Critonia hospitalis (B.L. Rob.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Critonia morifolia (Mill.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Critoniadelphus nubigenus (Benth.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Critoniopsis triflosculosa (Kunth) Rob
Dahlia coccinea Cav.
Decachaeta perornata (Klatt) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Delilia berteroi Spreng.
Dyssodia aurantia (L.) B.L. Rob.
Dyssodia porophyllum (Cav.) Cav. Dyssodia tagetiflora Lag.
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.
Egletes liebmannii Sch. Bip.
Elephantopus mollis Kunth
Epaltes mexicana Less.
Erechtites hieracifolia Raf.
Erechtites valerianifolia Less
Erigeron karvinskianus DC.
Erigeron longipes DC.
Erigeron procumbens (Houst. ex Mill.) G.L. Nesom
Erigeron scaberrimus Gardner
Erigeron veracruzensis G.L. Nesom
Eupatorium albicaule Sch. Bip. ex Klatt
Eupatorium araliifolium Less
Eupatorium collinum DC.
Eupatorium leucocephalum Benth.
Eupatorium schultzii Schnittsp.
Fleischmannia capillipes (Benth. ex Oerst.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Fleischmannia pycnocephala (Less.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Florestina liebmannii Sch.Bip. ex Greenm.
Galeana pratensis Rydb.
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.
Gnaphalium attenuatum DC.
Gnaphalium berlandieri DC.
Gnaphalium canescens DC.
Gnaphalium leucocephalum A. Gray
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.
Gnaphalium oxyphyllum DC.
Gnaphalium purpureum L.
Gynura aurantiaca DC.
Helenium quadridentatum Labill.
Helianthus annuus L.
Heliopsis buphthalmoides Dunal
Heterosperma pinnatum Cav.
Heterotheca inuloides Cass.
Hidalgoa ternata La Llave
Hieracium abscissum Less.
Hieracium pringlei A. Gray
Hymenostephium guatemalense S.F. Blake
Isocarpha oppositifolia (L.) Cass.
Iva asperifolia Less.
Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.
Jaegeria macrocephala Less.
Koanophyllon solidaginoides (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Lactuca graminifolia Michx.
Lactuca ludoviciana (Nutt.) Riddell
Laennecia schiedeana (Less.) G.L. Nesom
Lagascea helianthifolia Kunth
Lagascea mollis Cav.
Lapsana communis L.
Launaea intybacea Beauverd
Leiboldia serrata Gleason
Lepidaploa salzmannii (DC.) H. Rob.
Lepidaploa tortuosa (L.) H. Rob.
Lepidonia mexicana (Less.) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk.
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam
Liabum bourgeaui Hieron.
Loxothysanus sinuatus (Less.) B.L. Rob.
Matricaria chamomilla L.
Melampodium americanum L.
Melampodium divaricatum DC.
Melampodium gracile Less.
Melampodium microcephalum Less.
Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth
Melanthera angustifolia A. Rich.
Melanthera aspera Steud.
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Mikania houstoniana B.L. Rob.
Mikania pyramidata Donn. Sm.
Milleria quinqueflora L.
Montanoa grandiflora DC.
Montanoa tomentosa Cerv.
Nelsonianthus tapianus (B.L. Turner) C. Jeffrey
Neomirandea araliifolia (Less.) R.M. King & H. Rob.
Neurolaena lobata R. Br.
Neurolaena macrophylla Greenm.
Neurolaena venturana B.L. Turner
Otopappus curviflorus Hemsl.
Oxylobus adscendens B.L. Rob. & Greenm.
Packera coahuilensis (Greenm.) C. Jeffrey
Packera sanguisorbae (DC.) C. Jeffrey
Packera tampicana (DC.) C. Jeffrey
Palafoxia lindenii A. Gray
Parthenium fruticosum Less.
Pectis prostrata Cav.
Pentacalia parasitica (Hemsl.) H. Rob. & Cuatrec.
Perymeniopsis ovalifolia (A. Gray) H. rob.
Perymenium gymnolomoides (Less.) DC.
Pinaropappus roseus (Less.)
Piqueria trinervia Cav.
Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) D. Don.
Pluchea salicifolia S.F. Blake
Podachaenium eminens Baill.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.
Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) C.F. Baker
Pseudognaphalium brachypterum (DC.) Anderb.
Pseudognaphalium roseum (Kunth) Anderb.
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Kunth) Cabrera
Roldana angulifolia (DC.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana aschenborniana (S. Schauer) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana barba-johannis (DC.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana hartwegii (Benth.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana marquezii (B.L. Turner) C. Jeffrey
Roldana oaxacana (Hemsl.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana petasitis (Sims) H. Rob. & Brettel
Roldana schaffneri (Sch. Bip. ex Klatt) H. Rob. & Brettell
Roldana sinuata B.L. Turner
Sabazia sarmentosa Less.
Sanvitalia procumbens Lam.
Schistocarpha bicolor Less.
Schistocarpha eupatorioides (Fenzl) Kuntze
Schistocarpha pedicellata Klatt
Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.
Sclerocarpus uniserialis Benth. & Hook. f.
Senecio callosus Sch. Bip.
Senecio deppeanus Hemsl.
Senecio runcinatus Less.
Senecio vulgaris L.
Sigesbeckia agrestis Poepp.
Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth
Simsia amplexicaulis Pers.
Simsia calva A. Gray
Sinclairia andromachioides Sch. Bip. ex Hemsl.
Sinclairia discolor Hook. & Arn.
Sinclairia klattii (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) H. Rob & Brettell
Smallanthus maculatus (Cav.) H. Rob.
Solidago altissima L.
Solidago velutina DC.
Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
Sonchus oleraceus L.
Spilanthes repens (Walter) Michx.
Stevia jorullensis Kunth
Stevia monardifolia Kunth
Stevia origanoides Kunth
Stevia ovata Willd.
Stevia pilosa Lag.
Stevia serrata Cav.
Symphyotrichum expansum (Poepp. & Spreng.) G.L. Nesom
Symphyotrichum moranense (Kunth) G.L. Nesom
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom
Symphyotrichum schaffneri (S.D. Sundb. & A.G. Jones) G.L. Nesom
Tagetes erecta L.
Tagetes filifolia Lag.
Tagetes foetidissima DC.
Tagetes lucida Cav.
Taraxacum mexicanum DC.
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.
Telanthophora grandifolia (Less.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Telanthophora uspantanensis (J.M. Coult.) H. Rob. & Brettell
Tetrachyron manicatum Schltdl.
Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray
Tithonia longiradiata (Bertol.) S.F. Blake
Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.) S.F. Blake
Tithonia tubiformis (Jacq.) Cass.
Tragoceros schiedeanum Less.
Tridax purpusii Brandegee
Trigonospermum adenostemmoides Less.
Trigonospermum annuum McVaugh & Lask.
Verbesina angustifolia S.F. Blake
Verbesina crocata (Cav.) Less.
Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray
Verbesina hypoglauca Sch. Bip. ex Klatt
Verbesina myriocephala Sch. Bip. ex Klatt
Verbesina ovatifolia A. Gray ex Hemsl.
Verbesina persicifolia DC.
Verbesina perymenioides Sch. Bip. ex Klatt
Verbesina turbacensis Kunth
Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob.
Vernonia arctioides Less.
Viguiera cordata (Hook. & Arn.) D’Arcy
Viguiera grammatoglossa DC.
Wedelia acapulcensis Kunth
Xanthium strumarium L.
Youngia japonica (L.) DC.
Zinnia americana (Mill.) Olorode & A.M. Torres
Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.
ATHYRIACEAE
Diplazium cristatum Alston
Diplazium donnell-smithii Christ
Diplazium franconis Liebm.
Diplazium grandifolium Sw.
Diplazium plantaginifolium (L.) Urb.
Diplazium striatum (L.) Presl
Diplazium ternatum Liebm.
Diplazium urticifolium Christ
BALSAMINACEAE
Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.
BASELLACEAE
Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis
Anredera vesicaria (Lam.) C.F. Gaertn.
BATACEAE
Batis maritima L.
BEGONIACEAE
Begonia barkeri Knowles & Westc.
Begonia cucullata Willd.
Begonia fischeri Schrank
Begonia fusca Liebm.
Begonia glabra Aubl.
Begonia gracilis Kunth
Begonia heracleifolia Cham. & Schltdl.
Begonia incarnata Link & Otto
Begonia ludicra A. DC.
Begonia maculata Raddi
Begonia manicata Brongn. Cels ex Vis.
Begonia multinervia Liebm.
Begonia multistaminea Burt-Utley
Begonia nelumbonifolia Schltdl. & Cham.
Begonia oaxacana A. DC.
Begonia pudica L.B. Sm. & B.G. Schub.
BERBERIDACEAE
Berberis lanceolata Benth.
Berberis tenuifolia Lindl.
Mahonia russellii N.P. Taylor
BETULACEAE
Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta (Schltdl.) Furlow
Alnus jorullensis Kunth
Carpinus caroliniana Walter
Ostrya virginiana Koch
BIGNONIACEAE
Amphilophium molle Schltdl. & Cham.
Amphitecna apiculata A.H. Gentry
Amphitecna latifolia (Mill.) A.H. Gentry
Amphitecna tuxtlensis A.H. Gentry
Anemopaegma puberulum (Seibert) Miranda
Arrabidaea blanchetii A. DC.
Arrabidaea inaequalis Baill.
Bignonia alliacea Lam.
Crescentia alata Kunth
Crescentia cujete L.
Cydista potosina (K. Schum. & Loes.) Loes.
Dolichandra quadrivalvis (Jacq.) L.G. Lohmann
Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don
Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry
Mansoa verrucifera (Schltdl.) A.H. Gentry
Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem.
Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A.H. Gentry
Podranea ricasoliana Sprague
Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) G. Nicholson
Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standl.
Tabebuia rosea DC.
BIXACEAE
Amoreuxia wrightii A. Gray
Bixa orellana L.
BLECHNACEAE
Blechnum asplenioides Sw.
Blechnum ensiforme (Liebm.) C. Chr.
Blechnum falciforme (Liebm.) C. Chr.
Blechnum lehmannii Hieron.
Blechnum occidentale L.
Blechnum polypodioides Raddi
Blechnum pteropus (Kuntze) Mett.
Blechnum schiedeanum (Pr.) Hieron.
Blechnum stoloniferum Mett.
Blechnum varians (Fourn.) C. Chr.
Woodwardia martinezii Maxon ex Weath.
Woodwardia spinulosa M. Martens & Galeotti
Woodwardia × semicordata Mickel & Beitel
BOMBACACEAE
Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand
Quararibea funebris (La Llave) Vischer
BORAGINACEAE
Borago officinalis L.
Cordia dentata Poir.
Cordia dodecandra DC.
Cordia foliosa M. Martens & Galeotti
Cordia inermis (Mill.) I.M. Johnst.
Cordia linnaei Stearn
Cordia macrocephala (Desv.) Kunth
Cordia spinescens L.
Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J.R. Drumm.
Ehretia tinifolia L.
Hackelia mexicana I.M. Johnst.
Heliotropium angiospermum Murray
Nama biflora Choisy
Nama linearis D.L. Nash
Tournefortia acutiflora M. Martens & Galeotti
Tournefortia bicolor Sw.
Tournefortia glabra L.
Tournefortia mutabilis Vent.
Wigandia urens Kunth
BRASSICACEAE
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
Brassica rapa L.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.
Cardamine bonariensis Pers.
Cardamine fulcrata Greene
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton
Lepidium schaffneri Thell.
Lepidium virginicum L.
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.
Nasturtium officinale W.T. Aiton
Raphanus raphanistrum L.
Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern
Sisymbrium irio L.
BROMELIACEAE
Aechmea bracteata Griseb.
Aechmea lueddemanniana (K. Koch) Brongn. ex Mez
Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb.
Catopsis hahnii Baker
Catopsis morreniana Mez
Catopsis nutans Griseb.
Catopsis paniculata E. Morren
Catopsis sessiliflora Mez
Catopsis wangerinii Mez & Wercklé
Greigia oaxacana L.B. Sm.
Hechtia schottii Baker
Hechtia stenopetala Klotzsch
Pitcairnia densiflora Brongn.
Pitcairnia heterophylla (Lindl.) Beer
Pitcairnia imbricata (Brongn.) Regel
Pitcairnia karwinskyana Schult. & Schult. f.
Pitcairnia ringens Link, Klotzsch & Otto
Pitcairnia schiedeana Baker
Racinaea ghiesbreghtii (Baker) M.A. Spencer & L.B. Sm.
Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. f.
Tillandsia belloensis W. Weber
Tillandsia brachycaulos Schltdl.
Tillandsia butzii Mez
Tillandsia caput-medusae E. Morren
Tillandsia chaetophylla Mez
Tillandsia concolor L.B. Sm.
Tillandsia fasciculata Sw.
Tillandsia filifolia Schltdl. & Cham.
Tillandsia flexuosa Sw.
Tillandsia grandis Schltdl.
Tillandsia gymnobotrya Baker
Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren
Tillandsia imperialis E. Morren ex Roezl
Tillandsia juncea Poir.
Tillandsia kirchhoffiana Wittm.
Tillandsia leiboldiana Schltdl.
Tillandsia lucida E. Morren ex Baker
Tillandsia macrochlamys Baker
Tillandsia multicaulis Steud.
Tillandsia nolleriana Ehlers
Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L.
Tillandsia pseudobaileyi C.S. Gardner
Tillandsia punctulata Schltdl. & Cham.
Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L.
Tillandsia rubra Ruiz & Pav.
Tillandsia schiedeana Steud.
Tillandsia streptophylla Scheidw.
Tillandsia tenuifolia L.
Tillandsia tricolor Schltdl. & Cham.
Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.
Tillandsia utriculata L.
Tillandsia variabilis Schltdl.
Tillandsia viridiflora Baker
BRUNELLIACEAE
Brunellia mexicana Standl.
BURMANNIACEAE
Apteria aphylla Small
Dictyostega orobanchoides (Hook.) Miers
BURSERACEAE
Bursera arborea L. Riley
Bursera cinerea Engl.
Bursera grandifolia Engl.
Bursera graveolens Triana & Planch.
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
Protium copal (Schltdl. & Cham.) Engl.
CACTACEAE
Acanthocereus tetragonus (L.) Hummelinck Appendix II
Aporocactus flagelliformis Lem. Appendix II
Aporocactus martianus Britton & Rose Appendix II
Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth Appendix II
Disocactus ackermannii (Lindl.) Barthlott Appendix II
Disocactus phyllanthoides (DC.) Barthlott Appendix II
Epiphyllum caudatum Britton & Rose Appendix II
Epiphyllum crenatum (Lindl.) G. Don Appendix II
Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw. Appendix II
Epiphyllum hookeri Haw. Appendix II
Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose Appendix II
Mammillaria eriacantha Link & Otto ex Pfeiff. Appendix II
Mammillaria sartorii J.A. Purpus Appendix II
Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides (Haw.) Buxb. Appendix II
Nopalxochia phyllanthoides (DC.) Britton & Rose Appendix II
Opuntia decumbens Salm-Dyck Appendix II
Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. Appendix II
Pereskiopsis kellermanii Rose
Pilosocereus leucocephalus (Poselger) Byles & G.D. Rowley Appendix II
Pterocereus gaumeri (Britton & Rose) Th. MacDougall & Miranda Appendix II
Rhipsalis baccifera (Sol.) Stearn Appendix II
Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose Appendix II
Selenicereus hamatus (Scheidw.) Britton & Rose Appendix II
Selenicereus testudo (Karw. ex Zucc.) Buxb. Appendix II
Stenocereus griseus (Haw.) Buxb. Appendix II
Stenocereus pruinosus (Otto ex Pfeiff.) Buxb. Appendix II
CALCEOLARIACEAE
Calceolaria mexicana Benth.
Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav.
CAMPANULACEAE
Centropogon grandidentatus (Schltdl.) Zahlbr.
Diastatea micrantha (Kunth) McVaugh
Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G. Don
Lobelia cardinalis L.
Lobelia laxiflora subsp. laxiflora Kunth
Lobelia picta B.L. Rob. & Seaton
Lobelia sartorii Vatke
Lobelia tarsophora Seaton ex Green
Lobelia xalapensis Kunth
Triodanis perfoliata subsp. perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.
CANNABACEAE
Aphananthe monoica (Hemsl.) J.-F. Leroy
Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg.
Lozanella enantiophylla (Donn. Sm.) Killip & C.V. Morton
Trema micrantha (L.) Blume
CANNACEAE
Canna generalis L.H. Bailey & E.Z. Bailey
Canna indica L.
CAPPARACEAE
Capparidastrum discolor (Donn. Sm.) Cornejo & Iltis
Capparidastrum mollicellum (Standl.) Cornejo & Iltis
Capparidastrum quiriguense (Standl.) Cornejo & Iltis
Capparis flexuosa (L.) L.
Crateva tapia L.
Morisonia americana L.
Quadrella incana (Kunth) Iltis & Cornejo
Quadrella pringlei (Briq.) Iltis & Cornejo
CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Abelia floribunda Decne.
Lonicera japonica Thunb.
Valeriana clematitis Kunth
Valeriana scandens Loefl.
Valeriana urticifolia var. scorpioides (DC.) Barrie
CARICACEAE
Carica cauliflora Jacq.
Carica papaya L.
Jacaratia mexicana A. DC.
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Arenaria decussata D.F.K. Schltdl. ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb.
Arenaria lycopodioides Willd. ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
Arenaria reptans Hemsl.
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
Drymaria glandulosa Bartl.
Drymaria gracilis Cham. & Schltdl.
Drymaria villosa Cham. & Schltdl.
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Stellaria nemorum L.
Stellaria ovata Willd. ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
CASUARINACEAE
Casuarina equisetifolia L.
CELASTRACEAE
Casearia aculeata Jacq.
Celastrus pringlei Rose
Elaeodendron trichotomum (Turcz.) Lundell
Euonymus benthamii Lundell
Euonymus occidentalis Nutt. Ex Torr.
Hippocratea volubilis L.
Maytenus texana Lundell
Perrottetia longistylis Rose
Perrottetia ovata Hemsl.
Pristimera celastroides (Kunth) A.C. Sm.
Quetzalia schiedeana (Loes.) Lundell
Quetzalia stipitata (Lundell) Lundell
Wimmeria bartlettii Lundell
Wimmeria concolor Schltdl. & Cham.
Wimmeria persicifolia Radlk.
Zinowiewia integerrima Turcz.
CERATOPHYLLACEAE
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
CHLORANTHACEAE
Hedyosmum mexicanum C. Cordem.
CHRYSOBALANACEAE
Couepia polyandra Rose
Hirtella triandra Sw.
Licania platypus Fritsch
CIBOTIACEAE
Cibotium schiedei Schltdl. & Cham.
CISTACEAE
Helianthemum coulteri S. Watson
CLEOMACEAE
Andinocleome magnifica (Briq.) Iltis & Cochrane
Cleome aculeata L.
Cleome gigantea L.
Cleome guianensis Aubl.
Cleome gynandra L.
Cleome speciosa Raf.
Cleome spinosa Jacq.
Cleome viscosa L.
Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) Iltis
CLETHRACEAE
Clethra lanata M. Martens & Galeotti
Clethra macrophylla M. Martens & Galeotti
Clethra mexicana DC.
Clethra pringlei S. Watson
CLUSIACEAE
Clusia guatemalensis Hemsl.
Clusia lundellii Standl.
Clusia quadrangula Bartlett
Garcinia intermedia (Pittier)
Hamel Mammea americana L.
COCHLOSPERMACEAE
Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng.
COMBRETACEAE
Combretum farinosum Kunth
Combretum fruticosum (Loefl.) Stuntz
COMMELINACEAE
Aneilema geniculatum (Jacq.) Woodson
Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woodson
Callisia multiflora (M. Martens & Galeotti) Standl.
Callisia repens L.
Campelia zanonia (L.) Kunth
Commelina diffusa Burm. f.
Commelina rufipes var. glabrata (D.R. Hunt) Faden & D.R. Hunt
Commelina tuberosa L.
Gibasis geniculata (Jacq.) Rohweder
Gibasis oaxacana D.R. Hunt
Gibasis pellucida (M. Martens & Galeotti) D.R. Hunt
Phaeosphaerion leiocarpum Hassk. ex C.B. Clarke
Tinantia erecta (Jacq.) Fenzl
Tinantia standleyi Steyerm.
Tradescantia commelinoides Schult. & Schult. f.
Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt
Tradescantia spathacea Sw.
Tradescantia zanonia (L.) Sw.
Tradescantia zebrina Bosse
Tripogandra disgrega (Kunth) Woodson
Tripogandra purpurascens (S. Schauer) Handlos
Tripogandra serrulata (Vahl) Handlos
CONNARACEAE
Rourea glabra Kunth
CONVOLVULACEAE
Convolvulus nodiflorus Desr.
Cuscuta boldinghii Urb.
Cuscuta jalapensis Schltdl.
Cuscuta mitriformis Engelm. ex Hemsl.
Dichondra argentea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dichondra sericea Sw.
Evolvulus alsinoides L.
Ipomoea affinis M. Martens & Galeotti
Ipomoea arborescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) G. Don
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
Ipomoea batatoides Choisy
Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D.F. Austin
Ipomoea cholulensis Kunth
Ipomoea costellata Torr.
Ipomoea dumosa (Benth.) L.O. Williams
Ipomoea hastigera Kunth
Ipomoea hederifolia L.
Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb.
Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr.
Ipomoea jalapa (L.) Pursh
Ipomoea lindenii M. Martens & Galeotti
Ipomoea mairetii Choisy
Ipomoea neei (Spreng.) O’Donell
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth
Ipomoea pauciflora M. Martens & Galeotti
Ipomoea purga Hayne
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth
Ipomoea setosa Ker Gawl.
Ipomoea wolcottiana Rose
Jacquemontia oaxacana (Meisn.) Hallier f.
Jacquemontia sphaerostigma Rusby
Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.
Merremia dissecta Hallier f.
Merremia quinquefolia Hallier f.
Merremia umbellata (L.) Hallier f.
Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf.
CORNACEAE
Cornus disciflora Moc. & Sessé ex DC.
Cornus excelsa Kunth
Costus dirzoi García-Mend. & Ibarra-Manr.
Costus pictus D. Don ex Lindl.
Costus pulverulentus C. Presl
CRASSULACEAE
Bryophyllum delagoensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Schinz
Echeveria amoena D. Smet ex E. Morren
Echeveria atropurpurea (Baker) É. Morren
Echeveria microcalyx Britton & Rose
Echeveria racemosa var. citrina Kimnach
Echeveria rosea Lindl.
Kalanchoe pinnata Pers.
Sedum adolphi Raym.-Hamet
Sedum botterii Hemsl.
Sedum confusum Hemsl.
Sedum dendroideum Moc. & Sessé ex DC.
Sedum goldmanii (Rose) Moran
Sedum hemsleyanum Rose
Sedum hultenii Fröd.
Sedum moranense Kunth
Sedum nussbaumerianum Bitter
Sedum palmeri S. Watson
Villadia jurgensenii (Hemsl.) Jacobsen
Villadia mexicana (Schltdl.) H. Jacobsen
CUCURBITACEAE
Cucumis anguria L.
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché
Cucurbita martinezii L.H. Bailey
Cucurbita maxima Duchesne
Cyclanthera dissecta (Torr. & A. Gray) Arn.
Cyclanthera explodens Naudin
Cyclanthera langaei Cogn.
Cyclanthera ribiflora Cogn.
Cyclanthera tamnoides Cogn.
Doyerea emetocathartica Grosourdy
Hanburia mexicana Seem.
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.
Melothria pendula L.
Microsechium palmatum Cogn.
Momordica charantia L.
Sechium edule Sw.
Sicydium schiedeanum Schltdl.
Sicyos longisepalus Cogn.
Sicyos microphyllus Kunth
Vaseyanthus insularis Rose
CUNONIACEAE
Weinmannia balbisiana Kunth
Weinmannia pinnata L.
CUPRESSACEAE
Cupressus lindleyi Klotzsch ex Endl.
Cupressus lusitanica Mill.
Taxodium mucronatum Ten.
CYATHEACEAE
Cyathea bicrenata Liebm. Appendix II
Cyathea divergens Kunze
Cyathea divergens var. tuerckheimii (Maxon) R.M. Tryon Appendix II
Cyathea fulva Fée Appendix II
Nephelea mexicana (Schltdl. & Cham.) R.M. Tryon
Sphaeropteris horrida (Liebm.) R.M. Tryon
Trichipteris schiedeana (C. Presl) R.M. Tryon
CYCLANTHACEAE
Asplundia labela (R.E. Schult.) Harling
Asplundia liebmanniii Harling
CYPERACEAE
Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.B. Clarke
Bulbostylis juncoides (Vahl) Kük. ex Osten
Carex chordalis Liebm.
Carex longii Mack.
Carex lurida Wahlenb.
Carex melanosperma Liebm.
Carex perlonga Fernald
Carex physorhyncha Liebm. ex Steud.
Carex polystachya Sw. ex Wahlenb.
Carex standleyana Steyerm.
Carex vulpinoidea Michx.
Cyperus aggregatus Endl.
Cyperus digitatus Roxb.
Cyperus filiculmis Vahl
Cyperus flavus J. Presl & C. Presl
Cyperus haspan L.
Cyperus hermaphroditus Standl.
Cyperus involucratus Rottb.
Cyperus laxus Lam.
Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz.
Cyperus mutisii Andersson
Cyperus odoratus L.
Cyperus spectabilis Link
Cyperus tenuis Sw.
Cyperus thyrsiflorus Jungh.
Cyperus virens Michx.
Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Eleocharis minima Kunth
Eleocharis montana Roem. & Schult.
Eleocharis nervata Svenson
Fimbristylis autumnalis Roem. & Schult.
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.
Kyllinga odorata Vahl
Kyllinga pumila Michx.
Rhynchospora nervosa Boeckeler
Rhynchospora aristata Boeckeler
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton
Rhynchospora dives Standl.
Rhynchospora polyphylla (Vahl) Vahl
Rhynchospora radicans subsp. radicans (Schltdl. & Cham.) H. Pfeiff.
Rhynchospora schiedeana Kunth
Rhynchospora scutellata Griseb.
Scleria bracteata Cav.
Scleria macrophylla J. Presl & C. Presl
Scleria melaleuca Rchb. ex Schltdl. & Cham.
Scleria oligantha Michx.
Uncinia hamata Urb.
CYTINACEAE
Bdallophytum americanum (R. Br.) Harms
DAVALLIACEAE
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE
Dennstaedtia bipinnata (Cav.) Maxon
Dennstaedtia dissecta (Sw.) T. Moore
Hypolepis blepharochlaena Mickel & Beitel
Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon
DICKSONIACEAE
Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. Appendix II
Lophosoria quadripinnata (J.F. Gmel.) C. Chr.
DILLENIACEAE
Tetracera erecta Sessé & Moc. ex DC.
DIOSCOREACEAE
Dioscorea composita Hemsl.
Dioscorea convolvulacea Cham. & Schltdl.
Dioscorea cruzensis R. Knuth
Dioscorea floribunda M. Martens & Galeotti
Dioscorea mexicana Scheidw.
Dioscorea pallens Schltdl.
Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Dioscorea spiculiflora var. fasciculocongesta V. Sosa & B.G.
DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Ching
Bolbitis hastata (E. Fourn.) Hennipman
Bolbitis semipinnatifida (Fée) Alston
Ctenitis equestris var. equestris (Kunze) Ching
Ctenitis melanosticta (Kunze) Copel.
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.
Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw.) J. Sm.
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott
Dryopteris maxonii Underw. & C. Chr.
Dryopteris patula (Sw.) Underw.
Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl.
Elaphoglossum davidsei Mickel
Elaphoglossum guatemalense (Klotzsch) T. Moore
Elaphoglossum mesoamericanum A. Rojas
Elaphoglossum obovatum Mickel
Elaphoglossum petiolatum (Sw.) Urb.
Elaphoglossum seminudum Mickel
Elaphoglossum vestitum (Schltdl. & Cham.) T. Moore
Lastreopsis effusa (Sw.) Tindale
Megalastrum subincisum (Willd.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran
Phanerophlebia gastonyi Yatsk.
Phanerophlebia macrosora (Baker) Underw.
Phanerophlebia nobilis var. remotispora (E. Fourn.) Yatsk.
Phanerophlebia remotispora E. Fourn.
Polystichum hartwegii (Klotzsch) Hieron.
Polystichum mickelii A.R. Sm.
Polystichum muricatum Fée
Stigmatopteris longicaudata (Liebm.) C. Chr.
EBENACEAE
Diospyros riojae Gómez Pompa
Diospyros verae-crucis Standl.
EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum giganteum L.
Equisetum hyemale L.
Equisetum myriochaetum Schltdl. & Cham.
ERICACEAE
Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd
Andromeda squamulosa D. Don
Arbutus xalapensis Kunth
Bejaria aestuans Loefl.
Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton
Comarostaphylis discolor (Hook.) Diggs
Gaultheria acuminata Cham. & Schltdl.
Gaultheria erecta Banks & Sol. Ex Hook. f.
Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt.
Lyonia squamulosa M. Martens & Galeotti
Monotropa uniflora L.
Pernettya prostrata Sleumer
Pyrola angustifolia (Alef.) Hemsl.
Vaccinium confertum Kunth
Vaccinium leucanthum Schltdl.
EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha adenostachya Müll. Arg.
Acalypha alopecuroidea Jacq.
Acalypha arvensis Poepp.
Acalypha botteriana Müll. Arg.
Acalypha diversifolia Jacq.
Acalypha hispida Burm. f.
Acalypha indica L.
Acalypha leptopoda Müll. Arg.
Acalypha longistipularis Müll. Arg.
Acalypha mollis Kunth
Acalypha neomexicana Müll. Arg.
Acalypha pohliana Müll. Arg.
Acalypha poiretii Spreng.
Acalypha schiedeana Schltdl.
Acalypha schlechtendaliana Müll. Arg.
Acalypha schlumbergeri Müll. Arg.
Acalypha setosa A. Rich.
Acalypha subviscida S. Watson
Acalypha villosa Jacq.
Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Arg.
Adelia barbinervis Cham. & Schltdl.
Adelia oaxacana Hemsl.
Alchornea latifolia Sw.
Argythamnia heterantha (Zucc.) Müll. Arg.
Bernardia dodecandra (Sessé ex Cav.) McVaugh
Bernardia macrocarpa A.Cerv. & Flores Olv.
Bernardia mexicana Müll. Arg.
Caperonia palustris Kunth
Chamaesyce densiflora (Klotzsch & Garcke) Millsp.
Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
Chamaesyce stictospora (Engelm.) Small
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst.
Cnidoscolus multilobus (Pax) I.M. Johnst.
Cnidoscolus tubulosus I.M. Johnst.
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss.
Croton billbergianus Müll. Arg.
Croton ciliatoglandulifer Ortega
Croton ciliatoglandulosus Ortega ex Steud.
Croton discolor Willd.
Croton draco Schltdl.
Croton flavens L.
Croton hirtus L’Hér.
Croton liebmannii Müll. Arg.
Croton lobatus L.
Croton miradorensis Müll. Arg.
Croton nitens Sw.
Croton niveus Jacq.
Croton panamensis Müll. Arg.
Croton punctatus Retz.
Croton reflexifolius Kunth
Croton repens Schltdl.
Croton schiedeanus Schltdl.
Croton soliman Cham. & Schltdl.
Croton stipulaceus Kunth
Croton suberosus Kunth
Croton xalapensis Kunth
Dalechampia scandens L.
Ditaxis guatemalensis Pax & K. Hoffm.
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton Appendix II
Euphorbia calcarata (Schltdl.) V.W. Steinm. Appendix II
Euphorbia cyathophora Murray Appendix II
Euphorbia cymosa Poir. Appendix II
Euphorbia delicatula Boiss. Appendix II
Euphorbia densiflora (Klotzsch & Garcke) Klotzsch Appendix II
Euphorbia dentata Michx. Appendix II
Euphorbia dioeca Kunth Appendix II
Euphorbia filiformis (P.R.O. Bally) Bruyns Appendix II
Euphorbia finkii (Boiss.) V.W. Steinm. Appendix II
Euphorbia graminea Jacq. Appendix II
Euphorbia heterophylla L. Appendix II
Euphorbia hirta L. Appendix II
Euphorbia hypericifolia L. Appendix II
Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. Appendix II
Euphorbia ixtlana Huft Appendix II
Euphorbia lancifolia Schltdl. Appendix II
Euphorbia macropus Boiss. Appendix II
Euphorbia maculata L. Appendix II
Euphorbia marginata Pursh Appendix II
Euphorbia mendezii Boiss. Appendix II
Euphorbia neriifolia L.
Euphorbia nutans Lag. Appendix II
Euphorbia ocymoidea L. Appendix II
Euphorbia orizabae Boiss. Appendix II
Euphorbia schlechtendalii Boiss. Appendix II
Euphorbia subreniformis S. Watson Appendix II
Euphorbia tithymaloides L. Appendix II
Euphorbia xalapensis Kunth Appendix II
Garcia nutans Rohr
Gymnanthes actinostemoides Müll. Arg.
Gymnanthes longipes Müll. Arg.
Gymnanthes riparia Klotzsch
Jatropha curcas L.
Jatropha podagrica Hook.
Manihot aesculifolia Pohl
Manihot rhomboidea Mull Arg.
Pleradenophora tuerckheimiana (Pax & K. Hoffm.) A. L. Melo & Esser
Plukenetia volubilis L.
Ricinus communis L.
Sapium lateriflorum Hemsl.
Sebastiania pavoniana Müll. Arg.
Tragia nepetifolia Cav.
Tragia yucatanensis Millsp.
FABACEAE
Abrus precatorius L.
Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze
Acacia berlandieri Benth.
Acacia glauca (L.) Moench
Acacia macracantha Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Acacia sphaerocephala Cham. & Schltdl.
Acacia tortuosa (L.) Willd.
Aeschynomene fascicularis Cham. & Schltdl.
Aeschynomene purpusii Brandegee
Albizia tomentosa Standl.
Amicia zygomeris DC.
Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald
Andira inermis (W. Wright) DC.
Arachis hypogaea L.
Bauhinia divaricata L.
Bauhinia latifolia Cav.
Bauhinia mexicana Vogel
Bauhinia purpurea L.
Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb.
Caesalpinia cacalaco Bonpl.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.
Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth
Calliandra anomala (Kunth) J.F. Macbr.
Calliandra capillata Benth.
Calliandra emarginata (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Benth.
Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standl.
Calliandra laxa (Willd.) Benth.
Calliandra palmeri S. Watson
Calliandra portoricensis (Jacq.) Benth.
Calliandra rubescens (M. Martens & Galeotti) Standl.
Calliandra rupestris Brandegee
Calliandra spraguei (Britton & Rose) Lundell
Calliandra tergemina (L.) Benth.
Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth.
Cassia grandis L. f.
Centrosema pascuorum Mart. ex Benth.
Centrosema plumieri Benth.
Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth.
Chamaecrista diphylla (L.) Greene
Chamaecrista glandulosa Greene
Chamaecrista hispidula (Vahl) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Chamaecrista kunthiana (Schltdl.) & Cham.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Chamaecrista rufa Britton & Rose
Chloroleucon mangense (Jacq.) Britton & Rose
Clitoria falcata Lam.
Clitoria mexicana Link
Cojoba arborea (L.) Britton & Rose
Cologania broussonetii DC.
Cologania hirta Rose
Coursetia caribaea var. caribaea (Jacq.) Lavin
Crotalaria bupleurifolia Schltdl. & Cham.
Crotalaria incana L.
Crotalaria maypurensis Kunth
Crotalaria micans Link
Crotalaria nitens Kunth
Crotalaria pumila Ortega
Crotalaria quercetorum Brandegee
Crotalaria rotundifolia (Walter) J.F. Gmel.
Crotalaria rzedowskii J. Espinosa
Crotalaria sagittalis L.
Dalbergia monetaria L.f.
Dalea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr.
Dalea foliolosa (Aiton) Barneby var. citrina (Rydb.) Barneby
Dalea leporina (Aiton) Bullock
Dalea scandens var. scandens (Mill.) R.T. Clausen
Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd.
Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC.
Desmodium affine Schltdl.
Desmodium angustifolium (Kunth) DC.
Desmodium axillare DC.
Desmodium caripense (Kunth) G. Don
Desmodium distortum (Aubl.) J.F. Macbr.
Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood
Desmodium grahamii A. Gray
Desmodium helleri Peyr.
Desmodium incanum (G.Mey.) DC.
Desmodium infractum DC.
Desmodium intortum (Mill.) Urb.
Desmodium leptoclados Hemsl.
Desmodium nicaraguense Oerst. Ex Benth. & Orst.
Desmodium nudiflorum (L.) DC.
Desmodium orbiculare Schltdl.
Desmodium plicatum Cham. & Schltdl.
Desmodium prehensile Schltdl.
Desmodium procumbens (Mill.) Hitchc.
Desmodium psilophyllum Schltdl.
Desmodium purpusii Brandegee
Desmodium sessilifolium Torr. & A. Gray
Desmodium strobilaceum Schltdl.
Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC.
Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq.
Diphysa macrophylla Lundell
Diphysa minutifolia Rose
Diphysa sennoides Benth. ex Benth. & Oerst.
Dussia mexicana Harms
Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb.
Eriosema diffusum G. Don
Eriosema grandiflorum G. Don
Erythrina americana Mill.
Erythrina berenices Krukoff & Barneby
Erythrina flabelliformis Kearney
Erythrina folkersii Krukoff & Moldenke
Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg.
Galactia striata Urb.
Gliricidia sepium Kunth
Indigofera jamaicensis Spreng.
Indigofera thibaudiana DC.
Inga flexuosa Graham
Inga jinicuil Schltdl.
Inga latibracteata Harms
Inga micheliana Harms
Inga paterno Harms
Inga punctata Willd.
Inga sapindoides Willd.
Inga vera Willd.
Lennea brunnescens Standl.
Lennea melanocarpa Vatke ex Harms
Leucaena diversifolia Benth.
Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit
Leucaena pulverulenta Benth.
Lonchocarpus guatemalensis Benth.
Lonchocarpus santarosanus Donn. Sm.
Lotus angustifolius Gouan
Lupinus elegans Kunth
Lysiloma acapulcense (Kunth) Benth.
Lysiloma auritum (Schltdl.) Benth.
Lysiloma divaricatum Benth
Lysiloma microphyllum Benth.
Machaerium biovulatum Micheli
Machaerium chiapense Brandegee
Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.
Macroptilium gibbosifolium (Ortega) A. Delgado
Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb
Marina scopa Barneby
Medicago lupulina L.
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.
Mimosa affinis B.L. Rob.
Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Mimosa caerulea Rose
Mimosa ervendbergii A. Gray
Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla
Mimosa pigra L.
Mimosa polyantha Willd.
Mimosa pudica L.
Mucuna argyrophylla Standl.
Mucuna jarocha T.M. Moura, Mansano, Gereau & A.M.G. Azevedo
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.
Phaseolus anisotrichos Schltdl.
Phaseolus coccineus L.
Phaseolus glabellus Piper
Phaseolus lunatus L.
Phaseolus pedicellatus Benth.
Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Piscidia piscipula (L.) Sarg.
Pithecellobium lanceolatum Benth.
Rhynchosia erythrinoides Schltdl. & Cham.
Rhynchosia longeracemosa M. Martens & Galeotti
Rhynchosia phaseoloides (Sw.) DC.
Rhynchosia pyramidalis Urb.
Senna atomaria (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna bacillaris (L.f.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna cobanensis (Britton) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H. S. Irwin & Barnby
Senna fruticosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna leiophylla (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna mexicana (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link
Senna pallida (Vahl) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Senna villosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw.
Stylosanthes humilis Kunth
Stylosanthes viscosa (L.) Sw.
Tamarindus indica L.
Tephrosia belizensis Lundell
Tephrosia nitens Benth.
Tephrosia vicioides Schltdl.
Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng.
Trifolium amabile Kunth
Trifolium repens L.
Vicia faba L.
Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth.
Vigna speciosa (Kunth) Verdc.
Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.
Zapoteca Formosa (Kunth) H.M. Hern.
Zapoteca lambertiana (G. Don) H.M. Hern.
Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq.) H.M. Hern.
Zornia reticulata Sm.
Zygia cognata (Schltdl.) Britton & Rose
FAGACEAE
Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. var. mexicana (Martínez) Little
Quercus acutifolia Née
Quercus affinis Scheidw.
Quercus candicans Née
Quercus castanea Née
Quercus conspersa Benth
Quercus cortesii Liebm.
Quercus crassifolia Bonpl.
Quercus crassipes Bonpl.
Quercus depressa Bonpl.
Quercus elliptica Née
Quercus germana Schltdl. & Cham.
Quercus ghiesbreghtii M. Martens & Galeotti
Quercus glabrescens Benth.
Quercus laeta Liebm.
Quercus lancifolia Schltdl. & Cham.
Quercus laurina Bonpl.
Quercus obtusata Bonpl.
Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham.
Quercus peduncularis Née
Quercus pinnativenulosa C.H. Mull.
Quercus polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham.
Quercus rugosa Née
Quercus salicifolia Née
Quercus sapotifolia Liebm.
Quercus sartorii Liebm.
Quercus sebifera Trel.
Quercus splendens Née
Quercus xalapensis Bonpl.
GARRYACEAE
Garrya laurifolia Hartw. ex Benth.
GELSEMIACEAE
Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J. St.- Hil.
GENTIANACEAE
Gentiana ovatiloba Kusnezow
Gentiana spathacea Kunth
Halenia brevicornis (Kunth) G. Don
Halenia schiedeana Griseb.
GERANIACEAE
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. ex Aiton
Geranium schiedeanum Schltdl.
Geranium seemannii Peyr.
Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L’Hér.
GESNERIACEAE
Besleria cyrtanthemum Hanst.
Columnea schiedeana Schltdl.
Kohleria deppeana (Schltdl. & Cham.) Fritsch
Kohleria elegans Loes.
Kohleria papillosa Fritsch
Kohleria rugata (Scheidw.) L.P. Kvist & L.E. Skog
Kohleria spicata (Kunth) Oerst.
Kohleria viminalis Brandegee
Moussonia deppeana (Schltdl. & Cham.) Hanst.
Moussonia fruticosa (Brandegee) Wiehler
Moussonia triflora Hanst.
Rhynchoglossum azureum (Schltdl.) B.L. Burtt
Sinningia speciosa Hiern
Smithiantha zebrine Kuntze
Solenophora glomerata Weigend & Förther
GLEICHENIACEAE
Diplopterygium bancroftii (Hook. ) A.R. Sm.
Gleichenella pectinata (Willd.) Ching
Gleichenia palmata (Schaffn.) T. Moore
Sticherus bifidus (Willd.) Ching
GUNNERACEAE
Gunnera mexicana Brandegee
HAMAMELIDACEAE
Hamamelis virginiana L.
Matudaea trinervia Lundell
HELICONIACEAE
Heliconia adflexa Standl.
Heliconia latispatha Benth.
Heliconia schiedeana Klotzsch
Heliconia wagneriana Petersen
HERNANDIACEAE
Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq.
Hernandia sonora L.
Hernandia wendtii Espejo
HYDRANGEACEAE
Hydrangea hortensis Sm.
Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.
Hydrangea nebulicola Nevling & Gómez Pompa
Philadelphus affinis Schltdl.
Philadelphus mexicanus Schltdl.
Philadelphus pueblanus S.Y. Hu
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE
Hymenophyllum fucoides Sw.
Hymenophyllum hirsutum (L.) Sw.
Hymenophyllum polyanthos (Sw.) Sw.
Hymenophyllum trapezoidale Liebm.
Hymenophyllum tunbridgense (L.) Sm.
Trichomanes bucinatum Mickel & Beitel
Trichomanes capillaceum L.
Trichomanes collariatum Bosch
Trichomanes crispum L.
Trichomanes hymenophylloides Bosch
Trichomanes krausii Hook. & Grev.
Trichomanes radicans Sw.
Trichomanes reptans Sw.
HYPERICACEAE
Ascyrum hypericoides L.
Hypericum formosum Kunth
Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz
Hypericum oaxacanum R. Keller ex N. Robson subsp. veracrucense N. Robson
Hypericum pratense Cham. &Schltdl.
Hypericum silenoides Juss.
Hypericum simulans Rose
HYPOXIDACEAE
Hypoxis decumbens L.
IRIDACEAE
Alophia veracruzana Goldblatt & T.M. Howard
Eleutherine latifolia (Standl. & L.O. Williams) Ravenna
Neomarica gracilis Sprague
Neomarica variegata (M. Martens & Galeotti) Henrich & Goldblatt
Orthrosanthus exsertus (R.C. Foster) Ravenna
Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill.
Sisyrinchium convolutum Nocca
Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav.
Sisyrinchium scabrum Schltdl. & Cham
Sisyrinchium schaffneri S. Watson
Sisyrinchium tinctorium Kunth
Tigridia pavonia (L. f.) DC.
Tritonia × crocosmiiflora G. Nicholson
JUGLANDACEAE
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch var. mexicana (Engelm. Ex Hemsl.) W.E. Manning
Juglans pyriformis Liebm.
JUNCACEAE
Juncus effusus L.
Luzula caricina E. Mey.
LACISTEMATACEAE
Lacistema aggregatum (P.J. Bergius) Rusby
LAMIACEAE
Aegiphila deppeana Steud.
Agastache mexicana (Kunth) H.P. Kelsey & Dayton
Agastache palmeri (B.L. Rob.) Standl.
Asterohyptis mociniana (Benth.) Epling
Asterohyptis stellulata (Benth.) Epling
Clerodendrum bungei Steud.
Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet
Clerodendrum ligustrinum R. Br.
Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer
Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.
Clinopodium brownei (Sw.) Kuntze
Cornutia pyramidata L.
Cunila lythrifolia Benth.
Cunila polyantha Benth.
Hedeoma piperita Benth.
Hyptis albida Kunth
Hyptis atrorubens Poit.
Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Hyptis pectinata Poit.
Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Hyptis urticoides Kunth
Leonurus japonicus Houtt.
Lepechinia caulescens (Ortega) Epling
Lepechinia schiedeana Vatke
Marrubium vulgare L.
Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl) Kuntze
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha spicata L.
Monarda malloryi Gilly
Ocimum basilicum L.
Ocimum carnosum (Spreng.) Link & Otto ex Benth
Origanum vulgare L.
Pogostemon cablin Benth.
Prunella vulgaris L.
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Salvia albiflora M. Martens & Galeotti
Salvia arthrocoma Fernald
Salvia biserrata M. Martens & Galeotti
Salvia carnea Kunth
Salvia chazaroana B.L. Turner
Salvia coccinea Buc’hoz ex Etl.
Salvia elegans Vahl
Salvia hispanica L.
Salvia involucrata Cav.
Salvia lasiocephala Hook. & Arn.
Salvia lavanduloides Kunth
Salvia leucantha Cav.
Salvia longispicata M. Martens & Galeotti
Salvia microphylla Kunth
Salvia misella Kunth
Salvia mocinoi Benth.
Salvia nana Kunth
Salvia occidentalis Sw.
Salvia polystachia Cav.
Salvia protracta Benth.
Salvia purpurea Cav.
Salvia recurva Benth.
Salvia rubiginosa Benth.
Salvia splendens ex Wied-Neuw
Salvia thyrsiflora Benth.
Salvia tiliifolia Vahl
Salvia xalapensis Benth.
Salvia zacuapanensis Briq.
Scutellaria dumetorum Schltdl.
Scutellaria racemosa Pers.
Scutellaria seleriana Loes.
Scutellaria splendens Link, Klotzsch & Otto
Stachys agraria Schltdl. & Cham.
Stachys biflora Hook & Arn.
Stachys boraginoides Schltdl. & Cham.
Stachys coccinea Ortega
Stachys nepetifolia Desf.
Stachys pringlei Greenm.
Stachys radicans Epling
Stachys rotundifolia Moc. & Sessé ex Benth.
Teucrium vesicarium Mill.
LAURACEAE
Beilschmiedia anay (S.F. Blake) Kosterm.
Beilschmiedia mexicana (Mez) Kosterm.
Cassytha filiformis L.
Cinnamomum amplexicaule (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kosterm.
Cinnamomum effusum (Meisn.) Kosterm.
Cinnamomum leptophyllum Lorea-Hern.
Cinnamomum pachypodum (Nees) Kosterm.
Cinnamomum padiforme (Standl. & Steyerm.) Kosterm.
Cinnamomum triplinerve (Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm.
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume
Licaria capitata (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kosterm.
Licaria misantlae (Brandegee) Kosterm.
Licaria peckii (I.M. Johnst.) Kosterm.
Litsea glaucescens Kunth
Litsea neesiana (S. Schauer) Hemsl.
Nectandra ambigens (S.F. Blake) C.K. Allen
Nectandra coriacea Griseb.
Nectandra lundellii C.K. Allen .
Nectandra membranacea (Sw.) Griseb
Nectandra salicifolia Kunth
Nectandra sanguinea Rol.
Ocotea acuminatissima (Lundell) Rohwer
Ocotea dendrodaphne Mez
Ocotea helicterifolia (Meisn.) Hemsl.
Ocotea heydeana (Mez & Donn. Sm.) Bernardi
Ocotea klotzschiana (Nees) Hemsl.
Ocotea psychotrioides Kunth
Ocotea uxpanapana T. Wendt & van der Werff
Persea americana Mill.
Persea chamissonis Mez
Persea cinerascens S.F. Blake
Persea donnell-smithii Mez
Persea liebmannii Mez
Persea longipes Meisn.
Persea schiedeana Nees
Persea standleyi C.K. Allen
LEMNACEAE
Lemna minor L.
LENTIBULARIACEAE
Pinguicula emarginata Zamudio & Rzed.
Pinguicula macrophylla Kunth
Pinguicula moranensis Kunth
LILIACEAE
Lilium candidum L.
LINACEAE
Linum orizabae Planch.
Linum schiedeanum Schltdl. & Cham.
Linum tenellum Cham.& Schltdl.
LINDSAEACEAE
Lonchitis hirsuta L.
Odontosoria schlechtendalii (Pr.) C. Chr.
LOASACEAE
Eucnide -hirta (Pav. ex G. Don) H.J. Thomps. & W.R. Ernst
Gronovia scandens L.
Loasa triphylla Juss
Mentzelia hispida Willd.
LOGANIACEAE
Spigelia anthelmia L.
Spigelia scabra Cham. & Schltdl.
LORANTHACEAE
Psittacanthus schiedeanus Blume
Struthanthus crassipes Eichler
Struthanthus deppeanus Blume
Struthanthus marginatus Blume
Struthanthus quercicola Blume
LYCOPODIACEAE
Huperzia dichotoma (Jacq.) Trevis.
Huperzia linifolia (L.) Trevis
Huperzia pithyoides (Schltdl. & Cham.) Holub
Huperzia reflexa (Lam.) Trevis.
Huperzia taxifolia (Sw.) Trevis
Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm.
Lycopodium cernuum L.
Lycopodium clavatum L.
Lycopodium thyoides Willd.
LYGODIACEAE
Lygodium venustum Sw.
LYTHRACEAE
Adenaria floribunda Kunth
Cuphea aequipetala Cav.
Cuphea calaminthifolia Schltdl.
Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr.
Cuphea cyanea DC.
Cuphea decandra W.T. Aiton
Cuphea hyssopifolia Griseb.
Cuphea micropetala Baill.
Cuphea nitidula Kunth
Cuphea pinetorum Benth.
Cuphea procumbens Ortega
Cuphea racemosa (L. f.) Spreng.
Cuphea salicifolia Cham. & Schltdl.
Cuphea utriculosa Koehne
Cuphea wrightii A. Gray
Lagerstroemia indica L.
Lawsonia inermis L.
Lythrum acinifolium ex DC.
Nesaea salicifolia Kunth
MAGNOLIACEAE
Magnolia grandiflora L.
Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht.
Talauma mexicana G. Don
MALPIGHIACEAE
Banisteria beecheyana (A. Juss.) C.B. Rob.
Bunchosia lindeniana A. Juss.
Bunchosia palmeri S. Watson
Bunchosia swartziana Griseb.
Byrsonima crassifolia Steud
Callaeum malpighioides (Turcz.) D.M. Johnson
Galphimia glauca Cav.
Gaudichaudia albida Cham. & Schltdl.
Heteropterys brachiata Kunth
Malpighia glabra L.
Mascagnia vacciniifolia Nied.
Psychopterys polycarpa (Brandegee) W.R. Anderson & S. Corso
Stigmaphyllon bannisteroides (L.) C.E. Anderson
Stigmaphyllon lindenianum A. Juss.
MALVACEAE
Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik.
Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Abutilon hulseanum (Torr. & A. Gray) Torr. ex A. Gray
Abutilon hypoleucum A. Gray
Abutilon purpusii Standl.
Abutilon subsagittatum Hochr.
Abutilon umbellatum (L.)
Sweet Abutilon vexillarium E.
Morren Anoda acerifolia Cav.
Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl.
Ayenia micrantha Standl.
Ayenia purpusii Brandegee
Bakeridesia ferruginea (Martyn) Krapov.
Bastardia viscosa (L.) Kunth
Belotia mexicana K. Schum.
Byttneria catalpifolia Jacq.
Carpodiptera ameliae Lundell
Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britten & Baker f.
Corchorus hirtus L.
Corchorus orinocensis Kunth
Corchorus siliquosus L.
Corchorus tridens L.
Dombeya × cayeuxii André
Fuertesimalva limensis (L.) Fryxell
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
Hampea integerrima Schltdl.
Hampea nutricia Fryxell
Hampea rovirosae Standl.
Heliocarpus americanus L.
Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz.
Heliocarpus mexicanus Sprague
Heliocarpus pallidus Rose
Herissantia crispa Medik.
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Fic.
Hibiscus bifurcatus Cav.
Hibiscus costatus A. Rich.
Hibiscus phoeniceus Jacq.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.f. var.
schizopetalus Mast.
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Hibiscus spiralis Cav.
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.
Hibiscus uncinellus ex DC.
Hochreutinera amplexifolia (DC.) Fryxell
Kearnemalvastrum lacteum (Aiton) D.M.Bates
Kosteletzkya tubiflora (DC.) O.J. Blanch. & McVaugh
Luehea candida Mart.
Luehea speciosa Willd.
Malachra capitata L.
Malva parviflora L.
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke
Malvastrum spicatum A. Gray
Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.
Melochia bernoulliana Donn. Sm.
Melochia pyramidata L.
Melochia tomentosa L.
Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don
Mortoniodendron guatemalense Standl. & Steyerm.
Mortoniodendron sulcatum Lundell
Pachira aquatica Aubl.
Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle
Pavonia multifllora A. St.-Hil.
Pavonia paniculata Cav.
Pavonia rosea Schltdl.
Pavonia schiedeana Steud.
Pavonia spinifex (L.) Cav.
Pavonia uniflora (Sessé & Moc.) Fryxell
Phymosia umbellata (Cav.) Kearney
Pseudabutilon scabrum (C. Presl) R.E.Fr.
Robinsonella mirandae Gómez Pompa
Robinsonella pilosa Rose
Sida acuta Burm. F.
Sida cordifolia L.
Sida glabra Mill.
Sida rhombifolia L.
Sida spinosa L.
Sida urens L.
Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell
Talipariti tiliaceum var. pernambucense (Arruda) Fryxell
Theobroma cacao L.
Tilia mexicana Schltdl.
Tilia neglecta Spach
Trichospermum galeottii (Turcz) Kosterm.
Triumfetta bogotensis DC.
Triumfetta columnaris Hochr.
Triumfetta grandiflora Vahl
Triumfetta lappula Schomb.
Triumfetta orizabae Turcz.
Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Waltheria indica L.
Wissadula hernandioides (L’Hér.) Garcke
Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) Thwaites
MARANTACEAE
Goeppertia misantlensis (Lascur.) Borchs. & S. Suárez
Maranta arundinacea L.
Maranta gibba Sm.
Monotagma laxum (Poepp. & Endl.) K. Schum.
MARATTIACEAE
Marattia weinmanniifolia Liebm.
MARCGRAVIACEAE
Marcgravia mexicana Gilg
Souroubea exauriculata Delp.
MELASTOMATACEAE
Arthrostemma ciliatum Pav. ex D. Don
Centradenia grandifolia (Schltdl.) Endl.
Centradenia inaequilateralis G. Don
Clidemia dentata D. Don
Clidemia hirta D. Don
Clidemia laxiflora Schltdl.
Clidemia petiolaris Triana
Clidemia setosa (Triana) Gleason
Conostegia arborea Schltdl. ex Steud.
Conostegia caelestis Standl.
Conostegia icosandra Urb.
Conostegia superba D. Don
Conostegia volcanalis Standl. & Steyerm.
Conostegia xalapensis D. Don
Heterocentron elegans Kuntze
Heterocentron subtriplinervium A. Braun & Bouché
Leandra melanodesma Cogn.
Leandra mexicana Cogn.
Leandra subseriata Cogn.
Miconia affinis DC.
Miconia anisotricha Triana
Miconia chrysoneura Triana
Miconia dodecandra Cogn.
Miconia glaberrima Naudin
Miconia ibaguensis C.Wright
Miconia impetiolaris (Sw.) D. Don ex DC.
Miconia lacera (Bonpl.) Naudin
Miconia laevigata (L.) D. Don
Miconia mexicana Naudin
Miconia moorei Wurdack
Miconia oligotricha Naudin
Miconia sylvatica Schltdl.
Miconia trinervia (Sw.) D. Don ex Loudon
Monochaetum calcaratum Triana
Monochaetum deppeanum Naudin
Monochaetum floribundum Naudin
Mouriri myrtilloides Poir.
Tibouchina galeottiana (Naudin) Cogn.
Tibouchina longifolia Baill.
Tibouchina longisepala Cogn.
Tibouchina mexicana Cogn.
Tibouchina naudiniana Cogn.
Tibouchina purpusii Brandegee
Tibouchina rufipilis Cogn.
Tibouchina schiedeana Cogn.
Tibouchina urvilleana Cogn.
Topobea laevigata (D. Don) Naudin
Triolena scorpioides Naudin
MELIACEAE
Cedrela odorata L.
Guarea glabra Vahl
Guarea grandifolia DC.
Guarea tuerckheimii C.DC. ex Donn.Sm.
Trichilia elegans A. Juss.
Trichilia glabra L.
Trichilia havanensis Jacq.
Trichilia japurensis C. DC.
Trichilia martiana C. DC.
Trichilia moschata Sw.
Trichilia pallida Sw.
MENISPERMACEAE
Cissampelos fasciculata Benth.
Cissampelos pareira L.
Hyperbaena mexicana Miers
Odontocarya mexicana Barneby
METTENIUSACEAE
Calatola costaricensis Standl.
Calatola mollis Standl.
Oecopetalum mexicanum Greenm. & C.H. Thomps.
MONIMIACEAE
Mollinedia viridiflora Tul.
Siparuna thecaphora A. DC.
MONTIACEAE
Calandrinia ciliata DC.
MORACEAE
Bagassa guianensis Aubl.
Brosimum alicastrum Sw.
Castilla elastica Cerv.
Dorstenia contrajerva L.
Ficus americana Aubl.
Ficus apollinaris Dugand
Ficus aurea Nutt.
Ficus costaricana Miq.
Ficus crocata Mart. ex Miq.
Ficus fuscescens Miq.
Ficus glycicarpa Miq.
Ficus insipida Willd.
Ficus lapathifolia Miq.
Ficus maxima Mill.
Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Ficus obtusifolia Kunth
Ficus pertusa L.f.
Ficus trigonata L.
Ficus turrialbana W.C. Burger
Ficus velutina Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Ficus yoponensis Desv.
Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.
Morus alba L.
Pseudolmedia glabrata (Liebm.) C.C. Berg.
Trophis mexicana (Liebm.) Bureau
Trophis racemosa (L.) Urb.
MUNTINGIACEAE
Muntingia calabura L.
MUSACEAE
Musa balbisiana Colla
Musa paradisiaca L.
Musa ornata Roxb.
MYRICACEAE
Myrica cerifera L.
MYRTACEAE
Calycorectes mexicanus O. Berg
Calyptranthes chytraculia Sw.
Calyptranthes karlingii Standl.
Calyptranthes karwinskyana O. Berg
Calyptranthes schiedeana O. Berg
Calyptranthes schlechtendaliana O. Berg
Calyptranthes tenuipes McVaugh
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
Eugenia acapulcensis Steud.
Eugenia capuli Schltdl.
Eugenia colipensis O. Berg
Eugenia hypargyrea Standl.
Eugenia mexicana Steud.
Eugenia mozomboensis P.E. Sánchez
Eugenia oerstediana O. Berg
Eugenia pueblana Lundell
Eugenia trunciflora (Schltdl. & Cham.) G.Don
Eugenia venezuelensis O. Berg
Eugenia xalapensis DC.
Eugenia yautepecana Lundell
Myrcianthes fragrans (Sw.) McVaugh
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
Psidium guineense Sw.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
NYCTAGINACEAE
Boerhavia diffusa L.
Boerhavia erecta L.
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.
Mirabilis jalapa L.
Neea tenuis Standl.
NYSSACEAE
Nyssa sylvatica Marshall
OCHNACEAE
Ouratea nitida Engl.
Sauvagesia erecta L.
OLEACEAE
Fraxinus dubia (Willd.) P.S. Green & M. Nee
Fraxinus greggii A. Gray
Jasminum gracillimum Hook. f.
Jasminum grandiflorum L.
Jasminum mesnyi Hance
Osmanthus americanus Benth. & Hook. f.
ONAGRACEAE
Epilobium ciliatum Raf.
Fuchsia arborescens Sims
Fuchsia boliviana Carrière
Fuchsia microphylla Kunth
Fuchsia paniculata Lindl.
Fuchsia thymifolia Kunth
Gongylocarpus rubricaulis Cham. & Schltdl.
Lopezia miniata DC.
Lopezia racemosa Cav.
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven
Ludwigia palustris (L.) Elliott
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara
Oenothera kunthiana (Spach) Munz
Oenothera rosea Aiton
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE
Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.
OPILIACEAE
Agonandra racemosa Standl.
ORCHIDACEAE
Acianthera angustifolia (Lindl.) Luer Appendix II
Acianthera circumplexa (Lindl.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase Appendix II
Acianthera obscura (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase Appendix II
Arpophyllum giganteum Hartw. ex Lindl. Appendix II
Arpophyllum laxiflorum Pfitzer Appendix II
Arpophyllum spicatum Lex. Appendix II
Beloglottis costaricensis Schltr. Appendix II
Beloglottis mexicana Garay & Hamer Appendix II
Bletia gracilis G. Lodd. Appendix II
Bletia purpurata A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Brassavola appendiculata A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Brassavola cucullata R. Br. Appendix II
Brassia verrucosa Lindl. Appendix II
Bulbophyllum pachyrhachis (A.Rich.) Griseb Appendix II
Calanthe calanthoides (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Hamer & Garay Appendix II
Camaridium densum (Lindl.) M.A. Blanco Appendix II
Catasetum integerrimum Hook. Appendix II
Chysis × laevis Lindl. Appendix II
Coelia macrostachya Lindl. Appendix II
Coelia triptera (Sm.) Steud. Appendix II
Corallorhiza bulbosa A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Corymborkis forcipigera (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) L.O. Williams Appendix II
Cranichis sylvatica A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Cyclopogon comosus (Rchb. f.) Burns-Bal. & E.W. Greenw. Appendix II
Cyclopogon saccatus (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Schltr. Appendix II
Cyrtopodium punctatum (L.) Lindl. Appendix II
Dichaea graminoides Lindl. Appendix II
Dichaea muricatoides Hamer & Garay Appendix II
Dichaea neglecta Schltr. Appendix II
Domingoa purpurea (Lindl.) Van den Berg & Soto Arenas Appendix II
Elleanthus cynarocephalus Rchb. f. Appendix II
Encyclia alata (Bateman) Schltr. Appendix II
Encyclia livida (Lindl.) Dressler Appendix II
Encyclia ochracea (Lindl.) Dressler Appendix II
Encyclia parviflora (Regel) Withner Appendix II
Encyclia polybulbon (Sw.) Dressler Appendix II
Epidendrum ciliare L. Appendix II
Epidendrum cristatum Ruiz & Pav. Appendix II
Epidendrum difforme Jacq. Appendix II
Epidendrum diffusum Sw. Appendix II
Epidendrum longipetalum A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Epidendrum melistagum Hágsater Appendix II
Epidendrum nocturnum Jacq. Appendix II
Epidendrum paniculatum Ruiz & Pav. Appendix II
Epidendrum parkinsonianum Hook. Appendix II
Epidendrum polyanthum Lindl. Appendix II
Epidendrum propinquum A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Epidendrum ramosum Jacq. Appendix II
Epidendrum repens Cogn. Appendix II
Epidendrum tuxtlense Hágsater, García-Cruz & L. Sánchez Appendix II
Goodyera brachyceras (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Garay & G.A. Romero Appendix II
Goodyera striata Rchb. f. Appendix II
Govenia liliacea (La Llave & Lex.) Lindl. Appendix II
Govenia mutica Rchb. f. Appendix II
Govenia praecox Salazar & E.W. Greenw. Appendix II
Govenia superba (La Llave & Lex.) Lindl. Appendix II
Habenaria alata Hook. Appendix II
Habenaria bractescens Lindl. Appendix II
Habenaria distans Griseb Appendix II
Habenaria entomantha (La Llave & Lex.) Lindl. Appendix II
Habenaria floribunda Lindl. Appendix II
Habenaria pringlei B.L. Rob. Appendix II
Habenaria quinqueseta (Michx.) Sw. Appendix II
Ionopsis utricularioides Lindl. Appendix II
Isochilus latibracteatus A. Rich. & Galeotti Appendix II
Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br. Appendix II
Isochilus major var. amparoanus (Schltr.) Correll Appendix II
Isochilus unilateralis B.L. Rob. Appendix II
Jacquiniella leucomelana Schltr. Appendix II
Jacquiniella teretifolia (Sw.) Britton & P. Wilson Appendix II
Laelia anceps Lindl. Appendix II
Lepanthes avis Rchb. f. Appendix II
Liparis vexillifera (La Llave & Lex.) Cogn. Appendix II
Lycaste aromatica Lindl. Appendix II
Lycaste deppei (Lodd.) Lindl. Appendix II
Malaxis excavata Kuntze Appendix II
Malaxis fastigiata Kuntze Appendix II
Malaxis histionantha (Link, Klotzsch & Otto) Garay & Dunst. Appendix II
Malaxis soulei L.O. Williams Appendix II
Malaxis unifolia Michx. Appendix II
Maxillaria cucullata Lindl. Appendix II
Maxillaria variabilis Bateman ex Lindl. Appendix II
Maxillariella tenuifolia (Lindl.) M.A. Blanco & Carnevalli Appendix II
Mesadenus lucayanus Schltr. Appendix II
Myrmecophila tibicinis (Bateman) Rolfe Appendix II
Nageliella purpurea (Lindl.) L.O. Williams Appendix II
Nidema boothii (Lindl.) Schltr. Appendix II
Notylia barkeri Lindl. Appendix II
Oncidium carthagenense (Jacq.) Sw. Appendix II
Oncidium cavendishianum Bateman Appendix II
Oncidium sphacelatum Lindl. Appendix II
Oncidium stramineum Lindl. Appendix II
Ornithocephalus gladiatus Hook. Appendix II
Pelexia funckiana (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Schltr. Appendix II
Pelexia gutturosa (Rchb. f.) Garay Appendix II
Physosiphon tubatus (Lodd.) Rchb. f. Appendix II
Platythelys vaginata (Hook.) Garay Appendix II
Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. Appendix II
Pleurothallis circumplexa Lindl. Appendix II
Pleurothallis ornata Rchb. f. Appendix II
Pleurothallis platystylis Schltr. Appendix II
Pleurothallis schiedei Rchb. f. Appendix II
Pleurothallis tribuloides (Sw.) Lindl. Appendix II
Ponera juncifolia Lindl. Appendix II
Ponthieva racemosa (Walter) C. Mohr Appendix II
Prescottia stachyodes (Sw.) Lindl. Appendix II
Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea livida (Lindl.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea ochracea (Lindl.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea pseudopygmaea (Finet) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea pygmaea (Hook.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea radiata (Lindl.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Prosthechea vitellina (Lindl.) W.E. Higgins Appendix II
Restrepiella ophiocephala (Lindl.) Garay ex Dunst. Appendix II
Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman) Soto Arenas & Salazar Appendix II
Rhynchostele ehrenbergii (Link, Klotzsch & Otto) Soto Arenas & Salazar Appendix II
Rhynchostele rossii (Lindl.) Soto Arenas & Salazar Appendix II
Sacoila lanceolata (Aubl.) Garay Appendix II
Sarcoglottis cerina (Lindl.) P.N. Don Appendix II
Scaphyglottis fasciculata Hook. Appendix II
Scaphyglottis livida Schltr. Appendix II
Sobralia macrantha Lindl. Appendix II
Specklinia grobyi (Bateman ex Lindl.) F. Barros Appendix II
Spiranthes graminea Lindl. Appendix II
Spiranthes nebulorum V.R. Catling Appendix II
Stanhopea oculata Lindl. Appendix II
Stelis emarginata (Lindl.) Soto Arenas & Solano Appendix II
Stelis nicaraguensis (Liebm.) Solano & Soto Arenas Appendix II
Stelis oaxacana Solano Appendix II
Stelis quadrifida (La Llave & Lex.) Solano & Soto Arenas Appendix II
Stelis veracrucensis Solano Appendix II
Trichocentrum cosymbephorum (C. Morren) R. Jiménez & Carnevali Appendix II
OROBANCHACEAE
Agalinis peduncularis (Benth.) Pennell
Agalinis spiciflora Pennell
Castilleja arvensis Cham. & Schltdl.
Castilleja obovata Benth.
Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.
Conopholis alpina Liebm.
Escobedia grandiflora (L.f.) Kuntze
Escobedia laevis Cham. & Schltdl.
Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl
Lamourouxia multifida Kunth
Lamourouxia nelsonii B.L. Rob. & Greenm.
Lamourouxia viscosa Kunth
Lamourouxia xalapensis Kunth
OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis corniculata L.
Oxalis frutescens L.
Oxalis latifolia Kunth
PAPAVERACEAE
Argemone platyceras Link & Otto
Bocconia arborea S. Watson
Bocconia frutescens L.
Papaver somniferum L.
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora adenopoda DC.
Passiflora biflora Lam.
Passiflora ciliata [Dryand.]
Passiflora conzattiana Killip
Passiflora coriacea Juss.
Passiflora foetida L.
Passiflora hahnii Mast.
Passiflora helleri Peyr.
Passiflora holosericea L.
Passiflora ligularis Juss.
Passiflora membranacea Benth.
Passiflora quadrangularis L.
Passiflora rovirosae Killip
Passiflora serratifolia L.
Passiflora sexflora Juss.
Passiflora sicyoides Cham. & Schltdl.
Passiflora suberosa L.
Passiflora sublanceolata (Killip) J.M. MacDougal
Passiflora subpeltata Ortega
Turnera ulmifolia L.
PEDALIACEAE
Sesamum indicum L.
PENTAPHYLACACEAE
Cleyera serrulata Choisy
Cleyera theaeoides (Sw.) Choisy
Ternstroemia lineata DC.
Ternstroemia sylvatica Cham. & Schltdl.
Ternstroemia tepezapote Schltdl. & Cham.
PETIVERIACEAE
Rivina humilis L.
PHRYMACEAE
Leucocarpus perfoliatus Benth.
Mimulus glabratus Kunth
PHYLLANTHACEAE
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walter
Phyllanthus compressus Kunth
Phyllanthus graveolens Kunth
Phyllanthus liebmannianus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus niruri L.
Phyllanthus stipulatus (Raf.) G.L. Webster Savia sessiliflora Willd.
PHYTOLACCACEAE
Agdestis clematidea Moc. & Sessé
Phytolacca americana L.
Phytolacca icosandra L.
Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & C.D. Bouché
PICRAMNIACEAE
Picramnia antidesma subsp. fessonia (DC.) W.W. Thomas
Picramnia xalapensis Planch.
PINACEAE
Pinus chiapensis (Martínez) Andresen
Pinus leiophylla Schltdl. & Cham.
Pinus montezumae Lamb.
Pinus nubicola J.P. Perry
Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham.
Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.
Pinus strobus var. chiapensis Martínez
Pinus teocote Schltdl. & Cham.
PIPERACEAE
Peperomia alata Ruiz & Pav.
Peperomia angularis C. DC.
Peperomia angustata Kunth
Peperomia arboricola C. DC.
Peperomia asarifolia Schltdl.
Peperomia berlandieri Miq.
Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth
Peperomia blanda var. humilis (Vahl.) Callejas
Peperomia dendrophila Schltdl.
Peperomia deppeana Schltdl. & Cham.
Peperomia donaguiana C. DC.
Peperomia emarginulata C. DC.
Peperomia epidendron C. DC.
Peperomia galioides Kunth
Peperomia glabella (Sw.) A. Dietr.
Peperomia granulosa Trel.
Peperomia hernandiifolia (Vahl) A. Dietr.
Peperomia liebmannii C. DC.
Peperomia macrostachyos (Vahl.) A.Dietr.
Peperomia maculosa (L.) Hook.
Peperomia oajacensis Dahlst.
Peperomia obtusifolia (L.) A. Dietr.
Peperomia petrophila C. DC.
Peperomia pseudoalpina Trel.
Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) Kunth
Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) Kunth
Peperomia santa-helenae Trel.
Peperomia subblanda C. DC.
Peperomia tenerrima Schltdl. & Cham.
Peperomia tetraphylla Hook. & Arn.
Peperomia tuisana C. DC. ex Pittier
Piper aduncum L.
Piper aequale Vahl
Piper amalago L.
Piper auritum Kunth
Piper colipanum C. DC.
Piper dilatatum Rich.
Piper glabrescens C. DC.
Piper hispidum Sw.
Piper jalapense M. Martens & Galeotti
Piper lapathifolium Steud.
Piper martensianum C. DC.
Piper melastomoides Schltdl. & Cham.
Piper misantlense C. DC.
Piper pseudofuligineum C. DC.
Piper psilorhachis C. DC.
Piper sanctum Miq.
Piper schiedeanum Steud.
Piper umbellatum L.
Piper unguiculatum Ruiz & Pav.
PLAGIOGYRIACEAE
Plagiogyria pectinata (Liebm.) Lellinger
PLANTAGINACEAE
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.
Bacopa salzmannii (Benth.) Wettst. ex Edwall
Callitriche verna L.
Cymbalaria muralis G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.
Digitalis purpurea L.
Linaria canadensis Dum. Cours.
Lophospermum erubescens D. Don
Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small
Penstemon hartwegii Benth.
Penstemon isophyllus B.L. Rob.
Plantago australis Lam.
Plantago lanceolata L.
Plantago major L.
Russelia coccinea (L.) Wettst.
Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham.
Russelia sarmentosa Jacq.
Schistophragma mexicanum Benth. ex D. Dietr.
Sibthorpia repens (L.) Kuntze
Stemodia lanata Ruiz & Pav. ex Benth.
Stemodia macrantha B.L. Rob.
Stemodia verticillata (Mill.) Hassl.
Tetranema roseum (M. Martens & Galeotti) Standl. & Steyerm.
Veronica arvensis L.
Veronica peregrina L.
Veronica persica Poir.
PLATANACEAE
Platanus mexicana Moric.
PLUMBAGINACEAE
Plumbago auriculata Lam.
Plumbago zeylanica L.
POACEAE
Aegopogon cenchroides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Aegopogon tenellus Trin.
Agrostis bourgeaei E. Fourn.
Agrostis perennans Tuck.
Agrostis scabra Willd.
Andropogon bicornis L.
Andropogon cirratus Hack.
Andropogon condensatus Kunth
Andropogon glomeratus Britton, Sterns & Poggenb
Andropogon gyrans Ashe
Andropogon liebmannii Hack.
Andropogon littoralis Nash
Andropogon microstachyus Ham.
Andropogon salzmannii (Trin. ex Steud.) Hack.
Andropogon scoparius Michx.
Andropogon selloanus (Hack.) Hack.
Andropogon virginicus L.
Aristida liebmannii E. Fourn ex Hemsl.
Andropogon virginicus L.
Aristida purpurea Nutt.
Aristida schiedeana Trin. & Rupr.
Aristida ternipes Cav.
Arundinella berteroniana Hitchc. & Chase
Arundinella deppeana Nees
Arundinella hispida Kuntze
Avena sativa L.
Axonopus ater Chase
Axonopus compressus P. Beauv.
Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb.
Botriochloa laguroides (DC.) Herter
Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.
Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc.
Brachypodium mexicanum Link
Brachypodium pringlei Scribn. ex Beal
Briza minor L.
Briza rotundata Steud.
Bromus catharticus Vahl
Bromus secalinus L.
Bromus unioloides Kunth
Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Cenchrus echinatus L.
Chascolytrum subaristatum Desv.
Chloris gayana Kunth
Chloris virgata Sw.
Chusquea enigmatica Ruiz-Sánchez, Mejía-Saulés & L.G.Clark
Chusquea glauca L.G. Clark
Chusquea mulleri Munro
Cryptochloa strictiflora (E. Fourn.) Swallen
Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilg.
Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark
Dichanthelium commutatum (Schult.) Gould
Dichanthelium dichotomum (Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark
Dichanthelium viscidellum (Scribn.) Gould
Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark
Dichanthelium boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark
Dichanthelium commutatum (Schult.) Gould
Dichanthelium laxiflorum (Lam.) Gould
Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Digitaria eriantha Steud.
Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde
Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
Digitaria villosa Michx.
Echinochloa cruz-galli (L.) P. Beauv.
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult.
Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase
Elionurus tripsacoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Eragrostis bahiensis Schrad.
Eragrostis intermedia Hitchc.
Eragrostis lugens Nees
Eragrostis pilosa P. Beauv.
Eragrostis tenuifolia Hochst.
Eriochloa punctata (L.) Desv. ex Ham.
Festuca arundinacea Schreb.
Guadua aculeata Rupr. ex E. Fourn.
Guadua amplexifolia J. Presl.
Guadua longifolia (E. Fourn.) R.W. Pohl
Guadua velutina Londoño & L.G. Clark
Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb.
Heteropogon contortus Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.
Homolepis aturensis Chase
Homolepis glutinosa (Sw. ex Smithson) Zuloaga & Soderstr.
Hordeum vulgare L.
Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees
Hordeum vulgare L.
Ichnanthus nemorosus (Sw.) Döll
Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Benth.
Ichnanthus tenuis Hitchc. & Chase
Isachne arundinacea Griseb.
Ixophorus unisetus Schltdl.
Jarava ichu Ruiz & Pav.
Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc.
Lasiacis grisebachii Hitchc.
Lasiacis nigra Davidse
Lasiacis procerrima Hitchc.
Lasiacis rhizophora (E. Fourn.) Hitchc.
Lasiacis rugelii Hitch.
Lasiacis ruscifolia Hitchc.
Lasiacis sorghoidea (Ham.) Hitchc. & Chase
Leersia hexandra Sw.
Leersia ligularis Trin.
Leersia ligularis var. grandiflora (Döll) Pyrah
Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth
Leptochloa virgata (L.) P. Beauv.
Lithachne pauciflora P. Beauv.
Lolium multiflorum Lam.
Microchloa indica (L.f.) P. Beauv.
Muhlenbergia cenchroides (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) P.M. Peterson
Muhlenbergia ciliata Trin.
Muhlenbergia gigantea (E. Fourn.) Hitchc.
Muhlenbergia glauca (Nees) B.D. Jacks.
Muhlenbergia implicata Trin.
Muhlenbergia macroura (Kunth) Hitchc.
Muhlenbergia minutissima (Steud.) Swallen
Muhlenbergia peruviana Steud.
Muhlenbergia pulcherrima Scribn. ex Beal
Muhlenbergia ramulosa (Kunth) Swallen
Muhlenbergia robusta (E. Fourn.) Hitchc.
Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.
Muhlenbergia setarioides E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.
Muhlenbergia tenella Trin.
Nassella tenuissima (Trin.) Barkworth
Olyra latifolia L.
Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv.
Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv.
Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv.
Panicum arundinariae Trin. ex E. Fourn.
Panicum bulbosum Kunth
Panicum fasciculatum Sw.
Panicum ghiesbreghtii E. Fourn.
Panicum gouinii E. Fourn.
Panicum maximum Jacq.
Panicum nitidum Lam.
Panicum polygonatum Schrad.
Panicum sphaerocarpon Elliott
Panicum trichanthum Nees
Panicum trichoides Sw.
Parodiophyllochloa cordovensis (E. Fourn.) Zuloaga & Morrone
Paspalum botterii Chase
Paspalum candidum Kunth
Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius
Paspalum denticulatum Trin.
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.
Paspalum humboldtianum Flüggé
Paspalum millegrana Schrad.
Paspalum paniculatum L.
Paspalum squamulatum E. Fourn.
Paspalum unispicatum (Scribn. & Merr.) Nash
Paspalum variabile Nash
Paspalum virgatum L.
Paspalum virletii E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.
Pennisetum bambusiforme (E. Fourn.) Hemsl. ex B.D. Jacks.
Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov.
Pennisetum complanatum Hemsl.
Pennisetum distachyum Rupr.
Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Pereilema crinitum J. Presl
Peyritschia deyeuxioides (Kunth) Finot
Peyritschia pringlei (Scribn.) S.D. Koch
Pharus latifolius L.
Piptochaetium virescens (Kunth) Parodi
Poa annua L.
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.
Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf
Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb.
Rhynchelytrum roseum Stapf & C.E. Hubb. ex Bews
Saccharum officinarum L.
Schizachyrium condensatum Nees
Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston
Schizachyrium tenerum Nees
Setaria liebmannii E. Fourn.
Setaria longipila E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.
Setaria macrostachya Kunth
Setaria palmifolia Stapf
Setaria pumila Roem & Schult
Setaria scheelei Hitchc.
Setaria sulcata Raddi
Setaria tenax (Rich.) Desv.
Sorghastrum brunneum Swallen
Sorghastrum incompletum Nash
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Sporobolus atrovirens Kunth
Sporobolus erectus Hitchc.
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc.
Sporobolus purpurascens Ham.
Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv.
Steinchisma laxum (Sw.) Zuloaga
Trachypogon spicatus Kuntze
Triniochloa stipoides Hitchc.
Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman
Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.
Trisetum palmeri Hitchc.
Urochloa mutica (Forssk.)T.Q. Nguyen
Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.
Zea mays L.
Zeugites americanus Willd.
Zuloagaea bulbosa (Kunth) Bess
PODOCARPACEAE
Podocarpus guatemalensis Standl.
Podocarpus matudae Lundell
POLEMONIACEAE
Cobaea scandens Cav.
Loeselia ciliata L.
Loeselia glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don
Loeselia mexicana Brand
POLYGALACEAE
Hebecarpa rivinifolia (Kunth) J.r. Abbot & J.F.B. Pastore
Monnina schlechtendaliana D. Dietr.
Monnina xalapensis Kunth
Polygala alba Nutt.
Polygala berlandieri S. Watson
Polygala biformipilis S.F. Blake
Polygala glochidata Kunth
Polygala paniculata L.
Securidaca diversifolia (L.) S.F. Blake
Securidaca sylvestris Schltdl.
POLYGONACEAE
Antigonon cinerascens M. Martens & Galeotti
Antigonon flavescens S. Watson
Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Coccoloba belizensis Standl.
Coccoloba cozumelensis Hemsl.
Coccoloba escuintlensis Lundell
Coccoloba hirtella Lundell
Coccoloba humboldtii Meisn.
Coccoloba tuerckheimii Donn. Sm.
Homalocladium platycladum L.H. Bailey
Persicaria hydropiperoides Small
Persicaria segetum (Kunth) Small
Podopterus mexicanus Bonpl.
Polygonum punctatum Elliott
Rumex acetosella L.
Rumex crispus L.
Rumex obtusifolius L.
Rumex pulcher L.
POLYPODIACEAE
Campyloneurum angustifolium Fée
Campyloneurum xalapense Fée
Melpomene xiphopteroides (Liebm.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran
Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellinger
Pecluma alfredii (Rosenst.) M.G. Price
Pecluma atra (A.M. Evans) M.G. Price
Pecluma dispersa (A.M. Evans) M.G. Price
Pecluma plumula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) M.G. Price
Phlebodium areolatum (Willd.) J. Sm.
Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.Sm.
Pleopeltis astrolepis (Liebm.) E. Fourn.
Pleopeltis crassinervata T. Moore
Pleopeltis fallax (Schltdl. & Cham.) Mickel & Beitel
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf.
Pleopeltis polylepis var. interjecta (Weath.) E.A. Hooper
Polypodium conterminans Liebm.
Polypodium dissimile L.
Polypodium eatonii Baker
Polypodium fraternum Schltdl. & Cham.
Polypodium furfuraceum Schltdl. & Cham.
Polypodium lepidotrichum (Fée) Maxon
Polypodium longepinnulatum Fourn.
Polypodium loriceum L.
Polypodium plebeium Schltdl. & Cham.
Polypodium plesiosorum Kunze
Polypodium puberulum Schltdl. & Cham.
Polypodium rhodopleuron Kunze
Polypodium subpetiolatum Hk.in Benth.
Polypodium thyssanolepis A. Br.; Kl.
Polypodium triseriale Sw.
Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.
PONTEDERIACEAE
Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav.
POTAMOGETONACEAE
Zannichellia palustris L.
PRIMULACEAE
Amatlania jalapensis (Lundell) Lundell
Anagallis arvensis L.
Anagallis pumila Sw.
Ardisia revoluta Kunth
Ardisia compressa Kunth
Ardisia hyalina Lundell
Ardisia liebmannii Oerst.
Ardisia nigrescens Oerst.
Ardisia paniculata Roxb.
Ardisia pellucida Oerst.
Gentlea penduliflora (A. DC.) Pipoly & Ricketson
Myrsine coriacea R. Br.
Parathesis chiapensis Fernald
Parathesis donnell-smithii Mez
Parathesis lenticellata Lundell
Parathesis melanosticta Hemsl.
Parathesis psychotrioides Lundell
Parathesis serrulata (Sw.) Mez
Samolus parviflorus Kunth
PSILOTACEAE
Psilotum complanatum Sw.
Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.
PTERIDACEAE
Adiantopsis radiata (L.) Fée
Adiantum amplum C. Presl
Adiantum andicola Liebm.
Adiantum braunii Mett.; Kuhn
Adiantum capillus-veneris L.
Adiantum concinnum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Adiantum poiretii Wikstr.
Adiantum tenerum Sw.
Anogramma leptophylla (L.) Link
Astrolepis crassifolia (Houlston & T. Moore) D.M. Benham & Windham
Astrolepis laevis (M. Martens & Galeotti) Mickel
Astrolepis sinuata (Lag. ex Sw.) D.M Benham & Windham
Cheilanthes bonariensis (Willd.) Proctor
Cheilanthes cucullans Fée
Cheilanthes eatonii Baker
Cheilanthes integerrima (Hook.) Mickel
Cheilanthes kaulfussii Kunze
Cheilanthes lendigera (Cav.) Sw.
Cheilanthes marginata Kunth
Cheilanthes microphylla Sw.
Cheilanthes tomentosa Link
Doryopteris palmata (Willd.) J. Sm.
Hemionitis palmata L.
Llavea cordifolia Lag.
Mildella intramarginalis Trevis.
Notholaena brachypus (Kunze) J. Sm.
Notholaena candida (M. Martens & Galeotti) Hook.
Pellaea ovata Weath.
Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
Pityrogramma ebenea (L.) Proctor
Pityrogramma trifoliata (L.) R.M. Tryon
Pteris altissima Poir.
Pteris cretica L.
Pteris grandifolia L.
Pteris orizabae M. Martens & Galeotti
Pteris podophylla Sw.
Pteris pulchra Schltdl. & Cham.
Pteris quadriaurita Retz.
Pterozonium brevifrons (A.C. Sm.) Lellinger
PUTRANJIVACEAE
Drypetes lateriflora (Sw.) Krug & Urb.
RANUNCULACEAE
Anemone mexicana Kunth
Clematis dioica L.
Clematis haenkeana C. Presl.
Consolida ambigua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heywood
Ranunculus aquatilis L.
Ranunculus dichotomus Moc. & Sessé ex DC.
Ranunculus macranthus Scheele
Ranunculus petiolaris Kunth
Ranunculus pilosus Kunth
Ranunculus praemorsus Kunth ex DC.
Thalictrum galeottii Lecoy.
Thalictrum steyermarkii Standl.
Thalictrum strigillosum Hemsl.
RESEDACEAE
Forchhammeria trifoliata Radlk.
RHAMNACEAE
Ceanothus azureus Desf.
Colubrina arborescens (Mill.) Sarg.
Colubrina celtidifolia Schltdl.
Colubrina heteroneura (Griseb.) Standl.
Colubrina triflora Brongn.
Frangula capreifolia var. grandifolia (M.C. Johnst. & L.A. Johnst.) A. Pool
Frangula longistyla (C.B. Wolf.) A. Pool
Gouania lupuloides (L.) Urb.
Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb.
Rhamnus capreifolia Schltdl.
Sageretia elegans (Kunth) Brongn.
Ziziphus amole (Sessé & Moc.) M.C. Johnst.
ROSACEAE
Acaena elongata L.
Agrimonia pringlei Rydb.
Alchemilla pectinata Kunth
Alchemilla pringlei (Rydb.) Fedde
Alchemilla procumbens Rose
Alchemilla sibbaldiifolia Kunth
Cercocarpus macrophyllus C.K. Schneid.
Cotoneaster lucidus Schltdl.
Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sessé ex DC.
Crataegus pubescens C. Presl
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Teschem.
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.
Fragaria vesca L.
Holodiscus argenteus (L. f.) Maxim.
Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim.
Malacomeles denticulata (Kunth) G.N. Jones
Malus pumila Mill.
Potentilla aurea L.
Prunus brachybotrya Zucc.
Prunus cortapico Kerber ex Koehne
Prunus domestica L.
Prunus erythroxylon Koehne
Prunus matudae Lundell
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
Prunus potosina Lundell
Prunus rhamnoides Koehne
Prunus samydoides Schltdl.
Prunus serotina Ehrh.
Prunus tetradenia Koehne
Pyracantha crenulata (D. Don) M. Roem.
Pyrus communis L.
Rosa roxburghii Tratt.
Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl.
Rubus coriifolius Liebm.
Rubus eriocarpus Liebm.
Rubus fagifolius Schltdl. & Cham.
Rubus liebmannii Focke
Rubus rosifolius Sm.
Rubus sapidus Schltdl.
Rubus schiedeanus Steud.
RUBIACEAE
Alibertia edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. ex DC.
Amaioua corymbosa Kunth
Arachnothryx capitellata (Hemsl.) Borhidi
Arachnothryx gonzaleoides (Standl.) Borhidi
Arachnothryx gracilispica (Standl.) Borhidi
Arachnothryx heteranthera (Brandegee) Borhidi
Arachnothryx septicidalis (B.L. Rob.) Borhidi
Augusta rivalis (Benth.) J.H. Kirkbr.
Borreria spinosa Cham. & Schltdl.
Bouvardia laevis M. Martens & Galeotti
Bouvardia ternifolia Schltdl.
Cephaelis elata Sw.
Chiococca alba Hitchc.
Chiococca pachyphylla Wernham
Chiococca phaenostemon Schltdl.
Chione venosa (Sw.) Urb.
Chione mexicana Standl.
Coccocypselum cordifolium Nees & Mart.
Coccocypselum guianense (Aubl.) K. Schum.
Coccocypselum herbaceum Aubl.
Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC.
Coffea arabica L.
Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K. Schum.
Crusea calocephala DC.
Crusea coccinea DC.
Crusea hispida (Mill.) B.L. Rob.
Crusea longiflora (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) W.R. Anderson
Deppea grandiflora Schltdl.
Deppea purpusii Standl.
Deppea umbellata Hemsl.
Didymaea alsinoides (Cham. & Schltdl.) Standl.
Diodella sarmentosa (Sw.) Bacigalupo & E.L. Cabral
Diodia teres Walter
Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.
Galianthe brasiliensis subsp. angulata (Benth) E.L. Cabral & Bacigalupo
Galium aschenbornii S. Schauer
Galium hypocarpium (L.) Endl. ex Griseb
Galium mexicanum Kunth
Galium orizabense Hemsl.
Genipa americana L.
Gonzalagunia panamensis (Cav.) K. Schum.
Guettarda elliptica Sw.
Guettarda macrocarpa Griseb.
Guettarda macrosperma Donn. Sm.
Hamelia patens Jacq.
Hedyotis exigula W.H. Lewis
Hedyotis microtheca Steud.
Hedyotis patens Ridl.
Hedyotis sharpii (Terrell) G.L. Nesom
Hillia tetrandra Sw.
Hoffmannia conzattii B.L. Rob.
Hoffmannia culminicola Standl. & L.O. Williams
Hoffmannia excelsa K. Schum.
Hoffmannia mexicana Hemsl.
Hoffmannia montana L.O. Williams
Hoffmannia orizabensis Standl.
Hoffmannia psychotriifolia Griseb.
Ixora coccinea L.
Margaritopsis microdon (DC.) C.M. Taylor
Mexotis galeottii (M. Martens) Terrell & H. Rob
Mitracarpus hirtus DC.
Nertera granadensis Druce
Notopleura uliginosa Bremek.
Oldenlandia lancifolia DC.
Palicourea crocea (Sw.) Schult
Palicourea gardenioides Benth. & Hook. ex Hemsl.
Palicourea guianensis Aubl.
Palicourea macrantha Loes.
Palicourea padifolia ((Roem. & Schult.) T.N. Taylor & Lorence
Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers
Psychotria berteroana DC.
Psychotria capensis Vatke
Psychotria costivenia Griseb.
Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel
Psychotria flava Oerst. ex Standl.
Psychotria fruticetorum Standl.
Psychotria galeottiana (M. Martens) C.M. Taylor & Lorence
Psychotria lorenciana C.M. Taylor
Psychotria mexiae Standl.
Psychotria panamensis Standl.
Psychotria papantlensis (Oerst.) Hemsl.
Psychotria pubescens Sw.
Psychotria quinqueradiata Pol.
Psychotria simiarum Standl.
Psychotria tenuifolia Sw.
Psychotria trichotoma M. Martens & Galeotti
Randia aculeata L.
Randia cookii Standl.
Randia monantha Benth.
Randia obcordata S. Watson
Randia xalapensis M. Martens & Galeotti
Richardia scabra L.
Rogiera ligustroides (Hemsl.) Borhidi
Sabicea panamensis Wernham
Simira rhodoclada (Standl.) Steyerm.
Simira salvadorensis (Standl.) Steyerm.
Sommera arborescens Schltdl.
Spermacoce capitata Ruiz & Pav.
Spermacoce remota Lam.
Spermacoce tetraquetra A. Rich.
Spermacoce verticillata L.
Strumpfia maritima Jacq.
RUTACEAE
Amyris balsamifera L.
Amyris purpusii P. Wilson
Amyris sylvatica Jacq.
Casimiroa edulis La Llave
Choisya ternata Kunth
Citrus japonica Thunb.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
Citrus medica L.
Citrus reticulata Blanco
Esenbeckia berlandieri Baill.
Esenbeckia dorantesii Ramos & E. Martínez
Esenbeckia macrantha Rose
Esenbeckia pentaphylla Griseb.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Peltostigma pteleoides (Hook.) Walp.
Ptelea trifoliata L.
Ruta graveolens L.
Stauranthus perforatus Liebm.
Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam.
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
Zanthoxylum elegantissimum P. Wilson
Zanthoxylum fagara Sarg.
Zanthoxylum juniperinum Poepp.
Zanthoxylum melanostictum Schltdl. & Cham.
Zanthoxylum riedelianum Engl.
SABIACEAE
Meliosma alba Walp.
Meliosma dentata Urb.
SACCOLOMATACEAE
Saccoloma inaequale (Kunze) Mett.
SALICACEAE
Abatia mexicana Standl.
Banara dioica Benth.
Casearia guevarana Cast.-Campos & E. Medina
Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urb.
Casearia nitida Jacq.
Casearia obovata Schltdl.
Casearia sylvestris Sw.
Lunania mexicana Brandegee
Pleuranthodendron lindenii (Turcz) Sleumer
Populus alba L.
Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall
Populus mexicana Wesm.
Salix babylonica L.
Salix bonplandiana Kunth
Salix exigua Nutt.
Salix humboldtiana Willd.
Salix interior var. angustissima (Andersson) Dayton
Salix paradoxa Kunth
Salix taxifolia Kunth
Xylosma flexuosa (Kunth) Hemsl.
Xylosma panamensis Turcz.
Xylosma quichensis Donn. Sm.
Zuelania guidonia Britton & Millsp.
SALVINIACEAE
Azolla filiculoides Lam.
SANTALACEAE
Phoradendron falcatum Eichler
Phoradendron galeottii Trel.
Phoradendron hexastichum (DC.) Griseb
Phoradendron nervosum Oliv.
Phoradendron pedicellatum (Tiegh.) Kuijt
Phoradendron piperoides (Kunth) Trel.
Phoradendron purpusii Trel.
Phoradendron quadrangulare (Kunth) Krug & Urb.
Phoradendron robinsonii Urb.
Phoradendron velutinum Nutt.
SAPINDACEAE
Cupania dentata Moc. & Sessé
Cupania macrophylla Mart.
Cupania spectabilis Radlk.
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.
Paullinia clavigera Schltdl.
Paullinia pinnata L.
Sapindus drummondii Hook. & Arn.
Sapindus saponaria L.
Serjania brachycarpa A. Gray ex Radlk.
Serjania cardiospermoides Schltdl. & Cham.
Serjania glabrata Kunth
Serjania triquetra Radlk.
Thouinidium decandrum Radlk.
Urvillea ulmacea Kunth
SAPOTACEAE
Chrysophyllum mexicanum Brandegee ex Standl.
Manilkara zapota (L.) P Royen
Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni
Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk.
Pouteria rhynchocarpa T.D. Penn.
Sideroxylon capiri (A. DC.) Pittier
Sideroxylon persimile (Hemsl.) T.D. Penn
Sideroxylon salicifolium (L.) Lam.
SAXIFRAGACEAE
Heuchera acutifolia Rose
Heuchera mexicana W. Schaffn. ex Rydb.
SCHISANDRACEAE
Illicium floridanum J. Ellis
SCHOEPFIACEAE
Schoepfia schreberi J.F. Gmel.
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Buddleja americana L.
Buddleja cordata Kunth
Buddleja parviflora Kunth
Buddleja skutchii C.V. Morton
Capraria biflora L.
Capraria frutescens (Mill.) Britten
Verbascum virgatum Stokes
SELAGINELLACEAE
Selaginella delicatissima A. Br.
Selaginella flexuosa Spring
Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring
Selaginella martensii Spring
Selaginella mollis A. Br.
Selaginella pallescens (C. Presl) Spring
Selaginella pulcherrima Liebm.
Selaginella sartorii Hieron.
Selaginella schiedeana A. Br.
Selaginella silvestris Aspl.
Selaginella stellata Spring
Selaginella stenophylla A. Braun
SIMAROUBACEAE
Picrasma mexicana Brandegee
Simarouba amara Aubl.
SMILACACEAE
Smilax aristolochiifolia Mill.
Smilax bona-nox L.
Smilax domingensis Willd.
Smilax glauca Walter
Smilax laurifolia L.
Smilax mollis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Smilax moranensis M. Martens & Galeotti
Smilax spinosa Mill.
SOLANACEAE
Athenaea cernua Donn. Sm.
Brachistus stramoniifolius (Kunth) Miers
Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl
Brugmansia × candida Pers.
Brunfelsia nitida Benth.
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (Dierb.) D’Arcy & Eshbaugh
Capsicum ciliatum Kuntze
Capsicum frutescens L.
Capsicum lanceolatum (Greenm. Ex Donn.Sm.) C.V. Morton & Standl.
Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav.
Capsicum rhomboideum (Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth) Kuntze
Cestrum anagyris Dunal
Cestrum benthamii Miers
Cestrum dumetorum Schltdl.
Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann) Schltdl.
Cestrum endlicheri Miers
Cestrum fasciculatum Miers
Cestrum glanduliferum Kerber ex Francey
Cestrum lanatum M. Martens & Galeotti
Cestrum nocturnum L.
Cestrum purpureum Standl.
Cyphomandra betacea Cav.
Cyphomandra hartwegii Sendtn. ex Walp.
Datura meteloides DC. ex Dunal
Datura stramonium L.
Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J.L. Gentry
Lycianthes geminiflora Bitter
Lycianthes lenta (Cav.) Bitter
Lycianthes sideroxyloides Bitter
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
Nicotiana tabacum L.
Physalis ampla Waterf.
Physalis campanula Standl. & Steyerm.
Physalis gracilis Miers
Physalis greenmanii Waterf.
Physalis hintonii Waterf.
Physalis nicandroides Schltdl.
Physalis peruviana L.
Physalis philadelphica Lam.
Physalis stapelioides (Decne. ex Regel) Bitter
Physalis subrepens Waterf.
Schraderanthus viscosus (Schrad.) Averett
Solandra guerrerensis Martinez
Solandra guttata D. Don
Solandra maxima (Sessé & Moc.) P.S. Green
Solanum acerifolium Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal
Solanum adhaerens Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
Solanum adscendens Sendthn.
Solanum aligerum Schltdl.
Solanum aphyodendron S. Knapp
Solanum appendiculatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal
Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav.
Solanum aturense Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal
Solanum capsicoides All.
Solanum cervantesii Lag.
Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl.
Solanum diphyllum L.
Solanum dulcamaroides Dunal
Solanum erianthum D. Don
Solanum hirtum Vahl
Solanum ionidium Bitter
Solanum lanceifolium Jacq.
Solanum lanceolatum Ruiz & Pav.
Solanum laxum Spreng.
Solanum mammosum L.
Solanum melongena L.
Solanum mitlense Dunal
Solanum morelliforme Bitter & Münch
Solanum myriacanthum Dunal
Solanum nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti
Solanum nigricans M. Martens & Galeotti
Solanum nigrum L.
Solanum nudum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal
Solanum pseudocapsicum L.
Solanum pubigerum Dunal
Solanum rudepannum Dunal
Solanum schlechtendalianum Walp.
Solanum seaforthianum Andrews
Solanum tuberosum L.
Solanum umbellatum Mill.
Solanum verbascifolium L.
Solanum wendlandii Hook. f.
Witheringia solanacea Miers ex Benth. & Hook.f
Witheringia stellata (Greenm.) Hunz.
SPHENOCLEACEAE
Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn.
STAPHYLEACEAE
Turpinia insignis Tul.
Turpinia occidentalis (Sw.) G. Don
STEREOPHYLLACEAE
Stereophyllum radiculosum (Hook.) Mitt.
STYRACACEAE
Styrax glabrescens Benth.
SYMPLOCACEAE
Symplocos coccinea Bonpl.
Symplocos limoncillo Bonpl.
Symplocos longipes Lundell
Symplocos pycnantha Hemsl.
TALINACEAE
Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss.
Talinum lineare Hoffmanns.
Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.
TAXACEAE
Taxus globosa Schltdl.
THEACEAE
Camellia japonica L.
THELYPTERIDACEAE
Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy
Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching
Thelypteris cheilanthoides (Kunze) Proctor
Thelypteris concinna (Willd.) Ching
Thelypteris linkiana (C. Presl) R.M. Tryon
Thelypteris obliterata (Sw.) Proctor
Thelypteris pilosa (M. Martens & Galeotti) Crawford
Thelypteris puberula (Baker) C.V. Morton
Thelypteris resinifera (Desv.) Proctor
Thelypteris rudis (Kunze) Proctor
Thelypteris scalaris (Christ) Alston
Thelypteris toganetra A.R. Sm.
THYMELAEACEAE
Daphnopsis americana (Mill.) J.R. Johnst.
Daphnopsis mollis (Meisn.) Standl.
Daphnopsis radiata Donn. Sm.
TOVARIACEAE
Tovaria diffusa (Macfad.) Fawc. & Rendle
Tovaria pendula Ruiz & Pav.
TROPAEOLACEAE
Tropaeolum majus L.
ULMACEAE
Ulmus mexicana Planch.
URTICACEAE
Boehmeria caudata Sw.
Boehmeria ulmifolia Wedd.
Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol.
Discocnide mexicana (Liebm.) Chew
Laportea canadensis Gaudich.
Myriocarpa cordifolia Liebm.
Myriocarpa longipes Liebm.
Parietaria debilis G. Forst
Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.
Phenax hirtus Wedd.
Pilea acuminata Liebm.
Pilea falcata Liebm.
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Pilea pubescens Liebm.
Pouzolzia guatemalana Wedd.
Urera baccifera Gaudich.
Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Gaudich. ex Griseb.
Urera glabriuscula V.W. Steinm.
Urera simplex Wedd.
Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh
Urtica mexicana Liebm.
VERBENACEAE
Aloysia citriodora Ortega ex Pers
Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze
Citharexylum affine D. Don
Citharexylum caudatum L.
Citharexylum ellipticum Moc. & Sessé ex D.Don
Citharexylum hidalgense Moldenke
Citharexylum ligustrinum Van Houtte
Citharexylum mocinnoi D. Don
Duranta erecta L.
Glandularia delticola (L.M.Perry) Umber
Glandularia elegans (Kunth) Umber
Glandularia teucriifolia (M. Martens & Galeotti) Umber
Lantana camara L.
Lantana canescens Kunth
Lantana glandulosissima Hayek
Lantana trifolia L.
Lantana velutina M. Martens & Galeotti
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson
Lippia myriocephala Schltdl. & Cham.
Lippia nodiflora Michx.
Lippia umbellata Cav.
Petrea volubilis L.
Phyla scaberrima (Juss. ex Pers.) Moldenke
Phyla strigulosa (M. Martens & Galeotti) Moldenke
Priva aspera Kunth
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Vahl
Tamonea curassavica (L.) Pers.
Tectona grandis L. f.
Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.
Verbena carolina L.
Verbena ehrenbergiana S. Schauer
Verbena halei Small.
Verbena litoralis Kunth
Verbena longifolia M. Martens & Galeotti
Verbena menthifolia Benth.
Verbena pinetorum Moldenke
Verbena rigida Spreng.
VIOLACEAE
Hybanthus attenuatus (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.) Schulze-Menz
Hybanthus elatus (Turcz.) C.V. Morton
Hybanthus mexicanus Ging. ex DC.
Hybanthus parietariifolius Loes.
Rinorea guatemalensis Bartlett
Viola hookeriana Kunth
Viola jalapaensis W. Becker
Viola odorata L.
Viola scandens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
VITACEAE
Ampelocissus erdvendbergiana Planch.
Cissus alata Jacq.
Cissus erosa Rich.
Cissus sicyoides L.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Planch.
Vitis berlandieri Planch.
Vitis biformis Rose
Vitis bourgaeana Planch.
Vitis nesbittiana Comeaux
Vitis popenoei J.L. Fennell
Vitis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.
VITTARIACEAE
Polytaenium feei Maxon
Vittaria graminifolia Kaulf.
WINTERACEAE
Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst
WOODSIACEAE
Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Rot