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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

Print version ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.9 n.6 Texcoco Aug./Sep. 2018 

Description of cultivars

Salinas: new variety of pinto beans for rainfed areas of Guanajuato

Yanet Jiménez-Hernández1 

Víctor Montero-Tavera1 

José Luis Anaya-López1 

José Cruz Jiménez-Galindo2 

Guadalupe Herrera-Hernández1 

Brenda Zulema Guerrero-Aguilar1 

Jorge Alberto Acosta-Gallegos1  § 

1Bajío Experimental Field-INIFAP. Highway Celaya-San Miguel de Allende km 6.5, Celaya, Guanajuato CP. 38110. (;;;;

2Chihuahua Experimental Range-INIFAP. Av. Hidalgo 1213, Col. Centro, Cd. Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua (


Salinas is a variety of pinto beans, indeterminate-prostrate type III, short-day photoperiod, early maturity, rust-resistant, halo blight and anthracnose, slow darkening grain and high hydration capacity. It was developed by the Bajío Experimental Bean Program (CEBAJ). It was derived from the retro-cross of Pinto Saltillo// (Pinto Saltillo/97-RS-101) and its evaluation started as line F9 developed by pedigree selection. In later generations, it was evaluated based on yield and resistance to diseases in different places of the Semi-arid Highlands and Central Mexico. In three years of trial (2010-2012) in rainfed environments showed similar performance potential and was superior in disease resistance to Pinto Saltillo. Salinas carries molecular markers of genes associated with rust resistance (Ur3-Ur7, Ur9 and GB), anthracnose (Co1, Co12, Co2, Co4, Co42 and Co6) and halo blight (SR13, ST8, SAE15 and SW13) and in the field, shows resistance to the races of these prevalent diseases in Guanajuato. It is also resistant to common mosaic virus (BCMV) due to the presence of the gen I. Salinas gene produces medium-sized grain of mottled pinto type (33 ±3 g 100 seeds-1). The average yield in rainfed season depends on the environment and the agronomic management, in the localities of Guanajuato it goes from 622 kg ha-1 in San Luis of the Paz, to 3 209 kg ha-1in Salvatierra with optimal fertilization and sowing date.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; resistance to diseases; slow darkening; undetermined habit-prostrate


Salinas es una variedad de frijol tipo pinto, de hábito indeterminado-postrado tipo III, fotoperiodo de día corto, madurez temprana, resistente a roya, tizón de halo y antracnosis, grano de oscurecimiento lento y de alta capacidad de hidratación. Fue desarrollada por el Programa de Frijol del Campo Experimental Bajío (CEBAJ). Se derivó de la retro-cruza de Pinto Saltillo// (Pinto Saltillo/97-RS-101) y su evaluación se inició como línea F9 desarrollada por selección de pedigrí. En generaciones posteriores se evaluó con base en rendimiento y resistencia a enfermedades en diferentes lugares del Altiplano Semiárido y del Centro de México. En tres años de prueba (2010- 2012) en ambientes de temporal mostró potencial de rendimiento similar y fue superior en resistencia a enfermedades a Pinto Saltillo. Salinas porta marcadores moleculares de genes asociados con la resistencia a roya (Ur3-Ur7, Ur9 y GB), antracnosis (Co1, Co12, Co2, Co4, Co42 y Co6) y tizón de halo (SR13, ST8, SAE15 y SW13) y en campo muestra resistencia a las razas de estas enfermedades prevalecientes en Guanajuato. También es resistente al virus del mosaico común (BCMV) debido a la presencia del gen I. Salinas produce grano de tamaño mediano de tipo pinto moteado (33 ±3 g 100 semillas-1). El rendimiento promedio en temporal depende del ambiente y del manejo agronómico, en las localidades de Guanajuato va de 622 kg ha-1 en San Luis de la Paz, hasta 3 209 kg ha-1en Salvatierra con fertilización y fecha de siembra óptimas.

Palabras clave: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; hábito indeterminado-postrado; oscurecimiento lento; resistencia a enfermedades

Pinto beans are the second most widely grown and consumed in the country, only after the Black type, they are widely marketed in the North and in recent years they have expanded with the acceptance of producers and consumers in the Central-West region. The main producing states are Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí, and to a lesser extent Querétaro, Guanajuato, Sonora, Coahuila and Aguascalientes (SIAP-SAGARPA, 2016).

Most of the improved varieties and pinto creoles are susceptible to rust (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus) and anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), so the incorporation of resistance to these diseases has been one of the objectives of the Bean Improvement Program of the Bajío Experimental Field, the incorporation of resistance is done through the use of diverse sources of germplasm (Beaver et al., 2003; Singh and Shwartz, 2010), the direct selection against rust is carried out in temporary environments, the inoculation with breeds of anthracnose of wide distribution in the Plateau of Mexico (Rodríguez-Guerra et al., 2006), and recently through the use of molecular markers linked to resistance genes.

Salinas was derived from a backcross between Pinto Saltillo as a recurrent parent and line 97-RS-101 made at the Bajío Experimental Field, Celaya, Guanajuato, in 2002. Pinto Saltillo is a variety of seeds with slow darkening cover developed by selection by Pedigree of a multi-parental cross (Sánchez- Valdéz et al., 2004). The line 97-RS-101 is a type II semi-erect growth habit, resistant to rust and seeds with normal darkening cover (Stavely et al., 1998). The objective of the cross was to recover lines with resistance to rust and seed cover of slow darkening.

The F1 plants self-pollinated in the greenhouse in the autumn-winter 2002-2003 and individual selections of F2 plants were made under rainfed conditions; based on resistance to diseases that occurred naturally. Subsequently, selections were made between and within the segregating families during two growing cycles per year until generation F9. Selections in the field were based on precocity, disease resistance and pod load, while in the cabinet they were based on seed characteristics such as size, color and cover darkness. The selection process is detailed in Table 1.

Table 1 Selection process for the development of the Salinas variety. 

Año Actividad Descripción
2002 Crossing It crosses of parents Pinto Saltillo (feminine) and 97-RS-101 (masculine), and backcrosses of F1 (masculine) to the progenitor Pinto Saltillo.
2003-2006 Selection of individual plants within segregating populations and families. Selection in segregating populations and families under irrigation and temporary from generation F2 to F8 based on precocity, vigor of the plant, load of pods and resistance to diseases in the field.
2007 Preliminary evaluation of phenotypically uniform lines in generation F9 Preliminary evaluation of lines under experimental design and comparison with witnesses in local performance test.
2008-2009 Evaluation of lines in Uniform Test of Adaptation and Performance. Evaluation under experimental design and comparison with witnesses in various locations in the Plateu. Evaluation of the grain of upper lines under UV light.
2013 Selection of individual plants on the PTB 09016 line. Selection of individual PTB 09016 plants under temporary in The Bajío, based on rust resistance reaction.
2015-2017 Evaluation of the PTB 09016 line in uniform adaptation and performance test. Evaluation of PTB 09016M under experimental design and comparison with controls in irrigation and temporal environments in Guanajuato.
2017 Characterization of the new Salinas variety by molecular markers. Identification of molecular markers associated with slow darkening and resistance genes to common mosaic, rust and anthracnose.
2018 Registration of the Salinas variety. Registration before SNICS-SAGARPA and multiplication of seed from original to basic in the CEBAJ.

Salinas has a habit of prostrate growth type III and good capacity to cover the soil, which makes it suitable for the marginal seasonal environments prevalent in the Semi-Arid Plateau of North-Central Mexico, including northern Guanajuato and the semiarid Queretaro. The plants produce white flowers, their flowering begins between 39 to 46 days after sowing, and matures between 82 and 92 days.

The number of days to flowering is reduced as planting is delayed at the end of july. Salinas is a short-day reaction to photoperiod, as was found under greenhouse conditions by extending day length with supplementary light, and under field conditions in North Dakota, USA. UU (Osorno, 2017. Com. Pers.). Because they are sensitive to photoperiod, Salinas plants can show phenological plasticity, an adaptive characteristic under temporary conditions (Acosta and White, 1995) and morphological plasticity, so in delayed plantings the plant accelerates its development, modifies the distribution of assimilates and reduces its size. The pods are flat, light green, with four to six seeds, and before reaching physiological maturity they show reddish spots. The color and shape of the seed (Figure 1) and the weight of one hundred seeds (33 ±3 g) are similar to those of Pinto Saltillo, and like this one, the seed coat is of slow darkening.

Figure 1 Typical grain of the Salinas bean variety. The seed is light cream with brown spots, elliptical in its cross section with an external rhombohedral and semi-kidney shape. 

In the adaptation and yield evaluations (Table 2), irrigation, seasonal and rainy environments with supplementary irrigation and three previously registered varieties were included. In some temporary environments (Ocampo, Guanajuato, in 2012 and 2015 and Jamaica, Dolores, Guanajuato, in 2013), low yields were obtained; while in the other environments that included the Ranch of Peña (Pénjamo, Guanajuato), Ranch The Prado (San Luis of the Paz, Guanajuato), The Calera (Salvatierra, Guanajuato) and the Bajío Experimental Field (Celaya, Guanajuato), they obtained the highest yields. In general, the yield of the varieties was modified according to the environment, mainly due to the presence of diseases and the amount and distribution of precipitation.

Table 2 Yield and weight of one hundred seeds of four varieties of Pinto beans established in different environments of Guanajuato under irrigation and temporary conditions. 

Year and variety Yield (kg ha-1) Weight of one hundred seeds (g)
2012 Ocampoa CEBAJa Peñab Ocampoa CEBAJa Peñab
San Rafael 668 1 649 1 550 34.9 33.3 32.1
Rarámuri 754 2 167 2 025 27.6 33 38.2
P. Saltillo 743 1 752 1 760 29.3 34.4 31.1
Salinas 852 1 852 1 895 28.1 33.7 31.6
2013 CEBAJb CEBAJa Jamaicaa CEBAJb CEBAJa Jamaicaa
San Rafael 1 681 1 167 851 36.3 43.8 30.8
Rarámuri 2 229 1 400 535 29.5 44 31.5
P. Saltillo 2 107 1 437 1 132 31.6 37.6 29.1
Salinas 2 262 1 278 775 29.9 35.7 28.4
2015 Ocampoa CEBAJa Ocampoa CEBAJa
San Rafael 714 2 494 33.2 ND
Rarámuri 1 335 2 061 36.2 ND
P. Saltillo 806 1 522 30.2 ND
Salinas 985 1 499 32.2 ND
2017 Pradob CEBAJc Caleraa Pradob CEBAJc Caleraa
San Rafael 2 502 3 216 2 009 ND ND 43.4
Rarámuri 2 953 2 996 2 012 ND ND 40.9
P. Saltillo 2 113 2 001 2 025 ND ND 35.2

CEBAJ= Bajío Experimental Field, Celaya, Guanajuato; Calera= The Calera, Salvatierra; Jamaica= Jamaica, Dolores Hidalgo; Prado= Ranch The Prado, San Luis of the Paz; Ocampo: Ocampo. Peña= Ranch of Peña, Penjamo. a= temporary; b= irrigation; c= temporary plus supplementary irrigation; ND= not determined.

On average, the San Rafael yield was 1 665 kg ha-1, varying from 668 kg ha-1 to 3 216 kg ha-1; that of Raramuri was 1 861 kg ha-1, varying from 535 kg ha-1 to 2 996 kg ha-1, that of Pinto Saltillo was 1 581 kg ha-1, varying from 743 kg ha-1 to 2 113 kg ha-1, and that of Salinas was 1 728 kg ha-1, varying from 775 kg ha-1 to 3 209 kg ha-1. The minimum harvest value was higher in Salinas, while in the maximum value there are no significant differences between Salinas and San Rafael, which demonstrates the high potential of Salinas in different environments.

Salinas grain, produced in 2012 under rainfed and rainfed conditions with supplemental irrigation, was compared with that of Pinto Saltillo and San Rafael for its water absorption capacity and cooking time (characteristics related to grain quality), as well as in the content of iron, zinc and total proteins (related to nutritional quality). The water absorption capacity of the Salinas grain was superior to 100% in both cultivation conditions and similar to that of the other varieties, with the exception of Pinto Saltillo grain produced under storms that was 96.3 ±3.29%, this indicates that the grain of Salinas doubles its weight with hydration and does not present problems of impermeability or hardening, which makes it a suitable variety for the canning industry.

At cooking time, which is considered one of the most important quality parameters of the grain, Salinas had a time of 140 ±4 min under temporary conditions and 139 ±13 min under rainy conditions with an additional irrigation, similar values to those of the other two varieties, which hovered around 139 and 145 min.

In relation to the nutritional quality, the Salinas grain produced in temporary conditions had intermediate content of iron (5.1 ±0.07 mg 100 g-1) and protein (22.3 ±0.08%) in comparison with San Rafael and Pinto Saltillo and the content more low zinc (2.7 ±0.21 mg 100 g-1), similar to that of Pinto Saltillo; while in temporary conditions with supplemental irrigation, the protein content remained similar to that obtained in rainfed conditions (22.8 ±1.19%), but the iron and zinc content increased, although it remained at intermediate values compared to the of the other varieties.

With respect to diseases, in the tests conducted between 2013 and 2017 under rainy conditions in the Bajio Experimental Field, Salinas and Pinto Saltillo behaved similarly showing resistance to common blight and halo blight with damage values between 2 and 3 (on a scale of 1 to 9), except in the year 2015 in which Pinto Saltillo had an intermediate resistance reaction to common blight with a damage value of 4. The Salinas’ main advantage is resistance to rust with a value average damage of 2.5 in the three years of evaluation, while Pinto Saltillo had an average of 4.2. Rust is one of the most important diseases because it causes yield losses of 25% to 100% in susceptible varieties (Souza et al., 2013), it also has a wide genetic variability of races, of which tens have been identified throughout the world (Jochua et al., 2008).

In 2015, the rust severely affected Pinto Saltillo under rainfed conditions in Ocampo, Guanajuato; The Calera, Guanajuato; Zacatecas, Zacatecas and San Juan of Río, Queretaro, with an average damage value of 6.5 compared to the average value of Salinas 3.

Among the molecular markers that were identified in Salinas is SAS13 (Young et al., 1998) associated with the Co42 gene that confers broad resistance to anthracnose; SW13 (Melotto et al., 1996) associated with gene I that confers resistance to the common mosaic, the Sk14 markers Sk14 (Nemchinova y Stavely, 1998), SA14 (Meine et al., 2004), and SI19 (Melotto y Kelly, 1998) associated to the genes Ur-3, Ur-4 and Ur-5, respectively, that confer resistance to rust, and Pvsd1157 (Felicetti et al., ‎2012) associated with slow darkening of the seed coat.


The availability of a new variety of pinto beans with adaptation to rainfed areas in Guanajuato, with high yield potential, greater resistance to rust and capacity for the canning industry, offers an additional option to producers and consumers of beans in Guanajuato the morphological characteristics of the grain, similar to those of Pinto Saltillo, will allow its commercialization and acceptance by bean consumers who already prefer this type of grain.

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Received: June 2018; Accepted: July 2018

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