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Computación y Sistemas

Print version ISSN 1405-5546

Comp. y Sist. vol.12 n.3 México Jan./Mar. 2009

 

Artículos

 

Hardware Architecture and Cost/time/data Trade–off for Generic Inversion of One–Way Function

 

Arquitectura en Hardware y Compromiso de Costo, Tiempo y Datos para Inversiones Genéricas de Funciones Unidireccionales

 

Sourav Mukhopadhyay1 and Palash Sarkar2

 

1 Electronic Engineering Department Dublin City University Glasnevin, Dublin 9 Ireland. E–mail: masourav@eeng.dcu.ie

2 Applied Statistics Unit Indian Statistical Institute 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata India–700108. E–mail: palash@isical.ac.in

 

Article received on March 1, 2008
Accepted on October 3, 2008

 

Abstract

In many cases, a cryptographic algorithm can be viewed as a one–way function, which is easy to compute in forward direction but hard to invert. Inverting such one–way function amounts to breaking the algorithm. Time–Memory Trade–Off (TMTO) is a twenty five years old generic technique for inverting one–way functions. The most feasible implementation of TMTO is in special purpose hardware. In this paper, we describe a systematic architecture for implementing TMTO. We break down the offline and online phases into simpler tasks and identify opportunities for pipelining and parallelism. This results in a detailed top–level architecture. Many of our design choices are based on intuition. We develop a cost model for our architecture. Analysis of the cost model shows that 128–bit keys seem safe for the present. However, key sizes less than 96 bits do not provide comfortable security assurances.

Keywords: One–way function, generic method, time/meomry trade–off cryptanalysis.

 

Resumen

En muchos casos, un algoritmo criptográfico puede ser visto como una función de sólo ida, la cual es fácil de calcular pero difícil de invertir. Invertir una función de sólo ida es equivalente a romper el algoritmo criptográfico. Compromisos de tiempo–memoria (TMTO por sus siglas en inglés) es una vieja técnica genérica concebida más de veinticinco años atrás para invertir funciones de sólo ida. La implementación más factible de TMTO es la de arquitecturas de hardware de propósito especial, y es así que en este artículo, describimos una arquitectura de ese tipo capaz de implementar dicho método. Subdividimos las fases fuera de línea y en línea del algoritmo en tareas simples e identificamos oportunidades para paralelizar y/o utilizar técnicas de tubería. Este proceso nos condujo a proponer una arquitectura de alto nivel muy detallada, en la cual muchas de las elecciones de diseño estuvieron basadas en la intuición. Asimismo, desarrollamos un modelo de costos para nuestra arquitectura. El análisis del modelo de costo sugiere que las llaves de 128 bits pueden ser consideradas seguras en la actualidad. Sin embargo, las llaves con longitudes menores de 96 bits no brindan garantías de seguridad suficientes.

Palabras Claves: Funciones de sólo ida, método genérico, cripto–análisis de compromiso tiempo memoria.

 

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Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for providing constructive and generous feedback. Despite their invaluable assistance any error remaining in this paper is solely attributed to the author.

 

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