SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.27 issue4Predictive equations for maximum heart rate. Myth or reality author indexsubject indexsearch form
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Revista mexicana de cardiología

Print version ISSN 0188-2198

Rev. Mex. Cardiol vol.27 n.4 México Oct./Dec. 2016


Original Research

Associated factors with knowledge of basic life support in medical students from nine Peruvian universities

Factores asociados con el conocimiento de soporte vital básico en estudiantes de medicina de nueve universidades peruanas

Christian R Mejia1  * 

Mario B García-Saavedra2 

Irwing R Benites-Flores2 

Deysi D Ordinola-Calle2 

Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas3 

Danai Valladares-Garrido4 

Lincolth Talledo-Ulfe4 

Mario J Valladares-Garrido4 

Guido Bendezú-Quispe5 

Rudy Fasanando-Vela6 

Gelsing R Vásquez-García7 

Dorian Paola Chaucayanqui-Gil,8 

Damián A Herrera-Gonzales8 

Lourdes Paredes-S9 

Carolina Edith Arévalo-Oliva10 

Alessandra Annie Bravo-Bravo10 

Alaís Alvarado-Roque10 

Roberto Enrique Alvarado-Córdova2 

Dalia Jiménez-Nuñez2 

1 Escuela de Medicina Humana, Universidad Continental. Huancayo, Perú.

2 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Piura, Piura, Perú.

3 Facultad Medicina Humana. Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Lambayeque, Perú.

4 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad César Vallejo Filial Piura, Piura, Perú.

5 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina (SOCEMI). Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Ica, Perú.

6 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego-SOCIEM-UPAO, Trujillo, Perú.

7 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de Ucayali. Universidad Nacional de Ucayali, Pucallpa, Perú.

8 Centro de Investigación y Estudios Médicos-FMH UCSM, Arequipa, Perú.

9 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de medicina UNA, Puno, Perú.

10 Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad San Pedro, Universidad San Pedro, Chimbote, Perú.



Basic life support (BLS) are a group of maneuvers that constitute a fundamental tool to save lives. Therefore, knowledge about BLS has to be part of the curriculum in medical schools.


Evaluate the knowledge level about BLS and evaluate its associated socio-educational factors, in medical students from nine Peruvian universities.

Material and methods:

We carried out a cross-sectional multicenter study in 2013 and 2014. We included undergraduate medical students from nine universities in eight regions or Peru. We measured the knowledge about BLS using a validated questionnaire, which was based in American Heart Association Guidelines (2010); adequate knowledge was defined as a minimum proportion of 50% of correct answers. We estimate adjusted prevalence ratios using generalized linear models.


We included 1,564 students, 13% of the students had an adequate knowledge, and average score was 6.3 ± 3.2 (range: 0-16). Adequate knowledge was associated with attending semesters that belong to academic stage of clinical sciences (p = 0.02; aPR: 1.82; CI: 95%: 1.11-2.98) and having received a previous BLS course (p < 0.01; aPR: 2.96; CI: 95%: 2.18-4.01); adjusted by age, sex, having received a previous injections and first aids courses, and to manifest the desire to be trained in practical BLS.


A low proportion of students have an adequate knowledge level about BLS in this population.

Key words: Basic life support; medical students; knowledge; emergency medicine; Peru



Soporte vital básico (SVB) es un conjunto de maniobras que constituyen una herramienta fundamental para salvar vidas. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento sobre el SVB tiene que ser parte del plan de estudios en las escuelas de medicina.


Evaluar el nivel de conocimiento acerca del SVB y evaluar sus factores socio-educativos asociados, en los estudiantes de medicina de nueve universidades peruanas.

Material y métodos:

Se realizó un estudio transversal, multicéntrico en 2013 y 2014. Se incluyeron estudiantes de medicina de nueve universidades en ocho regiones del Perú. Se midió el conocimiento acerca del SVB mediante un cuestionario validado, basado en las directrices de la Asociación Americana del Corazón (2010); el conocimiento adecuado se define como una proporción mínima del 50% de respuestas correctas. Calculamos las razones de prevalencia mediante el uso de modelos lineales generalizados.


Se incluyeron 1,564 estudiantes, el 13% de los estudiantes tenía un conocimiento adecuado, y la puntuación media fue de 6.3 ± 3.2 (rango: 0-16). El tener una nota aprobatoria estuvo asociado al cursar ciclos que pertenecen a la etapa académica de ciencias clínicas (p = 0.02; aPR: 1.82; IC 95%: 1.11-2.98) y de haber recibido un curso de SVB anterior (p < 0.01; aPR: 2.96; IC 95%: 2.18-4.01), ajustada por edad, sexo, que hayan recibido un curso de primeros auxilios e inyecciones anteriormente y de haber manifestado el deseo de ser entrenados en la práctica del SVB.


Una baja proporción de estudiantes tiene un adecuado nivel de conocimiento acerca de SVB en esta población.

Palabras clave: Soporte vital básico; estudiantes de medicina; conocimiento; medicina de emergencia; Perú


Basic life support (BLS) are a group of maneuvers which constitute a fundamental tool to save lives, especially if the emergency occurs outside a hospital.1-4 The knowledge and skills that must be acquired in this area are indispensable for those who dedicate themselves to health care, as well as, for those who are linked to this field,1,3,5,6 since if they are applied correctly, survival rates may be optimal.7,8

Several publications on the knowledge level about BLS in health personnel reveal low encouraging results, with a frequency of unawareness of these maneuvers between 41.7% and 57.3%.1,3,7,9 The findings in Latin America and locally are similar -but more worrying-, since inadequate knowledge in both theoretical and practical BLS goes from 58.8% to 92%, including practitioners, such as doctors and nurses.6,10-12 Researches have proved that training starting in undergraduate improves theoretical knowledge and physical skills for proper execution of BLS5 contributing to reduce the increased levels of morbidity and mortality in population that suffers cardiopulmonary arrest,13-15 which is frequently the primary cause of death. However, in our search there were not found studies that address this issue in our context.

Therefore, the main objective in our study was to determinate the knowledge level about BLS in medical student from nine Peruvian universities, as well as its associated socio-educational factors. Thus, once identified, propose solutions to this problem.

Material and methods

Design and subjects

A cross sectional multicenter study was conducted during 2013-2014, over undergraduate medical students from nine Peruvian medicine schools. Universities included were: Universidad Nacional de Piura-Piura, Universidad Nacional del Altiplano-Puno, Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego-Trujillo, Universidad Católica Santa María-Arequipa, Universidad Nacional de Ucayali-Ucayali, Universidad César Vallejo-Piura, Universidad Nacional de Ica-Ica, Universidad San Pedro-Chimbote y Universidad Pedro Ruiz Gallo-Lambayeque. All regular students were invited to participate (Figure 1).

UNP = Universidad Nacional de Piura, UCV-P = Universidad César Vallejo-Piura, UNPRG = Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, UPAO = Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, USP = Universidad San Pedro, UNU = Universidad Nacional de Ucayali, UNSLG = Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, UNA = Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, UCSM = Universidad Católica Santa María-Arequipa.

Figure 1: Location map of medicine schools that participated in the study. 

Measurements and variables

The final questionnaire was composed of two sections.

Demographic and academic data

Gender, age, marital status, university of origin, year of study and academic cycle coursing at the time of the survey. They were asked about their participation in a course where they were instructed in BLS techniques, management of medical first aid. Coursing clinical sciences, academic stages were defined to students who said they were carrying courses including hospital rotations (from third to sixth year of medical career). It was considered as a desire to be trained in practical BLS maneuvers to those who said they wanted to be both theorical and practical instructed.

Questionnaire for knowledge evaluation

The second section included twenty questions that measured the knowledge level about BLS, structured as multiple choice and single answer. To measure the knowledge level it was considered a scale from 0 to 20, considering as passing grade to those who obtained 11 or more adequately answered questions. For the analysis, it was considered as dependent variable to have passed the test. The independent variables were socio-educational data formulated in the questionnaire and were used to determinate whether there are differences according to these variables.

We generated this questionnaire in Spanish, based in ILCOR 2010 Guidelines. It was initially formulated by three of the authors of this study, one of them with 5 years of experience in BLS field and master's degree in research; the second one, with master´s degree in research and member of the scientific evidence generation team at the National Health Institute of Peru; and the last one, past faculty AHA in Peru. Validation and evaluation of the questionnaire reliability was performed in several stages. Firstly, expert judgement was used, in which participated three physicians with international accreditation for BLS, who evaluated the relevance of the items based in an ordinal scale (Adequate and Not adequate) and assessed the formulation quality of each of the questions, considerating a discrete scale (0 = poor quality and 10 = excellent quality), based on the scores of each average, the items were excluded or included and modified. Each one analyzed independently and blindly (among them) the test. After this process 5 items were eliminated. Subsequently, the comprehension of each question was evaluated over a pilot sample of 63 medical students with an ordinal/discrete scale (0 = no understandable y 1 = totally understandable), those items with average score under 5 were modified. The modified instrument was applied over 198 students in order to get a basal measurement, after 3 weeks the instrument was applied once more without any educational intervention over the same students, to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Afterwards, an educational intervention on BLS knowledge was performed and again the questionnaire was applied, with the aim of evaluate sensitivity on post-intervention change. 198 individuals were included since the questionnaire consists of 20 items. After this whole process, three medical experts with international accreditation in BLS evaluated the instrument providing compliance.

Finally, the scores range from 0 to 20 points, in that way according to what suggested by the Ministry of Education of Peru, the knowledge was categorized as adequate (11 to 20) and inadequate (0 to 10).

Data collection procedures

Pollsters were summoned trough contacts made in Peruvian Medical-Student Scientific Society (SOCIMEP), ensuring to count with both public and private universities from the largest departments in the inner regions of Peru, a training process to solve any doubts was performed; and a group of instructions that specified step by step through the interview process was delivered.

Each pollster was instructed for applying the questionnaire in free hours of academic activities and for answering participant's doubts. It was a self-applied questionnaire and respondents offered their consent verbally before solving it, after the explanation of the aim of the study provided by the delegates of the venues.


The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the San Bartolome National Hospital (Official Letter N°:1544-DG-OADI-N°333-HONADOMANI-SB-2103).

Statistical data analysis

We created a database in Microsoft Excel Version 2010 (Microsoft Corporation, CA, USA) by independent and double digitation; databases had a good concordance in quality control. This database was exported into the software STATA 11.1 (Stata Corporation, TXT, USA).

For categorical variables it was performed a description of the variables, the dependent variable (according to the number of correct answers obtained in the questionnaire) and independent variables (gender, age, marital status, university of origin, previous related courses, desire to be trained in practical BLS), using frequencies and percentages. For the numerical variable (age) the median and interquartile range was used, according its distribution evaluated with Shapiro Wilk test.

We used a 95% confidence interval. We performed generalized linear models with binomial family and link log function; all models were adjusted using the university under study as cluster. Both crude prevalence ratios (cPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were obtained, as well as, confidence intervals at 95% and p values. The data used in bivariate models and the final model were calculated using the variables that had complete data (n = 1,270) into account. It was considered as statistically significant a p < 0.05 value.


Characteristics of participants

1,564 medical students participated. The median age was 20.7 years old (range 16-40 years old), 791 (54.2%) were male gender, first and third year focused the main amount of students and it was the sixth year that had fewer respondents, 70 (4.9%).

Of all respondents, 1,363 (87.1%) had an inadequate knowledge about BLS. Of 201 who passed the test, 112 (62.9%) were in clinical sciences semesters, 82 (42.9%) had received a BLS course previously and 174 (94%) said they wanted to be trained in BLS. Participants' socio-educational characteristics are shown in Table I.

Table I: Socio-educational characteristics of undergraduate medical students from nine universities. 

* Median and interquartile range.

BLS = Basic life support.

The mean score obtained from the questions about BLS was 6.29; nineteen students scored zero (0) and two obtained the highest score achieved (16 points). Of all students only 1.5% represented the upper third of the scale (score ≥ 14). Private universities obtained an approved proportion of 15.9% while public only 9.4%.

Association between knowledge level and socio-educational variables

In bivariate analysis was found association between an adequate knowledge and coursing clinical sciences (p < 0.01), having received a previous course of injection administration (p:0.01), a previous one on BLS (p < 0.01) and having the desire to be trained in practical BLS (p:0.03). Association of socio-educational variables according to having an adequate knowledge is shown in Table II.

Table II: Bivariated analysis of knowledge in undergraduate medical students about BLS. 

BLS = Basic life support.

* Mean and standard deviation. ** p = p values, cPR = Crude prevalence ratios and CI95%: confidence intervals at 95%; were obtained with generalized linear models, with binomial family, link log function, and using the university of origin as cluster. Data used were calculated using the variables that had complete data into account (n = 1,270).

In multivariate analysis, an adequate knowledge about BLS was associated with coursing semesters belonging to clinical sciences academic stages (p:0.02; aPR:1.82; CI 95%:1.11-2.98) and having received a previous course of BLS (p < 0.01; aPR:2.96; CI 95%:2.18-4.01), adjusted for respondent's age and sex, as well as, having received a previous injection administration or first aid course and manifesting the desire to be trained in practical BLS (Table III).

Table III: Multivariated analysis of knowledge in undergraduate medical students about BLS. 

* p = p values, aPR = Adjusted prevalence ratios, and CI95% = Confidence intervals at 95%; were obtained with generalized linear models, with binomial family, link log function, and taking the university of origin as cluster. Data used were calculated using the variables that had complete data into account (n = 1,270).


Based on our results, approximately one in ten tested students had a good knowledge level about BLS. These findings are within the range found in similar populations to which we evaluated.6,10-12 This is an unexpected result, because university curricula should ensure the necessary knowledge in undergraduate stage, since in some years respondents will become part of the national health system and may not know how respond well to a situation in which the application of BLS will be required.

We found association between an adequate knowledge about BLS and coursing practices in hospitals. Several studies, about BLS, shown that the knowledge level increases in direct relationship as medical students move toward superior cycles.3,5,12 A study in a quite similar population agrees with these results, reporting a strong association between the level of knowledge on the subject of medical emergencies and the student academic stage, being the group with lower scores the one where the student was coursing basics sciences.5 Likewise, when the perception of knowledge was studied, a result in France showed that less than a third of students taking clinical courses perceive that are qualified to carry out a resuscitation.16 This could indicate that while the academic stage is an important factor in the formation of the medical student, simple contact with patients is not sufficient to adequately perform BLS, therefore it would be necessary that the student is faced with real or hypothetically real situations to achieve this goal.

Those participants who received a previous BLS course had better scores, in comparison with those who did not received this preparation. In similar populations has been showed that previous basic life support maneuvers general training, improve theorical knowledge, and practical and physical skills.1,3,5,7,8 In populations of physicians, nurses10-12,17 and people not related to health field,18 previous training in BLS had a positive effect in theoretical knowledge; however, if such preparation is not continuous then knowledge becomes unsatisfactory at the end, even when those trained would obtain a better response than non-trained in baseline and intermediate measurements.13,19 A study in nurses showed that previous training on BLS does not ensure better response to cardiac arrest, with a failure rate of up to 84%, this being due to the lack of continuous training in BLS maneuvers.20 This suggests the importance of continuous training in these maneuvers,21 although many times it is initiated by the person concerned, is indispensable for an accepTable knowledge level.7 Continuous medical education in this field, is also necessary to maintain constant this level, since it has been shown that the decay of theoretical knowledge begins six weeks after completing a course and decreases as the time passes.10,22-26

Although multivariate analysis did not turned out to be statistically significant, it is important to mention that in bivariate analysis it was found that, those who had the desire to be trained in BLS had a better knowledge level about BLS, remembering that almost all participants had this desire for training. Some studies with population with similar characteristics -but smaller ones- reported interest in the majority of the students in receiving updates on BLS.3,10,12,27,28 A study in secondary schools in Northern Europe found predisposition in 4 out of 5 students to perform resuscitation maneuvers in case of facing cardiac arrest. This should be studied in detail, in research that have this goal and more variables that attempt to explain the desire and interest in training in BLS.

Overall, results describe a college student population with a poor knowledge level about BLS, but improves its level as they advance through the academic stages and with previous training in the subject, besides that, they show more willingness to participate in training BLS courses, eager to acquire knowledge and/or improve the one they had already acquired as undergraduates, this would improve their chances to respond to cardiopulmonary arrest. The data obtained in this study come from a large sample of students, evaluating an academic issue that should always be considered in the training of future physicians. Although it is true that the findings do not allow inferring conclusively to all Peruvian medical students, there is at least one major exploration on relevant student characteristics that influence their current knowledge.

The limitation in our study was the use of a non random sampling, due to the fact that in private universities it is not possible to have access to official lists, since their data protection policy, therefore it is not possible to infer regarding participating universities. Nevertheless, we consider that the data are now a reference, because we sought that in participating universities the survey would be applied in proportion to the actual number of students per year. Another limitation was that we did not obtain other socio-academic variables, so we recommend that future researches explore more associated factors.

We conclude that the knowledge level about BLS in medical students from the universities under evaluation is poor. This is associated with academic stage and having received previous BLS instruction. We recommend that universities in our country consider these results, in this way they can measure the knowledge level of their students and evaluate the possibility of including BLS training in the curricula, as part of the training of the future health professional, as well as ensuring continuous training in this subject.


We would like to thank Sociedad Científica Médico-Estudiantil Peruana (SOCIMEP) by support on student contacts.


1. Businger A, Rinderknecht S, Blank R, Merki L, Carrel T. Students' knowledge of symptoms and risk factors of potential life-threatening medical conditions. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010; 140 (5-6): 78-84. [ Links ]

2. Vaillancourt C, Grimshaw J, Brehaut JC, Osmond M, Charette ML, Wells GA et al. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology. BMC Emergen Med. 2008; 8 (1): 13. [ Links ]

3. Chojnacki P, Ilieva R, Kołodziej A, Królikowska A, Lipka J, Ruta J. Knowledge of BLS and AED resuscitation algorithm amongst medical students. Anestezjol Intens Ter. 2010; 43 (1): 29-32. [ Links ]

4. Aaberg AMR, Larsen CEB, Rasmussen BS, Hansen CM, Larsen JM. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2014; 22 (1): 24. [ Links ]

5. Li Q, Ma EL, Liu J, Fang LQ, Xia T. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improve medical students' skills in basic life support. Med Teach. 2011; 33 (10): e549-55. [ Links ]

6. Mejia CR, Quezada-Osoria C, Moras-Ventocilla C, Quinto-Porras K, Ascencios-Oyarce C. Nivel de conocimientos sobre emergencias médicas en estudiantes de medicina de universidades peruanas. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Pública. 2011; 28 (2): 202-209. [ Links ]

7. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, Aufderheide TP, Cave DM, Hazinski MF et al. Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010; 122 (18 suppl 3): S685-S705. [ Links ]

8. Aspectos destacados de las guías de la American Heart Association de 2010 para RCP y ACE [En línea]. España: Highlights; 2010 [29 de abril de 2013]. URL disponible en: ]

9. Zaheer H, Haque Z. Awareness about BLS (CPR) among medical students: status and requirements. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009; 59 (1): 57-59. [ Links ]

10. Machado-Álvarez MC, Roque-Gonzales R, Barrios-Osuna I, Nodal-Ortega J, Olive-González JB, Quintana-Pajón I. Nivel de conocimientos en reanimación cardiopulmonar cerebral en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de mínimo acceso. Rev Cuba Anestesiol Reanim. 2010; 9 (2): 24-35. [ Links ]

11. De Almeida AO, Araujo IEM, Dalri MCB, Araujo S. Conocimiento teórico de los enfermeros sobre parada cardiorrespiratoria y resucitación cardiopulmonar en unidades no hospitalarias de atención de urgencia y emergencia. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem. 2011; 19 (2): 1-8. [ Links ]

12. Rojas L, Aizman A, Arab JP, Utili F, Andresen MsC M. Reanimación cardiopulmonar básica: conocimiento teórico, desempeño práctico y efectividad de las maniobras en médicos generales. Rev Med Chile. 2012; 140 (1): 73-77. [ Links ]

13. Perry Z, Busiba Z, Uziel E, Meiri G. Crisis intervention--the summary of a unique interventional program for medical students. Harefuah. 2009; 148 (2): 87-92. [ Links ]

14. Saunders NA, Wallis BJ. Learning decision-making in clinical medicine: a card game dealing with acute emergencies for undergraduate use. Med Educ. 1981; 15 (5): 323-327. [ Links ]

15. Weller JM. Simulation in undergraduate medical education: bridging the gap between theory and practice. Med Educ. 2004; 38 (1): 32-38. [ Links ]

16. Freund Y, Duchateau FX, Baker EC, Goulet H, Carreira S, Schmidt M et al. Self-perception of knowledge and confidence in performing basic life support among medical students. Eur J Emerg Med. 2013; 20 (3): 193-196. [ Links ]

17. Passali C, Pantazopoulos I, Dontas I, Patsaki A, Barouxis D, Troupis G, Xanthos T. Evaluation of nurses' and doctors' knowledge of basic & advanced life support resuscitation guidelines. Nurse Educ Pract. 2011; 11 (6): 365-369. [ Links ]

18. Lešnik D, Lešnik B, Golub J, Križmarić M, Mally S, Grmec S. Impact of additional module training on the level of basic life support knowledge of first year students at the University of Maribor. Int J Emerg Med. 2011; 4 (1): 16. [ Links ]

19. Abbas A, Bukhari SI, Ahmad F. Knowledge of first aid and basic life support amongst medical students: a comparison between trained and un-trained students. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011; 61 (6): 613-616. [ Links ]

20. Xanthos T, Akrivopoulou A, Pantazopoulos I, Aroni F, Datsis A, Iacovidou N. Evaluation of nurses' theoretical knowledge in Basic Life Support: A study in a district Greek hospital. Int Emerg Nurs. 2012; 20 (1): 28-32. [ Links ]

21. Allison KP, Kilner T, Porter KM, Thurgood A. Pre-hospital care--the evolution of a course for undergraduates. Resuscitation. 2002; 52 (2): 187-191. [ Links ]

22. Seefeld AW. Lessons learned from working in emergency departments in Cape Town, South Africa: a final-year medical student's perspective. S Afr Med J. 2007; 97 (2): 78. [ Links ]

23. Creutzfeldt J, Hedman L, Medin C, Wallin CJ, Hendrick A, Youngblood P et al. Implementing virtual worlds for systematic training of prehospital CPR in medical school. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2007; 125: 82-84. [ Links ]

24. Harrison GA, Hillman KM, Fulde GWO, Jacques TC. The need for undergraduate education in critical care. (Results of a questionnaire to year 6 medical undergraduates, University of New South Wales and recommendations on a curriculum in critical care). Anaesth Intensive Care. 1999; 27 (1): 53-58. [ Links ]

25. Avisar L, Shiyovich A, Aharonson-Daniel L, Nesher L. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Retention and Self-Confidence of Preclinical Medical Students. Isr Med Assoc J. 2013; 15 (10): 622-627. [ Links ]

26. Dal U, Sarpkaya D. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pak J Med Sci. 2013; 29 (4): 966-971. [ Links ]

27. Kanstad BK, Nilsen SA, Fredriksen KCPR. CPR knowledge and attitude to performing bystander CPR among secondary school students in Norway. Resuscitation. 2011; 82 (8): 1053-1059. [ Links ]

28. Hamasu S, Morimoto T, Kuramoto N, Horiguchi M, Iwami T, Nishiyama C, et al. Effects of BLS training on factors associated with attitude toward CPR in college students. Resuscitation. 2009; 80 (3): 359-364. [ Links ]

1Funding sources: Self-financed

2Disclosures: None

Received: February 08, 2016; Accepted: November 09, 2016

*Corresponding author: Christian R Mejía. Escuela de Medicina Humana. Universidad Continental. Huancayo Perú. Av. Las Palmeras 5713, Urb. Villa del Norte, Los Olivos, Lima39, Lima, Perú. Telephone number: 0051-997643516. E-mail:

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that no conflict interests exist

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License