SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.14 número1Impacto de la cobertura vegetal en la erosión-deposición del suelo por efecto de escorrentía superficial índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO


Ingeniería agrícola y biosistemas

versión On-line ISSN 2007-4026versión impresa ISSN 2007-3925

Ing. agric. biosist. vol.14 no.1 Chapingo ene./jun. 2022  Epub 24-Oct-2022 

Scientific article

Soil quality in garlic crops under agroecological transition at Río Negro, Argentina

1Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Centro Universitario Regional Zona Atlántica Ayacucho y Esandi. Viedma, Río Negro, C. P. 8500, ARGENTINA.

2Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semiárida (Cerzos - Conicet). Camino La Carrindanga km 7, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, C. P. 8000, ARGENTINA.

3Unidad Integrada para la Innovación del Sistema Agroalimentario de la Patagonia Norte. Camino 4, Río Negro, C. P. 8500, ARGENTINA.



Agroecological transition is the adoption of different practices that tend towards sustainable agriculture, among which the substitution of synthetic inputs by alternative or organic ones stands out.


To evaluate the changes in the physicochemical and biological quality of soils fertilized with onion residue compost and cattle manure in a garlic crop.


Three sources of fertilization were tested in a garlic crop with gravity irrigation: 1) compost of onion residues with cattle manure, 2) monoammonium phosphate and 3) compost and monoammonium phosphate. Five soil samples were taken on different dates and soil respiration, esterase and dehydrogenase activity, and fertility were determined.


Similar garlic yields were obtained with the different fertilization sources. In composted soils, electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio decreased, but increased until reaching similar values to the soil that received mineral fertilization.

Limitations of the study:

The agroecological transition proposal is sustainable if compost production is carried out on the same site.


The use of compost from onion production residues and cattle manure is proposed as an alternative for the reduction of synthetic inputs in the production of morado garlic.


The use of composted residues from the previous cycles production proved to be a sustainable alternative for the agroecological transition of morado garlic crops with gravity irrigation in the lower valley of Río Negro.

Keywords Allium sativa; salinity; fertility; soil respiration; enzymatic activity



La transición agroecológica es la adopción de diferentes prácticas que tienden a una agricultura sostenible, entre las cuales destaca la sustitución de insumos sintéticos por otros alternativos u orgánicos.


Evaluar los cambios en la calidad físico-química y biológica de los suelos abonados con compostaje de residuos de cebolla y estiércol bovino en un cultivo de ajo.


En un cultivo de ajo con riego gravitacional se probaron tres fuentes de fertilización: 1) compostaje de residuos de cebolla con estiércol bovino, 2) fosfato monoamónico y 3) compostaje más fosfato monoamónico. Se tomaron cinco muestras suelo en fechas diferentes y se determinó la respiración edáfica, la actividad de la esterasa y la deshidrogenasa, y la fertilidad.


Se obtuvieron rendimientos similares de ajo con las diferentes fuentes de fertilización. En los suelos con compostaje disminuyeron la conductividad eléctrica y la relación de absorción de sodio, pero fueron aumentando hasta alcanzar valores similares al suelo que recibió fertilización mineral.

Limitaciones del estudio:

La propuesta de transición agroecológica resulta sustentable si la producción del compostaje se realiza en el mismo establecimiento.


Se propone el uso de compostaje de los residuos de la producción de cebolla y estiércol bovino como alternativa para la reducción de insumos sintéticos en la producción de ajo morado.


La aplicación de compostaje de residuos de la producción de ciclos anteriores resultó una alternativa sustentable para la transición agroecológica del cultivo de ajo morado con riego gravitacional en el valle inferior del río Negro.

Palabras clave Allium sativa; salinidad; fertilidad; respiración edáfica; actividad enzimática


In 2019, Argentina was the third largest garlic exporting country in the world, after China and Spain (Fernandez, 2019). Currently, 12 clonal cultivars of five commercial types of Allium sativum are produced in the country; all of temperate or cool temperate climate, mainly intended for the fresh market. These cultivars have a yield 30 to 50 % higher than original populations, and provide a wide offer for external markets, both in quality and time (Burba et al., 2005). The increase in the cultivated area of morado garlic proved to be significant over traditional cultivars, coming to represent 53 % of production at the province of Mendoza, with yields of 11.36 and 12.38 t·ha-1 in the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons, respectively (Fernandez, 2019). In 2015, the first commercial plantations of morado garlic were carried out in the lower valley of Río Negro (LVRN), with a sustained increase in the area cultivated with conventional management and high agrochemical load.

The traditional management of horticultural production is being questioned by consumers, who demand environmentally friendly practices from producers, such as a reduction in the use of agrochemicals, efficient use of irrigation water, and implementation of cover crops, among others. This forces them to consider sustainable production, as well as to gradually adapt management to technologies aimed at improving the productive quality of soils. Agroecology is characterized by taking advantage of the natural processes of interactions that occur in an orchard to reduce external inputs and improve the biological efficiency of cropping systems (Sarandón & Flores, 2014). The use of organic fertilizers is an alternative for agricultural production, which has two benefits: it improves soil fertility and recycles the previous season's waste. Composted organic material is not only a source of macro and micronutrients, but it also improves soil characteristics such as aeration, water holding capacity, bulk density, aggregation, cation exchange capacity and microflora activity (Paterlini et al., 2019).

The ecological transition to sustainable agriculture occurs in several phases: 1) progressive elimination of agrochemicals, 2) substitution of synthetic inputs for alternative or organic ones, and 3) redesign of agroecosystems with a diversified and functional infrastructure to generate systems that do not require external inputs. These phases tend to ensure an increase in agroecosystem biodiversity, biomass production and soil organic matter content, the establishment of functional and complementary relationships between the various components of the productive system, and optimal planning of sequences and combinations of crops and animals; this leads to the efficient use of local resources (Seba et al., 2017). The producers of the LVRN agroecological collective are in the first phase of the agroecological transition, for which they have tried different sources of fertilization (composting of previous crop residues, bocashis, vermicompost, among others), have reduced the doses of herbicides for weed control, and have developed links between consumers and producers.

Doran and Parkin (1994) defined soil quality as “the ability of soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to attenuate environmental and pathogenic contaminants, sustain animal and plant productivity, and ensure human health”. Soil quality comprises the physical, chemical, and biological components of soil and their interactions; therefore, they need to be assessed together (Ghaemi et al., 2014).

Horticulture in the LVRN, Argentina, is characterized by the specialized production of onion and squash, with the rest of the vegetables being part of a group identified as “miscellaneous vegetables”. The group of diversified productions is carried out by small producers to supply, especially, local markets and the municipal fair. However, in recent years, garlic production, with the incorporation of the cultivar Morado INTA, has gained relevance in terms of sown area.

Because of the increase in the area of morado garlic in the region and the ecological transition initiated by horticultural producers in the LVRN, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the physicochemical and biological quality of soils fertilized with composted onion production waste and cattle manure for the production of morado garlic.

Materials and methods

Study site

The LVRN is located at 40° south latitude and 63° west longitude, on the southern bank of the Negro river in Argentina. The climate in the region is semi-arid mesothermal, with an average precipitation of 394 mm and a mean annual temperature of 14.2 °C. It is a fertile area, with fine to medium textured soils, and has a network of canals for irrigation water supply.

This study was carried out during the 2019 growing season in a plot with gravity irrigation located at the Chacra Experimental de la Unidad Integrada para la Innovación del Sistema Agroalimentario de la Patagonia Norte (UIISA), in the LVRN, Argentina, where onion was grown the previous year. The soil of the experimental site is clay loam, with a pH of 7.9, electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m-1, 4.75 % organic matter (OM) and 0.9 % total nitrogen (N).

Experimental design

In a 5 000 m2 plot, three blocks of 1 200 m2 (12 x 100 m) were set, where three plots of 12 x 25 m were established, one for each fertilization treatment: 1) organic (Co), onion waste and cattle manure compost (8 kg·m-2) at the time of sowing, 2) mineral (Mi), monoammonium phosphate at the time of sowing (100 kg·ha-1) and urea when the crop showed the third leaf (50 kg·ha-1) and 3) mixed (Co+Mi), compost + monoammonium phosphate at the time of sowing (4 kg·m-2 + 50 kg·ha-1, respectively) and urea when the crop showed the third leaf (25 kg·ha-1). Doses were determined according to crop requirements and soil contributions (Pellejero et al., 2021).

On March 19, 2019, Morado INTA garlic was sown, one clove of garlic every 10 cm in double rows on the ridges. Irrigation was carried out at the time of sowing, and from August onwards it was irrigated every 15 days, according to crop demand by the furrow between ridges. Harvest was carried out on December 18, 2019.

Characteristics of compost

Onion processing residues from the Quequen packing company, located in the LVRN, were used. The management of harvested onions involved the removal of roots, upper leaves and outer cataphylls, which was used for composting its high C/N ratio and as a high nitrogen content structuring agent of cattle manure. Mature compost had a pH of 7.8, EC of 2.8 dS·m-1, OM of 21.6 %, N of 0.9 % extractable phosphorus (P) of 0.23 % (Pellejero et al., 2017).

The variables evaluated in each treatment are described below:

Crop yield. At the time of harvest, developed garlic was collected from one linear meter of ridge. Fresh weight and equatorial diameter were determined for each bulb to classify them by caliber.

Soil samples. 27, 85, 148, 237 and 274 days after sowing (das), three soil samples were taken from each treatment. Each sample consisted of 15 subsamples of the first 5 cm of soil on the crop bed.

Biological indicators: Soil microbial respiration, dehydrogenase activity and esterase activity were determined on the wet soil samples. For the former, 100 g of wet soil, sieved with 2 mm mesh, were incubated with 25 mL of NaOH (0.25 M) for 7 days in the dark at room temperature. Subsequently, 10 mL of hydroxide was titrated with HCl (0.10 M) using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The carbon dioxide produced was quantified by comparison with a soilless blank (Alef, 1995).

Dehydrogenase activity was determined by incubating 3 g of wet soil with 0.5 mL of triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) at 37 °C for 24 h. The hydrolysis product was extracted with three washes with alcohol and brought to 50 mL. The concentration of triphenylformazan (TPF) was determined by absorbance at 480 nm (Casida et al., 1964). Esterase activity was obtained by incubating 1 g of wet soil in 7.5 mL of phosphate buffer with pH of 7.2 and 0.2 mL of fluorescein diacetate (1 µg·mL-1 de FDA) for 30 min at 30 °C. The reaction was stopped with 7.5 mL of acetone, and the released fluorescein was quantified by absorbance at 490 nm (Alef, 1995).

Chemical indicators: The aerated soils passed through a 2 mm sieve and pH in 1:2.5 solution, EC in saturation paste, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), N by Kjeldahl, OM by oxidation with potassium dichromate (OM), P by Olsen's method and available potassium (K) extracted with ammonium acetate by flame spectrometry were determined.

Statistical analysis

The data results were submitted to an ANOVA and Fisher’s comparison of means (LSD, P ≤ 0.05). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to explore correlations between microbiological and physicochemical parameters. All tests were carried out using the statistical program InfoStat 2015 (Di Rienzo et al., 2015).

Results and discussion

Garlic crop yield

The total and commercial yield (4 to 6 caliber healthy bulbs) of the three fertilization treatments were similar (Figure 1). The commercial yield (10.99, 12.29 and 10.33 t·ha-1 for Co, Mi and Co+Mi, respectively) was similar to that observed for the same garlic crop in Mendoza province, Argentina, in the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons (11.36 and 12.38 t·ha-1, respectively) (Fernández, 2019).

Figure 1 Yield of garlic produced with different fertilizer sources. Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. Each bar corresponds to the average of three samples and lines indicate the standard error. 

Garlic yields using goat or mineral fertilizer were found to be similar in a study carried out in eastern Ethiopia by Tadila and Nigusie (2018), although the highest yields were achieved with the combination of both fertilizers at the same doses. Ruiz et al. (2007) found no differences in onion crop fertilized with different organic sources, such as cattle manure, goat manure or chicken manure, although they did not compare yields with chemical fertilization, but with an unfertilized control that yielded less than the composted treatments. Paterlini et al. (2019) also observed no differences in lettuce crop yield when testing different doses of chicken litter compost. Carelli and Defendente (2018) had similar yields when applying organic and mineral fertilization on arugula crop. In this study, obtaining similar yields to chemical fertilization, in the first year of using onion and cattle manure compost in the LVRN, is promising in this first phase of agroecological transition.

Eighty-six percent of the harvested bulbs weight corresponded to medium sizes (4 and 5). Treatment Mi had a higher proportion of large bulbs (caliber 6). In all treatments, small bulbs (caliber lower than 4) represented less than 3% of the total weight of the harvest (Figure 2). In addition to yields, size homogeneity is important for the market, a characteristic that was observed in the compost treatments.

Figure 2 Weight ratio per caliber of garlic bulbs produced with different fertilizer sources. Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. 

A similar distribution to that of the present study was observed in the 2018 season in the entire province of Mendoza, Argentina, with predominance of garlic size 5 (51 %), followed by size 6 (38 %) and size 4 (6 %). Medium sizes accounted for 89 % of morado garlic produced in that province of Argentina (Fernández, 2019).

Soil quality indicators

Soil salinity indicators in Mi treatments showed no changes during the trial. However, in the treatments where compost was applied (Co and Co+Mi), pH was similar to that of Mi at the beginning and increased 9 % during the growing season. Conversely, the EC was higher than that of the soil at the beginning of the cycle and decreased by 53 % during the growing season. SAR values were low in all treatments, with a high dispersion to identify variations during the growing season (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Behavior of soil salinity indicators in garlic crop with different fertilization sources. a) pH in ratio 1:2.5, b) electrical conductivity (EC) in saturation paste and c) sodium absorption ratio (SAR). Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. 

Benedicto-Valdés et al. (2019) noted an 8 % increase in pH when applying cattle manure, starting from a pH of soil and manure similar to each other. On the contrary, when using goat manure or chicken manure, they observe no change in pH. Similarly, but with chicken litter compost, Paterlini et al. (2019) observed pH increase in one unit for the transplant lettuce crop, which coincides in date with the garlic crop, but has a shorter cycle (55 days). The increase in soil pH could be due to the contribution of cattle manure from the compost used in this study, which would condition its use in areas with alkaline soils such as those of the LVRN. However, this variable had no effect on the quality or yield of the crop.

The EC of soil with cattle manure was higher than that of soil without compost in the trial of Benedicto-Valdés et al. (2019), although it is not indicated how long the manure was in the field and whether irrigation was carried out. In the present study, we started from mature compost, so EC was relatively low (2.8 dS·m-1) and seemed to be associated with the contribution of sodium ions (SAR), which were washed out with successive irrigations. Thus, in the first months after cultivation, EC was the same in all treatments.

At harvest (late spring), the pH of soils with organic fertilizer (Co and Co+Mi) was higher than that of soils with Mi. On the other hand, EC and SAR were similar in the three treatments (Table 1); this was because the multiple gravity irrigations carried out (12 irrigations of 30 mm), the quality of the water from the Negro river used in the LVRN (EC 0.3 mS·cm-1) and the operation of the drainage system that allows the leaching of soluble salts together with the excess water. Such results are contrary to that observed by Cebadero-Cayetano et al. (2020), who obtained a decrease in pH with increasing organic carbon content.

Table 1 Values of pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) recorded in the first 5 cm of the soil at the time of garlic harvest exposed to different fertilization sources. 

Fertilization treatment pH EC (dS·m-1) SAR (mEq·mEq-1/2)
Co 8.68 ± 0.03 az 0.97 ± 0.08 a 2.0 ± 0.3 a
Mi 8.02 ± 0.10 b 0.93 ± 0.04 a 1.5 ± 0.3 a
Co+Mi 8.52 ± 0.03 ab 0.95 ± 0.07 a 1.9 ± 0.1 a
P 0.029 0.981 0.296

Co = onion residue compost and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. Each value corresponds to the average of three samples ± standard error. zMeans with the same letter in each column are not statistically different (LSD, P ≤ 0.05).

In the first sampling (27 das), the four fertility indicators evaluated (N, OM, P and K) resulted higher in the composted treatments (Figure 4). Total N in soil decreased during the trial, probably due to ammonium washout from cattle manure, which would have caused pH elevation (Figure 4a). OM also decreased during the trial, with a slight increase in the last sampling probably due to the contribution of leaf residues from the garlic crop itself and from weeds (Figure 4b). Soil P content was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in Co treatments, due to the lower mobility of this nutrient in the soil, especially at the alkaline pH of the region (Figure 4c).

Figure 4 Changes in soil fertility indicators in garlic crop with different fertilization sources: a) nitrogen, b) organic matter, c) phosphorus and d) potassium. Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. 

The different chemical forms of N in soil could justify the higher calibers observed in the Mi treatment, although the total yields with the three treatments resulted similar. Rodrigues et al. (2019) also observed no differences in total N content in pot soils with olive plants after 18 months when applying eight fertilization treatments, which included mineral fertilization, biochar and different organic residues.

The Co treatment significantly (P ≤ 0.05) modified soil fertility indicators when the crop was in the field. In that treatment, higher values of MO, P and K (1.2, 3.5 and 1.5 times, respectively) were observed than in soils with Mi or Co+Mi (Table 2). This condition will favor the successor crop.

Table 2 Fertility indicators recorded in the first 5 cm of soil at harvest of garlic produced with different fertilization sources. 

Fertilization treatment Total nitrogen (g·100g-1) Organic matter (g·100g-1) Extractable phosphorus (mg·kg-1) Exchangeable potassium (mg·kg-1)
Co 0.21 ± 0.01 az 3.35 ± 0.06 a 97.6 ± 18.1 a 906 ± 69 a
Mi 0.20 ± 0.01 a 2.90 ± 0.11 b 27.7 ± 5.9 b 632 ± 75 b
Co+Mi 0.20 ± 0.01 a 3.03 ± 0.02 b 33.8 ± 3.4 b 606 ± 22 b
P 0.065 0.012 0.008 0.022

Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. Each value corresponds to the average of three samples ± standard error. zMeans with the same letter in each column are not statistically different (LSD, P ≤ 0.05).

Rodrigues et al. (2019) found no differences in P content in soils with different sources of organic residues, but they started from a soil with higher P content and acid pH; in addition, they observed no improvement in OM content with the treatments tested. P availability in soil is associated with neutral pH and high OM contents (Andrades & Martínez, 2014); although Paladino et al. (2019) had higher organic carbon content and lower EC in urban soils with three years of agroecological production.

The behavior of the biological activities was similar in the three treatments during the crop cycle. In general, the three biological parameters were higher with the Co treatment during the whole cycle; this was due to the contribution of microorganisms present in the onion and cattle manure compost used (Figure 5). The increase in respiration of soil microorganisms in the last sampling could be due to the interaction of this activity with an irrigation event and the mechanical work carried out for weed removal prior to harvest. This effect was not seen in esterase and dehydrogenase activities because, being extracellular enzymes, they could have percolated with irrigation.

Figure 5 Behavior of biological activities of soil garlic crop exposed to different fertilization sources: a) respiration (mgCO2·kgss -1 for 7 days), b) esterase activity (µgFDA·g-1) and c) dehydrogenase activity (mgTFF·g-1). Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. 

Biological parameters at the end of the crop cycle were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) with Co, being 37, 26 and 54 % higher than Mi treatment for respiration, esterase activity and dehydrogenase activity, respectively (Table 3). Based on the above, the contribution of organic fertilizer for soil nutrient cycling is promising. Di Ciocco et al. (2014), with continuous farming, reported decreases in soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity, justifying the need to contribute microorganisms to the soil.

Table 3 Biological activities in the first 5 cm of the soil at the time of harvesting garlic exposed to different sources of fertilization. 

Fertilization treatment Respiration (mgCO2·kgss -1 for 7 days) Esterase activity (μgFDA·g-1) Dehydrogenase activity (mgTFF·g-1)
Co 478.1 ± 46.8 az 28.1 ± 0.5 a 24.5 ± 0.2 a
Mi 303.4 ± 27.2 b 22.2 ± 2.1 b 15.9 ± 1.2 b
Co+Mi 343.3 ± 9.5 b 23.7 ± 0.9 ab 14.8 ± 1.7 b
P 0.017 0.048 0.002

Co = compost of onion residues and cattle manure; Mi = monoammonium phosphate and urea; Co+Mi = compost + monoammonium phosphate and urea. Each value corresponds to the average of three samples ± standard error. zMeans with the same letter in each column are not statistically different (LSD, P ≤ 0.05).

The contribution of organic matter favors microbial activity, which is why Cebadero-Cayetano et al. (2020) noted an increase in dehydrogenase activity in plots with a constant supply of litterfall, such as an esparto grass or oak. Similarly, in the present study, the increase in organic matter stimulated the biological activities present in soil nutrient cycling.

Spearman's correlation coefficient shows that soil respiration is significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and positively correlated with EC, SAR and OM; esterase activity, with N and P, and dehydrogenase activity, with pH and SAR. The latter was also negatively correlated with EC (Table 4). Di Ciocco et al. (2014) had correlation between soil respiration and EC, OM and sodium, in addition to correlating positively with other chemical variables such as P, N and pH, which was not observed in the present study, since the soil showed higher pH and lower content of N and P. These authors analyzed nitrogenase activity, and it correlated positively with other physicochemical variables to those observed with respiration.

Table 4 Correlation between microbiological and physical-chemical parameters according to Spearman. 

Parameter Soil respiration Esterase activity Dehydrogenase activity
pH 0.228 -0.017 0.620*
CE 0.319* 0.102 -0.381*
SAR 0.415* -0.256 0.509*
N -0.020 0.434* -0.032
MO 0.573* -0.036 -0.057
P 0.195 0.480* 0.051
K 0.243 -0.123 0.206

*Significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05). EC = electrical conductivity; SAR = sodium absorption ratio; N = total nitrogen; OM = organic matter; P = extractable phosphorus; K = potassium.


In the first phase of the agroecological transition, with the progressive elimination of agrochemicals and the substitution of synthetic inputs by alternative or organic inputs (composting), yields similar to those achieved with traditional management were reported.

The use of compost from onion production residues and cattle manure in morado garlic crop increased soil fertility (OM, P and K) and biological parameters (microbial respiration, esterase activity and dehydrogenase activity). On the other hand, no differences were observed with mineral fertilization in electrical conductivity or in the sodium absorption ratio at the end of the crop cycle, despite having higher values at the beginning. These differences may have been due to the successive irrigations carried out.

The implementation of composting previous crops residues was a positive alternative to be implemented in the first phase of the agroecological transition of morado garlic crops with gravity irrigation at the lower valley of the Negro river.


Alef, K. (1995). Field methods. In: Alef, K., & Nannipieri, P. (Eds), Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry (pp. 463-490). Academic Press Inc. [ Links ]

Andrades, M., & Martínez, M. (2014). Fertilidad del suelo y parámetros que la definen. Universidad de La Rioja. ]

Benedicto-Valdés, G., Montoya-García, C., Vicente-Hernández, Z., Ramírez-Ayala, C., & Escalante-Estrada, J. (2019). Incorporación de abonos orgánicos y liberación de C-CO2 como indicador de la mineralización del carbono. Ecosistemas Recursos Agropecuarios, 6(18), 513-522. [ Links ]

Burba, J. L., Portela, J. A., & Lanzavechia, S. (2005). Argentine garlic I: a wide offer of clonal cultivars. Acta Horticulturae, 688, 291-296. [ Links ]

Carelli, G., & Defendente, L. (2018). Evaluación del efecto del abono orgánico, mulching vegetal y fertilización química en el cultivo de rúcula (Eruca sativa L.) en un invernadero con riego por goteo en Toay La Pampa. Semiárida, 28(2), 59-64. ]

Casida, L. E., Klein, D. A., & Santoro, T. (1964). Soil dehydrogenase activity. Soil Science, 98(6), 371-376. ]

Cebadero-Cayetano, M., Torres-Cordero, J. A., Siles-Colmenero, G., & Fernández-Ondoño, E. (2020). Cambios en el suelo por la utilización de ganado ovino en olivar ecológico. Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 10(1), 16-28. [ Links ]

Di Ciocco, C. A., Sandler, R. V., Falco, L. B., & Coviella, C. E. (2014). Actividad microbiológica de un suelo sometido a distintos usos y su relación con variables físico-químicas. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, 46(1), 73-85. ]

Di Rienzo, J., Casanoves, F., Balzarini, M., Gonzalez, L., Tablada, M., & Robledo, C. (2015). InfoStat software estadístico ver. 2015. ]

Doran, J. W., & Parkin, B. T. (1994). Defining and assessing soil quality. In: Doran, J. W., Coleman, D. C., Bezdicek, D. F., & Stewart, B. A. (Eds), Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment (pp. 1-21). Soil Science Society of America, Inc. [ Links ]

Fernández, V. (2019). Estimación de volúmenes y calibres de ajo: temporada 2018/2019. Instituto de Desarrollo Rural. ]

Ghaemi, M., Astaraei, A. R., Emami, H., Nassiri-Mahalati, M., & Sanaeinejad, S. H. (2014). Determining soil indicators for soil sustainability assessment using principal component analysis of Astan Quds- east of Mashhad- Iran. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 14(4), 1005-1020. [ Links ]

Paladino, I. R., Sokolowski, A. C., Wolski, J. E., Bregante, J., Visentini, J. V., Rodríguez, H., Rodriguez, E. P., Gagey, M. C., De Grazia, J., Debelis, S., & Barrios, M. B. (2019). Efecto de la horticultura agroecológica sobre propiedades químicas de suelos urbanos del gran La Plata. Reunión Argentina de Geoquímica de la Superficie, 5, 42-45. ]

Paterlini, H., González, M. V., & Picone, L. (2019). Producción de lechuga en un suelo con aplicación de compost de cama de pollo. Ciencia del Suelo, 37(1), 38-50. ]

Pellejero, G., Miglierina, A., Aschkar, G., Turcato, M., & Jiménez-Ballesta, R. (2017). Effects of the onion residue compost as an organic fertilizer in a vegetable culture in the Lower Valley of the Rio Negro. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 6, 159-166. [ Links ]

Pellejero, G., Palacios, J., Vela, E., Gajardo, O., Albrecht, L., Aschkar, G., Chrorolque, A., García-Navarro, F. J., & Jiménez-Ballesta, R. (2021). Effect of the application of compost as an organic fertilizer on a tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced in the field in the lower valley of the río Negro (Argentina). International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture , 10(2), 145-155. [ Links ]

Rodrigues, M. A., Garmus, T., Arrobas, M., Gonçalves, A., Silva, E., Rocha, L., Pinto, L., Brito, C., Martins, S., Vargas, T., & Correia, C.M. (2019). Combined biochar and organic waste have little effect on chemical soil properties and plant growth. Spanish Journal of Soil Science , 9(3), 199-211. [ Links ]

Ruiz, C., Russián, T., & Tua, D. (2007). Efecto de la fertilización orgánica en el cultivo de la cebolla. Agronomía Tropical, 57(1), 7-14. ]

Sarandón, S., & Flores, C. (2014). La agroecología: el enfoque necesario para una agricultura sustentable. In: Sarandón, S., & Flores, C. (Eds), Agroecología: bases teóricas para el diseño y manejo de agroecosistemas sustentables. Edulp. [ Links ]

Seba, N., Doñate, M. T., Sidoti-Hartmann, B., Baffoni, P., Muzi, E., Cecchini, V., Tellería-Marloth, A., & Bezic, C. (2017). Producción hortícola diversificada en el Valle Inferior del Río Negro. Modelos socio-productivos vigentes y su potencial para la intensificación ecológica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. ]

Tadila, G., & Nigusie, D. (2018). Effect of manure and nitrogen rates on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 10(9), 135-142. [ Links ]

Received: April 19, 2021; Accepted: July 03, 2022

*Corresponding author:, tel. 54 29 20 54 85 63.

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License