SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.10 número4Respuesta fisiológica de semillas de chile ancho (Capsicum annuum L.) a reguladores de crecimientoRendimiento de forraje y valor nutritivo de alfalfa a diferentes intervalos de corte índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO


Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.10 no.4 Texcoco may./jun. 2019  Epub 22-Mayo-2020 


Salicylic acid increases the accumulation of macro and micronutrients in habanero pepper

César J. Tucuch-Haas1 

Jesica V. Pérez-Balam2 

María G. Dzib-Ek2 

Gabriel Alcántar-González3 

Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra2  § 

1Instituto Tecnológico Superior del Sur del estado de Yucatán. Carretera Muna-Felipe Carrillo Puerto, tramo Oxkutzcab-Akil km 41+400, Oxkutzcab, Yucatán, México. CP. 97830.

2Recursos Naturales-Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán. Chuburna de Hidalgo, Mérida, Yucatán, México. CP. 97200. Tel. 01(999) 9428330. (;

3Edafología-Colegio de Postgraduados. Carretera Federal México-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México. CP. 56230. Tel. 01(595) 9520200. (


The results of the effect of salicylic acid (AS) on the nutritional absorption of Capsicum chinense are presented. 1 μM of AS was sprayed on the canopy of habanero pepper seedlings and distilled water as control. The results obtained show that aspersions of 1μM of salicylic acid (SA) significantly increase the length, weight, weight and dry weight of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of this species, as well as the levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) ) and potassium (K) in the different organs of the plants at the time of harvest. The accumulation of N, P and K was higher in fruits (116, 110 and 97%), leaves (45.5, 39.4 and 29.1%), root (52.6, 17.0 and 29.4%) and in stem (5, 39.4 and 28.3%) on the values of the control plant. The levels of copper, zinc, manganese, iron, boron, calcium and magnesium were also increased in most tissues by the effect of AS. It is proposed that the positive effect of the AS of increasing the size of the roots favors the absorption and accumulation of macro and micronutrients in the tissues of the plant.

Keywords: foliar spray; habanero pepper; leaves and fruits; macro and micronutrients; root; salicylic acid; stem


Se presentan los resultados del efecto del ácido salicílico (AS) en la absorción nutrimental de Capsicum chinense. Se asperjó 1 µM de AS, al dosel de plántulas de chile habanero y agua destilada como control. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que aspersiones de 1µM de ácido salicílico(AS) incrementa significativamente la longitud, peso freso y peso seco de raíces, tallos, hojas y frutos de esta especie, al igual que los niveles de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K) en los diferentes órganos de las plantas al momento de la cosecha. La acumulación de N, P y K fue superior en frutos (116, 110 y 97%), hojas (45.5, 39.4 y 29.1%) raíz (52.6, 17 y 29.4%) y en tallo (5, 39.4 y 28.3%) sobre los valores de la planta control. Los niveles de cobre, zinc, manganeso, hierro, boro, calcio y magnesio también fueron incrementados en la mayoría de los tejidos por el efecto del AS. Se propone que el efecto positivo del AS de incrementar el tamaño de las raíces favorece la absorción y acumulación de macro y micronutrientes en los tejidos de la planta.

Palabras clave: ácido salicílico; aspersión foliar; chile habanero; hojas y frutos; macro y micronutrientes; raíz; tallo


Salicylic acid (AS) is a phenolic compound whose endogenous levels in plants are increased in response to biotic stress (He et al., 2007) and abiotic (Miura and Tada, 2014). However, foliar applications of this compound to plants induces physiological and biochemical responses that favor growth, development and yield (Hayat et al., 2010; Miura and Tada, 2014).

In some crops of agricultural importance such as grapes, tobacco, corn and wheat, the application of AS regulates photosynthesis (Wang et al., 2010); electron transport of photosystem II (Wang et al., 2010; Janda et al., 2012), transpiration and stomatal conductance (Fahad and Bano, 2012). In other crops it has also been reported that it increases plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, number of fruits or grains and shortens the days to flowering (Villanueva-Couoh et al., 2009; Martín-Mex et al., 2012; Tavares et al., 2014), favoring greater bioproductivity (Larqué-Saavedra and Martín-Mex, 2007; Martín-Mex et al., 2013).

On the other hand, several authors point out that AS favors the accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues under conditions of salt stress (Gunes et al., 2007; Khan et al., 2010; Fahad and Bano, 2012) or heavy metals (Chen et al., 2007; Fatima et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2015).

In wheat roots the AS favors the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA), favoring the increase of the cellular division of the apical meristem (Shakirova et al., 2003), while in transformed roots of Catharanthus, the AS increases the size of the cap and the production of lateral roots (Echevarría-Machado et al., 2007). The stimulation of the growth of the root by the application of low concentrations of AS was, reported since 1998 in soy (Gutiérrez-Coronado et al., 1998) in corn and wheat (Tucuch et al., 2015; Tucuch-Haas et al., 2016) as well as the area, volume and perimeter in tomato roots (Larqué-Saavedra et al., 2010).

Habanero pepper is a crop that in recent years, in the Yucatan Peninsula, has gained great importance, due to its demand both nationally and internationally, for the various uses it is given; however, the national production, the demand is not covered, which is why they are looking for production strategies that favor the yield of this crop.

Given the effects that have been reported in the exogenous application of AS, such as the fact that it favors radical development and that it increases the area of soil exploration, it has been proposed that this effect could favor a greater absorption of nutrients in the cultivation of habanero pepper, which would result in a higher yield of the fruit, hypothesis that was tested in the present investigation.

Materials and methods

The present work was carried out in a tunnel type greenhouse of the Scientific Research Center of Yucatán (CICY), located in the city of Mérida, Yucatán. Habanero pepper seeds (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), an orange variety from Geneseeds, were grown in a mixture of Peat moss and agrolita in a ratio of 2:1 (v/v) in polystyrene trays. Developed seedlings were sprayed, until drip point, in the morning (8:00 am) with a solution of 1μM of AS, as treatment or distilled water as a control at 17, 22, 25 and 30 days after sowing.

Fifty days after sowing, each seedling was transplanted into a plastic pot with a capacity of 5 L, which contained a mixture of soil and peat moss in a ratio of 2:1 (v/v), under greenhouse conditions, arranged in a design of complete blocks at random, with five repetitions, where they were allowed to grow until the time of harvest. The salicylic acid (AS) solution was prepared following the methodology defined by Gutiérrez-Coronado et al. (1998), which consists of starting from the molecular weight, which is 138.12 g mol-1. A 10-2 M stock solution was prepared and by rule of three the concentration of 1 μM was obtained. The product was weighed on an analytical balance and subsequently dissolved in distilled water.

At the end of the experiment (218 days after the last application), plant height data were collected, measured with a millimeter rule from the base of the stem to the terminal apex, stem diameter, taken at 5 cm from the soil with a vernier digital and fresh and dry weight of fruits, stem and root, quantified by means of an analytical balance (Sartorius, BL3100). To determine the nutritional content of the fruits, leaves, stems and roots, the tissue samples were placed in an oven (Binder, FED720) at 70 °C until constant weight was reached and ground for laboratory analysis. The concentration of nitrogen (N) was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method and the rest of the elements by means of readings of extracts from diacid wet digestion according to the technique described by Alcantar and Sandoval (1999), using a spectroscopy equipment of Atomic emission of plasma induction (ICP-OES, Agilent 725-OES, Australia).

Once the concentrations of each element in tissue and fruit were obtained, we considered these and the aerial dry biomass weights, for the estimation of the total contents. The results of the estimated variables were analyzed by means of an analysis of variance and the comparison of means by the Tukey method (p≤ 0.05), using statistical package Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2004).

Results and discussion

In the Table 1 reports the values of plant height and stem diameter. The results reflect that the AS (1 μM) significantly increased the height of the plant, 24.3% corresponding to 16.9 cm, not so for the diameter of the stem that was not significant. In the same Table 1, it can be seen that the AS significantly affected the fresh and dry weights of the root, stem, leaf and fruits, showing increments of 36.6, 23.3, 35.8 and 117% in fresh weight and 36.6, 45.3, 21.3 and 122% in dry weight, respectively in root, stem, leaf and fruit. The increase in fruit weight suggests a higher yield.

Table 1 Effect of 1 μM of salicylic acid (AS), sprinkled on the canopy of seedlings, in different development and growth variables at the time of harvest (218 days after the last application) in habanero pepper plants. 

(cm) (g planta-1)
Control 69.4 b 1.04 a 18.7 b 66.6 b 85.5 b 31.8 b 15.9 b 56.2 b 44.8 b 6.26 b
1 µM 86.3 a 1.12 a 25.5 a 90.8 a 105.4a 46.2 a 21.6 a 68.2 a 97.4 a 13.9 a

AP= plant height; DT= Diameter of the stem; PFR= fresh weight of the root; PSR= fresh weight of the root; PFT= fresh weight of the stem; PFH= fresh weight of the leaf; PS = dry weight of the leaf; PFF= fresh weight of the fruit and PSF= dry weight of the fruit. Values with the same letter within columns are equal according to the Tukey test at p= 0.05. Each value is the average of 5 individuals.

Similar effects for these variables have been reported in other species of the same genus of Capsicum (pepper and jalapeño) (Elwan and El-Hamahmy, 2009, Sánchez-Chávez et al., 2011), as well as in Lycopersicum esculentum (Larqué-Saavedra et al., 2010), Crysanthemum morifolium (Villanueva-Couoh et al., 2009); Carica papaya (Martin-Mex et al., 2012); Oryza sativa (Anwar et al., 2013); Triticum aestivum (Hayat et al., 2005; Tucuch et al., 2015); Zea mays (Tucuch-Haas et al., 2016).

The accumulation of macroelements in the different plant organs (root, stem, leaf and fruit), by action of 1 μM of AS, are presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Content of macronutrients in different organs of habanero pepper plants, sprinkled to the canopy of seedlings with 1 μM of salicylic acid (AS). Estimated at 128 days after the last application. 

Tissue Treatment N P K Ca Mg
(mg planta-1)
Fruit Control 150.18 b 12.41 b 101.12 b 33.81 a 11.22 b
1 µM de AS 325.72 a 26.13 a 199.37 a 34.83 a 19.85 a
Leaf Control 440.93 b 26.01 b 108.79 b 417.1 b 78.44 b
1 µM de AS 641.94 a 36.27 a 140.46 a 616.33 a 131.27 a
Stem Control 512.14 b 16.09 b 142.62 b 311.55 b 111.95 a
1 µM de AS 561.04 a 20.97 a 183.12 a 437.62 a 191.36 b
Stem Control 1353.53 b 90.04 b 475.03 b 1819.98 a 303.65 a
1 µM de AS 2065.7 a 105.88 a 615.12 a 1861.48 a 382.28 a

Values with the same letter in each tissue within columns are equal according to the Tukey test at p= 0.05. Each value is the average of 5 individuals.

The obtained results indicate that the AS significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in all the organics studied in comparison with the control. The effect of AS on the N content was 116% in fruits, 52.6% in roots, 45.5% in leaves and 5% in stems compared to the control. For P, the increase was 110.5% in fruits, 39.4% in leaves, 39.4% in stems and 17% in roots, in relation to control values.

The quantification of microelements by the effect of AS was also analyzed. The data of Iron (Fe) accumulation in the different organs is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Effect of aspersions of 1 μM salicylic acid on the content of Fe in root, leaf, stem and fruit, in habanero pepper plants. Bars with the same letter are equal according to the Tukey test at p= 0.05. Each value is the average of 5 individuals.  

It is appreciated that this element accumulated significantly in the aerial part of the plant. The highest positive effect is reported for the stem with more than 100%, followed by the fruit with 99.5% and the leaf with 55.5%. No increments of this element were found in the root.

And for K the values surpassed the control in 97.1% in the fruit, 29.4 in the root, 29.1% in the leaves and in 28.3% in the stem. This behavior coincides with that reported by Tucuch-Haas et al. (2017) for the cultivation of corn, where an increase of N, P and K in tissue and grain was observed. On the other hand, the aspersions of the AS significantly increased the calcium (Ca) content in 47.7% in the leaves and 40% in the stems, compared to the levels found in the control. The contents of this element were also superior to root and fruit control, although these differences were not statistically significant.

The effect of AS also significantly favored the accumulation of magnesium (Mg) in 76.9% of the fruits, 67.3% in the leaves and 67.3% in the stems compared with the control treatment. At the root, although the Mg content for the plats sprayed with AS was not significant, they also exceeded the 9% control.

Calcium (Ca) was also found in significantly higher levels in stems and leaves of plants treated with AS compared to control, but not in fruits and roots. The low effect of AS on the accumulation of Ca in the fruits, could be explained as a consequence of its low mobility and tendency to accumulate in the older tissues, which also supports the significant effect on stems and leaves (Monge et al., 1994).

In the Figure 2 shows the results of the levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) present in the tissues of plants by the effect of AS. The contents of these four elements, in fruits and leaves, significantly outperformed the control, except for Cu, which was not significant. In the stem of the plants treated with AS, although the contents of Mn and B exceeded the control, these values were not significant, like Cu and Zn, in which values similar to the control were obtained.

Figure 2 Content of micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, B) in roots, leaves, stems and fruits of Habanero pepper plants sprinkled with 1 μM of salicylic acid. Bars with the same letter within each graph are equal according to the Tukey test at p= 0.05. Each value is the average of 5 individuals.  

At the root, the AS significantly increased the content of B, while the Cu and Mn levels were lower in the treated plants compared to the control. The levels of Zn in the roots were not affected by the sprinkling of the AS.

The lower accumulation in the roots of Fe, Cu and Mn, with respect to the control, could be due to a greater demand of these elements in the aerial part, since the AS increases the photosynthetic activity (Ghansemzadhe and Jaafar, 2013) and accumulation of chlorophylls (Vazirimehr and Rigi, 2014), where these elements participate (Alcántar and Trejo, 2007), the Fe to increase efficiency in the electron transport chain (Wang et al., 2010; Janda et al., 2012), Mn in the photolysis of water and Cu bound to plastocyanin (Alcántar and Trejo, 2007).

The results obtained in the present investigation prove that the AS favors the nutritional status of habanero pepper plants and supports the results obtained by Guzmán-Antonio et al. (2012), who reported a greater accumulation of N, P, K Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, in seedlings of this same species, when AS is supplied together with fertilization. They also coincide with the work of Villanueva-Couoh et al. (2009); Khan et al. (2010) who found a higher content of N, P and K, in chrysanthemum and beans.

Possibly the effect of the AS of increasing the content of macros and microelements in fruits, is a fundamental component to explain the positive effect of increasing fruit yield, as has been reported by Martín et al. (2004, 2005) who point to increases of up to 23% in fruits of this crop when sprinkling 1 μM of AS; while in other crops such as tomato (Javaheri et al., 2012), cucumber (Martín-Mex et al., 2013) and pepper (Elwan and El-Hamahmy, 2009) were found increases of 32, 33 and 82% respectively, with the sprinkling of the same concentration.

It is also possible to consider that this increase in macro and micronutrient is part of the answer to why the quality of the fruit is increased, measured by the increase in color, firmness, total soluble solids, vitamins C, lycopene and brix degrees in different fruits and vegetables (Elwan and El-Hamahmy, 2009; Karlidag et al., 2009; Javaheri et al., 2012). The results obtained in habanero pepper culture confirm the ability of this molecule to act as a regulator of plant growth (Rivas-San Vicente and Plascencia, 2011) and suggests that the spraying of 1 μM of AS is sufficient to trigger favorable responses has been published for other families and plant species of agricultural importance (Larqué-Saavedra and Martín-Mex, 2007; Martín-Mex et al., 2013).


Foliar sprays of 1 μM of salicylic acid (AS) to the canopy of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) seedlings significantly increases the length, weight, and dry weight of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of this species, as well as favoring the accumulation of macro and micronutrients that benefit their growth and development.

Literatura citada

Alcántar, G. G. y Sandoval, V. M. 1999. Manual de análisis químico de tejido vegetal. Publicación especial 10. Sociedad Mexicana de la Ciencia del Suelo. Chapingo, México. 156 p. [ Links ]

Alcántar, G. G.; Trejo-Téllez, L. I. T; Fernández, P. L. y Rodríguez, M. M. N. 2007. Elementos ensenciales. In: Alcántar, G. G. y Trejo-Téllez, L. (Eds.). Nutrición de cultivos. Mundi-Prensa. México. 451 p. [ Links ]

Anwar, S.; Iqbal, M.; Raza, S. H. and Iqbal, N. 2013. Eficacy of seed preconditionning with salicylic and ascorbic acid in increasing vigor of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedling. Pak. J. Bot. 45(1):157-162. [ Links ]

Chen, J.; Zhu, C.; Li, L.; Sun, Z. and Pan, X. 2007. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and H2O2 metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress. J. Environ. sci. 19(1):44-49. [ Links ]

Echevarría-Machado, I.; Escobedo, R. M. and Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2007. Responses of transformed Catharanthus roseus roots to femtomolar concentrations of salicylic acid. Plant physiol. Biochem. 45(6):501-507. [ Links ]

Elwan, M. W. M and El-Hamahmy, M. A. M. 2009. Improved productivity and quality associated with salicylic acid application in greenhouse pepper. Sci. Hortic. 122(4):521-526. [ Links ]

Fahad, S. and Bano, A. 2012. Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characterization of maize grown in saline area. Pak. J. Bot. 44(4):1433-1438. [ Links ]

Fatima, R. N.; Javed, F. and Wahid, A. 2014. Salicylic acid modifies growth performance and nutrient status of rice (Oryza sativa) under cadmium Stress. Int. J. Agric & Biol. 16(6):1083-1090. [ Links ]

Ghasemzadeh, A. and Jaafar, H. Z. E. 2013. Interactive effect of salicylic acid on some physiological features and antioxidant enzymes activity in ginger (Zingiber officinale R.). Molecules. 18(5):5965-5979. [ Links ]

Gunes, A.; Inal A.; Alpaslan, M.; Eraslan, F.; Bagci, E. G. and Cicek, N. 2007. Salicylic acid changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. J. Plant Physiol. 164(6):728-736. [ Links ]

Gutiérrez-Coronado, M. A.; Trejo-López, C. and Larqué-Saavedra, A. 1998. Effects of salicylic acid on the growth of roots and shoots in soybean. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 36(8):563-565. [ Links ]

Guzmán-Antonio, A.; Borges-Gómez, L.; Pinzón-López, L.; Ruiz-Sánchez, E. y Zuñiga-Aguilar, J. 2012. Efecto del ácido salicílico y la nutrición mineral sobre la calidad de plántulas de chile habanero. Agrom. Mesoam. 23(2):247-257. [ Links ]

Hayat, Q.; Hayat, S.; Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 68(1):14-25. [ Links ]

Hayat, S.; Fariduddin Q.; Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. 2005. Effect of salicylic acid on growth and enzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agron. Hung. 53(4):433-437. [ Links ]

He, W.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Li, M. and Chen, Y. 2007. Tetranychus urticae Koch induced accumulation of salicylic acid in frijole leaves. Pestic. Biochem. Phys. 88(1):78-81. [ Links ]

Janda, K.; Hideg, E.; Szalai, G.; Kovács, L. and Janda, T. 2012. Salicylic acid may indirectly influence the photosynthetic electron transport. J. Plant Physiol. 169(10):971-978. [ Links ]

Javaheri, M.; Mashayekhi, K.; Dadkhah, A. and Zaker, F. T. 2012. Effects of salicylic acid on yield quality characters of tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). Int. J. Agr. Crop Sci. 4(16):1184-1187. [ Links ]

Karlidag, H.; Yildirim, E. and Turan, M. 2009. Exogenous application of salicylic acid affect quality and yield of strawberry grown under antifrost heated greenhouse conditions. J. Plant. Nutr. Soil Sci. 172(2):270-276. [ Links ]

Khan, N. A.; Syeed, S.; Masood, A.; Nazar R. and Iqbal, N. 2010. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mungbean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. Int. J. Plant Biol. 1(1):1-8. [ Links ]

Larqué-Saavedra, A. and Martín-Mex, R. 2007. Effects of salicylic acid on the bioproductivity of the plants. In: Salicilylic acid, a plant hormone. Hayat, S. and Ahmad, Ahmad, A. (Eds.). Springer publishers, Dortdrech, The Netherlands. 15-23 pp. [ Links ]

Larqué-Saavedra, A.; Martín-Mex R.; Nexticapan-Garcéz, A.; Vergara-Yoisura, S. y Gutiérrez-Rendón, M. 2010. Efecto del ácido salicílico en el crecimiento de plántulas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 16(3):183-187. [ Links ]

Martín, M. R.; Nexticapn, G. A.; Vega, M. L.; Baak, P. A. y Larqué S. A. 2005. Efecto del ácido salicílico en la floración y productividad de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Segunda Convención Mundial del chile. Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México. 325-326 pp. [ Links ]

Martín-Mex, R.; López-Gutiérrez, R.; Medina-Arceo, J.; Cruz-Campos, J.; Nexticapan-Garcéz, A.; González-Rodríguez, F. y Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2004. Incremento en la productividad de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) por aspersiones de ácido salicílico. Primera Convención Mundial del chile. León, Guanajuato, México. 326 p. [ Links ]

Martín-Mex, R.; Nexticapan-Garcéz, A.; Herrera-Tuz, R.; Vergara-Yoisura, S. y Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2012. Efecto positivo de aplicaciones de ácido salicílico en la productividad de papaya (Carica papaya). Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agric. 3(8):1637-1643. [ Links ]

Martín-Mex, R.; Nexticapan-Garcéz, A. and Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2013. Potential benefits of salicylic acid in food production. In: Salicylic acid. Hayat, S.; Ahmad, A. and Alyemeni, M. N. (Eds.). Springer publishers, Dortdrech, The Netherlands. 299-313 pp. [ Links ]

Miura, K. and Tada, Y. 2014. Regulation of water, salinity and cold stress responses by salicylic acid. Front. Plant Sci. 5(1):1-12. [ Links ]

Monge, E.; Val, J.; Sanz, M.; Blanco, A. y Montañés, L. 1994. El calcio nutriente para las plantas. Bitter pit en manzano. An. Estac. Exp. Aula Dei (Zaragoza). 21(3):189-201. [ Links ]

Rivas-San Vicente, M. and Plasencia, J. 2011. Salicylic acid beyond its role in plant growth and development. J. Exp. Bot. 1(10):1-18. [ Links ]

Sánchez-Chávez, E.; Barrera-Tovar, R.; Muñoz-Márquez, E.; Ojeda-Barrios, D. L. y Anchondo-Nájera, A. 2011. Efecto del ácido salicílico sobre biomasa, actividad fotosintética, contenido nutricional del chile jalapeño. Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 17(1):63-66. [ Links ]

SAS. 2004. Statistical Analysis System Institute. SAS Proceeding Guide, Version 8.1. SAS Institute. Cary, NC. USA. [ Links ]

Shakirova, F. M.; Sakhabutdinova, A. R.; Bezrukova, M. V.; Fatkhutdinova, R. A. and Fatkhutdinova, D. R. 2003. Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Sci. 164(3):317-322. [ Links ]

Singh, A. P.; Dixit, G.; Misha, S.; Dwivedi, S.; Tiwari, M.; Mallick, S.; Pandey, V.; Trivedi, P. K.; Chakrabarty, D. and Tripathi, R. D. 2015. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Front. Plant Sci. 6(1)1-28. [ Links ]

Tavares, L. C.; Araújo, R. C.; De Oliva, S.; Pich, B. A. and Amaral, V. F. 2014. Treatment of rice sedes with salicylic acid: seed physiological quality and yield. J. Seed Sci. 36(3):352-356. [ Links ]

Tucuch, H. C. J.; Alcántar, G. G. y Larqué, S. A. 2015. Efecto del ácido salicílico en el crecimiento de la raíz y biomasa total de plántulas de trigo. Terra Latinoam. 33(1):63-68. [ Links ]

Tucuch-Haas, C. J.; Alcántar-González, G.; Volke-Haller, V. H.; Salinas-Moreno, Y.; Trejo-Téllez, L. I. y Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2016. Efecto del ácido salicílico sobre el crecimiento de raíz de plántulas de maíz. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agric. 7(3):709-716. [ Links ]

Tucuch-Haas, C.; Alcántar-González, G.; Trejo-Téllez, L. I.; Volke-Haller, H.; Salinas-Moreno, Y. y Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2017. Efecto del ácido salicílico en el crecimiento, estatus nutrimental y rendimiento en maíz (Zea mays). Agrociencia. 51(7):771-781. [ Links ]

Vazirimehr, M. R. and Rigi, K. 2014. Effect of salicylic acid in agriculture. Int. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci. 4(2):291-296. [ Links ]

Villanueva-Couoh, E.; Alcántar-González, G.; Sánchez-García, P.; Soria-Fregoso, M. y Larqué-Saavedra, A. 2009. Efecto del ácido salicílico y dimetilsulfóxido en la floración de Chrysanthemun morifolium (Ramat) Kitamura en Yucatán. Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 15(2):25-31. [ Links ]

Wang, L.; Fan, L.; Loescher, W.; Duan, W.; Liu, G.; Cheng, J. and Luo, S. L. H. 2010. Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves. BMC Plant Biology. 10(34):1-10. [ Links ]

Received: March 01, 2019; Accepted: May 01, 2019

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons