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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.9 no.4 Texcoco mar./jun. 2018 

Description of cultivars

HAM14F: mulatto wide chili hybrid for the North-Central Mexico Highlands

Ulises Santiago López1  § 

Moisés Ramírez Meraz2 

Reinaldo Méndez Aguilar2 

1Experimental Field San Luis-INIFAP. Highway San Luis Potosí-Matehuala km 14.5, Ejido Palma de la Cruz, Soledad de Graciano, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. CP. 78431. (

2Experimental Field the Huastecas-INIFAP. Highway Tampico-Mante km 55, Villa Cuauhtémoc, Tamaulipas, Mexico. CP. 89610. (;


The mulato wide chili is demanded mainly in dry or dehydrated state. In Mexico, as a basic ingredient of traditional dishes, it has great gastronomic, economic and social importance. In 2014, 1 878 ha of this type of chili were harvested nationally with a production of 3 869 t and an average yield of 2.1 t ha-1. Obtaining low yields in the producing areas, mainly in the North-Central High Plateau of Mexico, is due to the high use of unimproved or creole seed, which is estimated to be sowed 80% of the area dedicated to this crop. In order to mitigate the aforementioned problems, the hybrid mulato wide chili HAM14F was developed, which reaches a height of 80 to 95 cm and has good foliage coverage, 60 to 75 cm in diameter. It is considered early cycle because the flowering and maturation of the fruit occurs at 40 and 135 days after transplantation (ddt), respectively. It produces dark green fruits that turn dark brown with a strong brilliance in a mature state. This hybrid has an average open-air yield of 3.8 t ha-1, 21.1% higher than that of the AM-VR variety (3 t ha-1). For the aforementioned, HAM14F is considered a good alternative for the North-Central Plateau of Mexico.

Keywords: Capsicum annuum L.; vegetable; yield


El chile ancho mulato es demandado principalmente en estado seco o deshidratado. En México, por ser ingrediente básico de platillos tradicionales tiene gran importancia gastronómica, económica y social. En 2014, a nivel nacional se cosecharon 1 878 ha de este tipo de chile con una producción de 3 869 t y rendimiento promedio de 2.1 t ha-1. La obtención de bajos rendimientos en las áreas productoras, principalmente en el altiplano norte-centro de México, es debida al elevado uso de semilla no mejorada o criolla, la cual se estima que se siembra 80% del área dedicada a este cultivo. Con la finalidad de atenuar la problemática citada, se desarrolló el híbrido de chile ancho mulato HAM14F, el cual alcanza una altura de 80 a 95 cm y tiene buena cobertura de follaje, 60 a 75 cm de diámetro. Es considerado de ciclo precoz debido a que la floración y la maduración del fruto se presenta a los 40 y 135 días después del trasplante (ddt), respectivamente. Produce frutos de color verde obscuro que se tornan a color café obscuro con una fuerte brillantez en estado maduro. Este híbrido tiene un rendimiento promedio a cielo abierto de 3.8 t ha-1, 21.1% superior al de la variedad AM-VR (3 t ha-1). Por lo antes mencionado, HAM14F se considera una buena alternativa para el Altiplano Norte-Centro de México.

Palabras clave: Capsicum annuum L.; hortaliza; rendimiento


In Mexico, the cultivation of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is the second most important vegetable (Acosta and Chávez, 2003). The greater variability of cultivated and wild forms of chili is widely distributed in our national territory. C. annuum, is the species that groups the vast majority of types and varieties grown in Mexico, including: serrano, jalapeño, morron, ancho, mirasol, pasilla and mulato (Pozo, 1981; Laborde and Pozo, 1982). Mulato wide chili is demanded mainly in dry or dehydrated state, since it allows its conservation for long periods, as well as facilitating its storage and transport (Ramiro, 2008). Because it is a basic ingredient of traditional dishes, it has great gastronomic, economic and social importance (Rodríguez et al., 2007).

At the national level, 1 878 ha of mulatto broad chili were harvested with a production of 3 869 tons and an average yield of 2.1 t ha-1 (SIAP-SIACON, 2014). Obtaining low yields in the producing areas, mainly in the North-Central Mexico Plateau (Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato) is due to several factors, among which the high use of unimproved seed or creole, which is estimated to be sown in 80% of the area dedicated to this crop (Ramiro, 2008).

Starting from the problematic and with the purpose of contributing in the competitiveness of this vegetable, the objective of the present study was to develop a hybrid of simple cross of mulato wide chili with good botanical, horticultural and production characteristics for the North-Central Plateau region from Mexico.

Hybrid registration HAM14F

It is owned by the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP) and is registered in the National Catalog of Plant Varieties (CNVV) of the National Seed Inspection and Certification Service (SNICS) with the definitive registration number CHI-029 -100415 and Breeder’s Title num. 1441.

Origin and development of the hybrid

The hybrid mulatto wide chili “HAM14F” was developed in the San Luis-INIFAP Experimental Field by the simple cross between the AM-VR variety used as a female parent, and the AM-97-45-21 line, as a male parent; both parents are property of INIFAP. The genealogy is AM-VR()7 and AM-97-45-21()7 of the variety and line, respectively, and the obtaining of the two progenitors as pure lines was by successive self-fertilization; for the formation and selection of the hybrid, the use of diallelic crosses of seven progenitors (six lines and one variety) was used, using Griffing’s design 2 (Martínez, 1983), until obtaining the hybrid of simple cross HAM14F (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Process for obtaining the hybrid HAM14F. 

Variety description

It was carried out through the use of qualitative and quantitative descriptors for chili (IPGRI-AVRDC-CATIE, 1995, SAGARPA-SNICS, 2014).

Botanical and horticultural characteristics

The HAM14F hybrid reaches a height of 80 to 95 cm and has good foliage coverage, 60 to 75 cm in diameter. The position of the plant is semi-erect with habit of dichotomous growth, the main stems have an average length of 20.25 cm and internodes of 7.8 cm. It has dark green leaves, large and wide with a value of 9.49 and 4.42 cm, respectively. HAM14F is considered to be an early cycle since flowering and maturation of the fruit occur at 40 and 135 days after transplantation (ddt), respectively; while the variety AM-VR is intermediate cycle with 48 and 140 ddt. The HAM14F hybrid produces dark green fruits that turn a dark brown color with a strong brightness in the mature state (Figure 2), while the AM-VR variety has a dark brown color and medium brightness. The hybrid has a length and diameter of fruit of 14.90 and 7.38 cm, respectively, and the pericarp of greater thickness (4.53 mm) in comparison with the variety AM-VR (3.3 mm) (Table 1). This last character is an indicator of dry matter, which with greater thickness produces a better quality at the time of drying (Berríos et al., 2007).

Figura 2 Mulatto wide chili hybrid HAM14F. a) plant with fruits in mature state; b) dehydrated fruits. 

Table 1 Botanical and horticultural characteristics of the HAM14F hybrid compared to the AM-VR variety. 

Characteristics HAM14F AM-VR
Height of plant (cm) 80-95 75-100
Foliage coverage (cm) 60-75 75-85
Position of the plant Semi-erect Semi-erect
Habit of growth Dichotomous Dichotomous
Type of root Branched pivoting Branched pivoting
Leaf color Dark green Intermediate green
Leaf limb length (cm) Large: 9.49 Medium: 6.6
Leaf limb width (cm) Width: 4.42 Medium: 3.36
Petiole length (cm) Length: 4.5 Intermediate: 1.04
Stem length (cm) Length: 20.25 Intermediate: 3.5
Days to the beginning of flowering (ddt) Early: 40 Intermediate: 48
Days to ripening of the fruit (ddt) Early: 135 Intermediate: 14
Fruit color in green Dark green Dark green
Ripe fruit color Strong dark coffee Medium dark coffee
Brilliance of fruit Strong Half
Fruit length (cm) 14.9 13.1
Diameter of fruit (cm) 7.38 7.4
Thickness of the pericarp (mm) 4.53 3.3
Position of the placenta of the fruit Compact Distributed
Depth of the peduncular cavity of the fruit Half Deep

ddt= days after the transplant.

Performance evaluation under open sky conditions

In the period 2012-2014 in different locations of the state of San Luis Potosí, the HAM14F hybrid and the control variety were established under open sky conditions to evaluate the yield of dry or dehydrated fruit. The management of the evaluation plots was according to the production systems of each locality. This hybrid obtained an average yield of 3.8 t ha-1, which was higher by 21.1% compared to the variety AM-VR (3 t ha-1). The best expression of the hybrid was obtained in the town of Soledad of Graciano Sanchez, with a yield of 7.4 t ha-1, superior production in 1.3 t ha-1 of dry or dehydrated product compared to the variety AM-VR which obtained a yield of 6.1 t ha-1 (Table 2), both results were obtained in plots evaluated under the same conditions. The high yields obtained in the town of Soledad of Graciano Sánchez are attributed, in addition to the potential of the hybrid, to the technological components used during the development of the crop (fertigation, plastic mulching, integrated pest and disease management) unlike the rest of the localities where the plots were traditionally managed. For this reason, the HAM14F hybrid represents a good alternative to be cultivated in the North-Central Mexico Plateau region.

Table 2 Yields of dry or dehydrated fruit of the HAM14F hybrid compared to the AM-VR variety. 

Year Locality Yield (t ha-1)
2012 V. Reyes, S. L. P. 2
2012 V. Arista, S. L. P. 3.8
2013 V. Arista, S. L. P. 3.1 1.8
2013 Moctezuma, S. L. P. 2.2 1.6
2013 V. Ramos, S. L. P. 3.1 1.7
2013 Soledad of G. S., S. L. P. 7.4 6.1
2014 V. Ramos, S. L. P. 3.1 2.3
2014 *V. Ramos, S. L. P. 4.3 3.7
2014 Soledad of G. S., S. L. P. 5 4
Average 3.8 3

V. Reyes, SLP= Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi; V. Arista= Villa of Arista; V. Ramos= Villa of Ramos; Soledad of G.S.= Soledad of Graciano Sánchez; *= locality two in V. Ramos; ᶲ = no data.


The hybrid HAM14F is a good alternative to be cultivated in the North-Central High Plateau of Mexico, because it has desirable botanical, horticultural and production characteristics.


The authors thank INIFAP and Produce Foundation San Luis Potosi, AC. for the financing of several projects that resulted in the hybrid mulato wide chili hybrid HAM14F.


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SAGARPA-SNICS. 2014. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación-Servicio Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas. Guía técnica para la descripción varietal de chile (Capsicum annuum L.). 25 p. [ Links ]

SIAP-SIACON. 2014. Servicio de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera-Sistema de Información Agroalimentaria de Consulta. Contenido de la base de datos. [ Links ]

Received: May 2018; Accepted: June 2018

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