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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.8 no.8 Texcoco nov./dic. 2017 

Description of cultivars

Cisne F2016: new strong gluten wheat bread variety for El Bajío, Mexico

Ernesto Solís Moya1  § 

Julio Huerta Espino2 

Patricia Pérez Herrera2 

Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir2 

Aquilino Ramírez Ramírez1 

Lourdes Ledesma Ramírez1 

1Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias-Campo Experimental Bajío. Celaya Guanajuato, México. AP. 112. CP. 38000. Tel. 01(800) 0882222, ext. 85210.

2Campo Experimental Valle de México-INIFAP. Carretera los Reyes-Texcoco km 13.5. Coatlinchán, Texcoco, Estado de México, CP. 56250.


The Cisne F2016 variety was developed in the Bajío Experimental Field, belonging to the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research. His pedigree and selection history is Diamond/Monarch, TR09CS113-8C-0R-0C-4RSE-0C. The performance of Cisne F2016 exceeds that of Luminaria F2012, Cortazar S94, Maya S2007, Urbina S2007 and Alondra F2014 with 64.8, 36.9, 28.7 and 19%, respectively, besides it is resistant to yellow rust, resistant to leaf rust and of high industrial quality. The seed of Cisne F2016 will be available in the Bajío Experimental Field as of July2017.

Keywords: industrial quality; strong gluten; yield; yellow rust


La variedad Cisne F2016 fue desarrollada en el Campo Experimental Bajío, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Su pedigrí e historial de selección es Diamante/Monarca, TR09CS113-8C-0R-0C-4RSE-0C. El rendimiento de Cisne F2016 supera al de las variedades Luminaria F2012, Cortazar S94, Maya S2007, Urbina S2007 y Alondra F2014 con 64.8, 36.9, 28.7 y 19%, respectivamente, además es resistente a roya lineal amarilla, resistente a roya de la hoja y de alta calidad industrial. La semilla de Cisne F2016 estará disponible en el Campo Experimental Bajío a partir de julio de 2017.

Palabras clave: calidad industrial; gluten fuerte; rendimiento; roya amarilla

Wheat in El Bajío is the most important crop in the autumn winter cycle. The record area was established in 1985 with 225 833 ha, currently 138 732 ha are planted, with an average yield of 5.5 t ha-1 (SIAP, 2016). The main problem in the region is yellow rust that can reduce yield up to 70% in susceptible varieties. In the last two years, new breeds have emerged (CEVAMEX14.25, MEX14.141 and MEX14.146) that attack in early stages of cultivation (encañe) which can increase yield losses if susceptible varieties are sown and is not controlled with fungicides (Solís et al., 2016). The National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Forestry Research (INIFAP), through its wheat improvement program for El Bajío, has released seven varieties of bread wheat resistant to yellow rust in the last 20 years, however, due to the constant emergence of new breeds, only two of them remain resistant (Maya S2007 and Alondra F2014). Given this problem, INIFAP released in 2016 the new variety of bread wheat Cisne F2016 which is resistant to yellow rust and leaf rust and exceeds the performance of Cortazar S94 in 36.9%. Next, the origin of the variety, its phenotypic characteristics and its agronomic behavior in comparison with that of the reference varieties are presented.

In accordance with the Law on Production, Certification and Seed Trade in force in Mexico, and after having met the requirements set by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Cisne F2016 variety was registered and protected in the National Catalog of Plant Varieties (CNVV) with the number 3380-TRI-149-210916/C.

The bread wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.) Cisne F2016 was obtained in the Wheat Genetic Improvement Program of the Bajío Experimental Field by hybridization, by means of a simple cross between the DIAMANTE and MONARCA genotypes, then the selection was made towards homozygosis through of the modified mass method.

The simple cross between its two parents was carried out in the OIS cycle 2008-09 in Campo Experimental Bajío (CEBAJ) and was identified with the number TR09CS113. The F1 generation was harvested massively in Celaya, Gto., During the OI cycle 2009-10. In F2 the plant recognized as 8C was trilló individually in Texcoco, State of Mexico during the PV 2010 cycle, F3 was harvested massively in Celaya, Guanajuato, in the OI cycle 2010-2011, F4 was harvested massively in Texcoco, State of Mexico in the PV 2011 cycle.

Generation F5 was planted in Celaya, Guanajuato, in the 2011-2012 cycle and spike selection was applied in the selected families, in this case the spike identified as 4RSE was advanced as line F6. Generation F6 was harvested massively as no appreciable phenotypic differences were found in Texcoco, State of Mexico, in the PV 2012 cycle. As of the 2012-2013 cycle, it began to be evaluated in performance trials in the CEBAJ, and in the 2013 cycles -2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 in different locations in the El Bajío region. The selection history of the new variety is TR09CS113-8C-0R-0C-4RSE-0C.

The variety Cisne F2016 is of habit of growth of spring, semienana, of 98 cm of height, its vegetative cycle is precocious, with 76 days to flowering and 132 days to physiological maturity. The spike is white, pyramidal, lax and bearded density. The glumes are white, narrow width, the shape of the shoulder is straight, and the length of the peak is medium and slightly curved. The grain is white, with reaction to the faint phenol.

Cisne F2016, has the resistance genes Lr1, Lr10, Lr16, Lr17 and Lr23that are of specific race. Lr1 was postulated for the response to infection with the BBG/BN, CBJ/QL and CBJ/QB races. Lr1 shows its type of infection “0” characteristic when this gene is effective (McIntosh et al., 1995). This gene has also been identified in Maya (Solís et al., 2008) and Urbina S2007 (Solís et al., 2008). Lr10 was nominated for his response to races CBJ/QB and TCB/TD. The presence of Lr10 in Cisne F2016 confers resistance to the race TCB/TD, one of the most common until 1994 (Huerta and Singh, 1996).

Lr10 is one of the genes present in both hard wheat species with AABB genome and harineros with AABBDD genome. In varieties of El Bajío it has been postulated in Eneida F94, Bárcenas S2002, Maya S2007 and Josecha F2007 (Solís et al., 2013). The varieties that in adult plants only express the resistance of Lr16 are moderately resistant to the races MCJ/SP and CCJ/SP (Huerta-Espino and Singh, 1996), even though in seedling Lr16 it presents a type of infection that goes from 1 to 1+. However, there is virulence for this seedling gene in the MGB/SM race present in 1989 (Singh, 1991) and very low frequency in 1993 and 1994 (Huerta-Espino and Singh, 1995).

The Lr17 gene was postulated with the help of the races BBB/BB, BBB/BN, TCB/TD and MFB/SP. The Lr17 gene confers resistance to Cisne F2016 to the races MFB/SP and TCB/TD; however, it is susceptible to the TBD/TM, MCJ/SP and MBJ/SP. breeds. In the varieties of wheat released for El Bajío Lr17, it has been postulated in Cortazar S94 (Solís et al., 2014) and Luminaria F2012 (Solís et al., 2014). Lr23 was postulated by the Fleck infection type (;), as a small chlorotic or necrotic spot the size of a pinpoint and is the result of the death of a cell in response to the fungus infection of the MCJ/QM race.

The Lr23 gene has been one of the most common in the varieties that have been cultivated in rainfed areas in Mexico (Huerta and Singh, 2000). It was also applied in the irrigation varieties for Bajío Urbina S2007 and Josecha F2007 (Solís et al., 2013). In addition, Cisne F2016, is heterogeneous for the Lr24 resistance gene identified by its response to the MFB/SP race, which comes from its parent ‘Diamond’ this gene remains effective against the other races used in the evaluation.

In adult plants, the maximum severity in the flag leaf of Cisne F2016 is 10%, in response to artificial inoculations in Celaya, Guanajuato, in the spring-summer cycle with the races MCJ/SP and MBJ/SP to which Cisne F2016 is susceptible in seedling status. The maximum level of infection in the flag leaf in the greenhouse in Santa Lucía, Texcoco, State of Mexico, was 1R and fleck (;) in response to the races MBJ/SP and MCJ/SP respectively. Cisne F2016, in addition to the seedling genes effective in the adult plant, presents genes with additive effect among which Lr68 stand out, so that their field resistance is based on at least three adult plant resistance genes (Singh et al., 2001). These adult plant genes are of additive effects and confer slow rolling resistance (Singh et al., 2001) to leaf rust, this type of resistance is effective against all races that exist in Mexico and other parts of the world. world where wheat is cultivated and protects against rust epidemics up to 84% (Singh and Huerta-Espino, 1997).

Cisne F2016 is resistant in the seedling stage against the yellow linear rust isolates CEVAMEX14.25, MEX14.141 and MEX14.146 identified in 2014. These isolations were responsible for overcoming the resistance of F2012 and Nana F2007 luminaires and combine virulence for the genes of Yr2, Yr3, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr27 and Yr31 among others. In adult plants in tests carried out during three cycles showed greater resistance to yellow linear rust (10% severity) than any of the varieties planted in the region. This response indicates that the resistance type of Cisne F2016 is based on genes of minor effects, which are not of specific race and confer resistance against all races.

The yields obtained in sowing dates evaluated in the cycles 213-2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 showed that the new variety Cisne F2016 exceeded Eneida F94 up to 94.8% and the varieties Luminaria F2012, Cortazar S94, Maya S2007, Urbina S2007 and Lark F2014 with 64.8, 36.9, 28.7 and 19%, respectively. In the best sowing date (December 1), it obtained 7 840 kg ha-1 and in the sowing of the lowest yield (January 15) recorded yields over 6 t ha-1.

In evaluations under restricted irrigation, with two irrigations obtained yield of 5 842 kg ha-1, superior 1% to the commercial variety with the highest yield potential (Alondra F2014) and 17% to the variety Cortazar S94 the most widely planted in El Bajío. With three irrigations it obtained a yield of 7202 kg ha-1, 8 and 14% higher than Alondra F2014 and Cortazar S94, respectively. Cisne F2016 was evaluated in 10 locations of the Bajío in the cycles 2013-2014 to 2015-2016, in these tests exceeded the performance of Urbina S2007, Bárcenas S2002, Cortazar S94, Alondra F2014, Maya S2007, Salamanca S75 and Luminaria F2012 with 3.7, 4.6, 4.9, 9.4, 10.2, 12.8 and 16.8%, respectively.

The new strong gluten wheat flour variety Cisne F2016 produced under irrigation conditions exceeds by at least 3.1 units the hectoliter weight of the control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012; and in almost 4 units the minimum level of hectoliter weight required for bread wheat of group 1, at the highest quality level Mexico 1 (DGN, 1996). The average pearling index of the new variety produced under irrigation conditions 40%, representative of the classification of semi hard wheats, generally of strong gluten.

The hardness of the grain of the new variety is similar to that of the Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012 (41%, in both cases). The protein level of the grain Cisne F2016 produced under irrigation conditions (12%) is acceptable for use in the baking industry; although lower by 0.5 to 1 percentage point, compared to the percentage of this component, present in the control varieties Luminaria F2012 and Eneida F94, respectively. The sedimentation index of Cisne F2016 produced under irrigation conditions (53 cc), corresponds to a strong gluten variety and is similar to those of the control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012 (51 and 52 cc, respectively).

The new variety Cisne F2016 produced under irrigation conditions has a high gluten strength (467 W x 10-4 J), characteristic of strong gluten wheats. The gluten strength of this new variety is lower than that of the strong gluten control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012 (524 and 547W x 10-4 J, respectively), suitable for use in the mechanized bakery industry. The gluten of the new variety has a tenacity comparable to that of the control variety Eneida F94, but is considerably less tenacious than the control variety Luminaria F2012 (T/L= 1.8 and 3.2, respectively).

Although the strong gluten of Cisne F2016 is slightly tenacious, it allows obtaining higher bread volumes (700 cc) than those of the Luminaria variety F2012 (681 cc) and only slightly lower than those obtained with the control variety Eneida F94 (759 cc). The crumb has very good color, even higher than that of the control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012.


The new variety Cisne F2016 presents high molecular weight glutenins 2* associated with genome A, 17 + 18 associated with genome B and 5 + 10 associated with the D genome, which are related to high gluten forces and high volumes of sedimentation.

Literatura citada

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Received: November 2017; Accepted: December 2017

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