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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

Print version ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.7 spe 16 Texcoco May./Jun. 2016



The ekuaro: a traditional agroforestry system michoacano

Arturo Franco-Gaona1 

Benito Ramírez-Valverde1 

Artemio Cruz-León2  * 

Dora Ma. Sangerman-Jarquín3 

José Pedro Juárez-Sánchez1 

Gustavo Ramírez-Valverde4 

1Colegio de Postgraduados-Campus Puebla. Carretera Federal México- Puebla km 125.5, 72760, Puebla, Puebla. México. (;

2Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Carretera México-Texcoco, km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de México, C. P. 56230. México. Tel: 595 952 1621. (

3Campo Experimental Valle de México- Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Los Reyes- Texcoco, km 13.5, A. P. 10, C. P. 56250. Coatlinchán, Texcoco, Estado de México. México. Tel. 01 800 088 2222 Ext. 85353.

4Colegio de Postgraduados. Carretera México-Texcoco, km 36.5 Montecillo, Estado de México. México. Tel. 595 95 20 200. (


The ekuaro, ecuaro or ekuarhu (ekuaɹu= yard) is a traditional ethnoagroforestry own complex system of the state of Michoacán and P'urhépechas or Tarascos, which according to its growers can be part of the housing as it interrelates with the home, the barn, breeding and cattle farm, wholesale and retail, agriculture and some forest species; or found in the hillsides with maize and other associated species without tilling the soil, because their shallowness, presence of stones and steep slopes prevent it. With the aim of gathering information ethnoagroforestry ekuaro as a traditional system, developed by Tarascos or P'urhépechas and their current descendants inherited tendency to disappear, we started from the empirical evidence Valley field Morelia-Queréndaro and literature systematization qualifier to build a conceptual framework and identify its importance and problematic as traditional sociocultural space. It is classified and characterized the ekuaro and progress as huamil among the nahuatl. As traditional farming system shows that the ekuaro is diverse and multifunctional, so that a classification based on their location and type of technology used in it is proposed: a) ekuaro type courtyard, solar, orchard or garden b) ekuaro of agroforestry associated with livestock; c) ekuaro huamil type; and d) ekuaro intensive cultivation of land. In them the corn is grown and canned corn uarhuti ekuaro or at risk of disappearing.

Keywords: classification; corn; family garden; history; P'urhépechas


El ekuaro, ecuaro o ekuarhu (ekuaɹu = patio) es un sistema etnoagroforestal tradicional complejo propio del estado de Michoacán y de los P ́urhépechas o Tarascos, que según sus cultivadores puede formar parte de la vivienda, ya que se interrelaciona con el hogar, la troje, la crianza y explotación de ganado, mayor y menor, la agricultura y algunas especies forestales; o encontrarse en las laderas de los cerros con cultivo de maíz y otras especies asociadas, sin roturación del suelo, ya que su escasa profundidad, presencia de piedras y altas pendientes lo impiden. Con el objetivo de reunir información del ekuaro como un sistema etnoagroforestal tradicional, desarrollado por los Tarascos o P ́urhépechas y heredado a sus descendientes actuales con tendencia a desaparecer, se partió de la evidencia empírica de campo del Valle Morelia- Queréndaro y de sistematización bibliográfica para construir un marco conceptual clasificatorio e identificar su importancia y problemática como espacio sociocultural tradicional. Se clasifica y caracteriza al ekuaro y su avance como huamil entre los náhuatl. Como sistema agrícola tradicional se aprecia que el ekuaro es diverso y multifuncional, por lo que se propone una clasificación con base en su ubicación y el tipo de tecnología utilizada, en: a) ekuaro tipo patio, solar, huerto o jardín y b) ekuaro de explotación agroforestal asociado al ganado; c) ekuaro tipo huamil; y d) ekuaro de terreno de cultivo intensivo. En ellos se cultiva la milpa y conserva el maíz de ekuaro o uarhuti en riesgo de desaparecer.

Palabras clave: clasificación; historia; huerto familiar; maíz; P ́urhépechas


The emergence of agriculture in Mexico occurred more than eight thousand years ago. This age allows you to have a diversity of plants, animals and technologies, result of complex environmental conditions that characterize the country and to the permanence of more than 60 ethnic groups in its territory; those who hold different ways of doing agriculture, based on social experience (practical and knowledge) of which they are protagonists, away from the logic of the monoculture of knowledge and scientific rigor (Santos, 2009). They are indigenous peoples whose population totals about 10.22 million (National Commission for development of Indigens Peoples (CDI, 2006), who for centuries have built skills and development experience in the management of their living spaces and production.

These practices, experiences and technological knowledge continually confront and enrich, through processes for selection, care, collection and management of various crops; resulting in an anthropogenic landscape transformation (Caballero and Cortés, 2001). Thus, peoples and communities seek to recreate the natural environment in the home, by planting species of socio-economic importance and agroforestry features in their orchards, gardens, plot, front yards and on marginal land, making true agrosystems, which care and at the same time get some fruits and small harvests crops as part of the family economy (Santana, 1986).

These spatial representations are usually distinctive for each state, region and indigenous and mestizo group in the country, which have been generated and exploit different traditional agricultural, livestock and forestry systems, developed in various cultural and environmental contexts. As shown Moreno-Calles et al. (2013), describing 13 systems located in different states, within which the ekuaro -in literature is found several ways to write ecuaro, ekuaro, ekuarho and ekuarhu, referring to the same, in this paper used the word ekuaro and forms written in the original texts taken as reference are respected; happening the same with the Purepecha word or P'urhépecha-. Whose importance lies in being a traditional system that moves away from capitalist relations of production, typical of the state of Michoacan and culture P'urhépecha; that from the time of the colony, like other traditional farming systems, it has been marginalized, to the extent that is being lost or modified because of the lack of interest and agricultural policies that protect them; and the implementation of the dominant paradigm of modern science, which considers the use of a technology package in agriculture is the solution to hunger and poverty in the towns and communities across the country are mired. But because of the physiographic conditions where they live is virtually impossible to apply. So it was that traditional forms of technological management used by indigenous and mestizo communities to produce more versatile.

At the risk of losing traditional growing areas, there is a need to study them in depth, based on the ecology of knowledge and productivities, which according to Santos (2009) and the sociology of absences, are places full requiring knowledge retained, attached to cognitive practices of classes, peoples and social groups that have been historically victimized, exploited and oppressed by colonialism and global capitalism. That they are invaded by modernity with the implementation of the Green Revolution and its principles, since the 50s of the last century, as the only possible option technological development and good living, it was an incongruity. This entity is required to build a cultural decolonization process in order to recover traditional agricultural knowledge and avoid epistemicide.

The ethnosciences or study on knowledge or knowledge of native groups may be useful, such as ethnoagroforestry and ethnoagronomy. They proposed as an alternative to today's modern productive knowledge, from research and higher agricultural education, which dominates the view of western science and excessive use of inputs (seeds and agrochemicals) affecting economically to a segment science widely marginalized majority of production units in Mexico. Is considered that 100% of agricultural producers in the country, 66% are among the laborers subsistence and transition who exploit small properties and have a precarious adoption of modern technological elements; that a lack of financial support and research to enable community development adds, because apparently these units are not within the scope or interest of government programs (Cruz et al., 2015).

The aim of this work is to gather information ekuaro or ecuaro as a traditional agroforestry system, developed by the people tarasco or P'urhépecha and inherited the modern descendants of this ethnic group, with evidence of a tendency to disappear, therefore, study it will allow glimpse operation, conservation possibilities and its role to promote agricultural development community alternative to capitalist optics and with adherence to good living; as for its technological, economic and syncretic qualities he has transpired and demonstrated their effectiveness in providing satisfactions to their growers.

The importance of ekuaro is that it is a traditional farming system that contributes to self-sufficiency and well-being of families P'urhépechas and is key to food security (Godínez and Casas,2014). It is an evidence of efficient use of marginalland and generation of appropriate technology to the conditions in which it develops; and a vulnerable system at risk of disappearing due to technological modernization, migration and public policies that do not consider.


From field research conducted in the valley region Morelia- Queréndaro, where the presence of productive strategies on marginal lands with high slopes and rich stones that impede agricultural tilling working animals or machinery is observed, we explored the empirical knowledge in the field and mainly in the literature to characterize the ekuaro. From the document review was a systematization of literature to build a conceptual framework that allowed characterize establish the problems and to classify and identify the different meanings of ekuaro term between michoacanos today and yesterday, and its resemblance to the huamil system Nahúatl.

The valley was considered because in ancient times was occupied by the P'urhépecha culture, which currently houses its vestiges; and different types of agriculture practiced in irrigation, irrigation and temporal tip on flat terrain and bigoted, corn being one of its main crops. It presents a rugged topography, with close to 2000m heights, because it crosses the Neovolcanic and the Sierra Madre Occidental. In the Valley's tech agriculture it was introduced around 1960, slowly displacing traditional farming systems.

The study of traditional agriculture in Mexico is an old subject studied anthropology, agronomy, biology and other areas of knowledge related to man and nature, as ethnoagroforestry and ethnoagronomy. This has been done to: know and extract its technology, biological and genetic materials to "improve" and introduce them to the market; preserve ancient knowledge, biological materials, culture and social relations that exist between man and sustainable management of nature; and use it as an explanatory element of community development. Has been insufficient, because they have not shown depth proposals for recovery and conservation.

Wilken (1987), referring to traditional agriculture, mentions that the essence of the traditional term is in the way knowledge from one generation to another orally and informally and through individual, neighborhood and trade are transferred; unlike as is done with modern agriculture, whose dissemination is more visible due to extensionism that promotes it. A traditional farming system is a physical design of annual and perennial crops interspersed with animals in space and over time, that being handled by man, according to their own worldview and technology it becomes ethno agroproduction and ethnoagroforestry where it has generated, develops and retains the cultural biodiversity (Moreno-Calles et al. 2013), and are those related to home gardens, solar, yards and gardens as ekuaro systems.

Ethnoagroforestry traditional systems

The agroforestry, according to Farrell and Altieri (1997), "is the generic name used to describe a system using the ancient land and widely practiced, in which the trees are combined spatial and / or temporarily with animals and agricultural crops". Krishnamurthy and Ávila (1999) define it as the science that studies the systems, agroforestry practices, interactions and emergent properties of the components of these land forms; that interact with humans, orders management and makes a profit, turning ethnoagroforestry systems, history and own culture, related to man or ethno prefix that has been taken with relative ease to refer to the use of traditional knowledge as source of knowledge, forming the calls ethnosciences (Perdomo, 2013).

The ethnoagroforestry is a scientific area recently created with the study of traditional agroforestry systems, created, developed and managed by indigenous and peasant communities and “Rancherías” (Moreno-Calles et al., 2014). The ethnoagronomy is that science gathers the views and aspirations of producers and aligned in the construction of alternatives to rural development; and it is defined as the ethnoscience that deals with the study of knowledge that indigenous and mestizo peasants put into practice during the process of exploitation of natural resources, through agriculture, livestock, forestry and wildlife for the satisfactory anthropocentric necessary for their survival, social reproduction and development (Cruz et al., 2015).

Traditional systems ethnoagroforestry, such as technological forms that interact between man, land, crops and certain species of pets, are important because they are integrated multiple-use strategies, provide various benefits to humans at local, regional and global; endemic and preserve cultural and integrate important species, recreating the world views, knowledge, practices and rules of traditional use (Moreno- Calles, Toledo and Casas, 2013) and have minimal or no use of inputs from modern agriculture.

Over time these systems have suffered socio-economic and environmental changes induced by changes in the rural landscape, which tends to be increasingly urban within communities, because of the need for land distribution, that being inherited children, fractionate and tend to change their use; but especially by the totalitarian model of rationality presiding modern science, which denies the rational character to all forms of knowledge not guidelines for its epistemological principles and methodological rules; situation that causes loss and transformation of generational worldview and knowledge of common, practical or common sense, product neat experience (Santos, 2009); that due to the lack of interest in conservation, end in abandonment, disappearance and estrangement from nature. Before it is not possible to lose in such a short time something that has taken hundreds of years to build selectively in the biological and productive.

The importance of these systems is that: 1) are points of conservation of species and germplasm; 2) are centers of knowledge generation that have rules of use and adherence to various socio-ecological factors; 3) are spaces to support the economy and reducing hunger and poverty; 4) exploitation allows full use of marginal lands, which if not made, would remain barren and unproductive, and local surplus labor and family labor; 5) maintain a continuity of prehispanic elements with modern, whose study is feasible technological, ecological, cultural and comparisons (Palerm, 1997; Moreno- Calles et al., 2013); and 6) maintains a balance between nature and the needs and rights of human beings with adherence to the principle of good living, whose vision assumes other knowledge and practices, questioning the Western concept of wellness and colonialist of power, erosion agricultural and wild biodiversity, and over-exploitation of nature; considered as "natural capital" and not as equitable component life and outside development the industrialized countries (Acosta, 2010).

Characterization ekuaro

The ekuaro is a physiographic conformation of the land that can be flat or have a steep slope. It is characterized by being part of the courtyard of the house, as shown by his translation of P'urhépecha or Tarascan to Spanish ekuarhu [ekuaɹu], equivalent to "yard" (Lathrop, 2007), which to contextualize it can be understood as "the place which is largely "that is the whole. It is an extension of the Purepecha room, where the granary, raising cattle and sheep and practice crop association of different strata around the house, whose delimitation is given through vegetation and the arrangement of stones. It is rich in traditional knowledge, as it is largely related to daily life, nature and the management of it is inside. For example, Barrera-Bassols (2003) describes, temporarily, cultural activities undertaken to 17 species of laminated edible plants located in a ekuaro in Pichátaro, Michoacán, where includes arvensis, the cornfields and fruit.

Ekuaro on Several assertions, all related to its location, climate, physiography, technology, culture and intensity of land use. Sánchez (2002); Moreno-Calles et al. (2013) mention that the ekuaro is an orchard located near or next to the house, with many species of perennials and annuals (corn, beans, vegetables, fruit plants and other intensively cultivated plants) associated with wild animals and sometimes, managed mainly women and children; and it is found in temperate climates and warm humid Michoacán.

For Barrera-Bassols (2003) the ekuaro is a "homegarden system", a sophisticated agro-silvocultural system, intensive exploitation, which includes trees, shrubs, herbaceous; whose architecture resembles forests and works as an ecological system; are small experimental plots, close to half a hectare, where you can find more than 50 domesticated plants, semi-domesticated, tolerated and even wild; used for food, medicinal, aromatic and religious purposes. In it there is no use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and the land is cultivated and worked mainly with the hoe.

Santana (1986) mentions that the "ecuaro" is always conceived as a space adjacent to housing, which is primarily the domain of animals (major and minor), a sort of outdoor stall; which it has evolved from "frustrated" way to the former site of Spanish descent, due to the adoption of some plant species, expressions and crop planters. On the solar Aguilar and Prieto (2002) say that "the family plot, bounded by a stone fence, consists of the barn that through a porch opens onto the courtyard, where people do most of their activities , has garden and sometimes with poultry. " Definitions showing him as a multifunctional space, productive, recreational, living and preservation food.

The General Lázaro Cárdenas reminds the "ecuaro" as a breeding ground sloped, located on the slopes of the hill, his grandfather rented to plant corn, beans and squash with a hoe. The plow was not used so rocky terrain, which became very hard work it (Cárdenas del Río, 2003).

As you can see, there are several types of ekuaro and each has particular characteristics, which adds that it is a space of family life and social relations; whose use persists in virtually all of the region occupied by the Tarasco Purépecha Empire or the pre-hispanic world, which covered more than 75 000 km2 in the highlands of west-central Mexico region. Who because of his military-expansionist behavior they attempted to occupy the territory of the Aztecs, who responded penetrating to the territorial heart of the Tarascan up to Charo where possible, or knew the system ekuaro in the hills and houses or brought the huamil and they were practical implemented. Which would be very interesting elucidating from the point ethnohistoric which system came first. For example in Cortazar, Guanajuato, older residents recognize the presence of ekuaro in the hillsides where they planted corn and beans, mainly.

Ekuaro and technology

Although there is information on the type of land and where the ekuaro is grown, the type of tenure or category to which he belonged in the Tarascan Empire is unknown; i.e. if the patrimonial lands of the royal dynasty (uacúsecha), to the land allocated to the local lords or the land of ordinary people. In colonial times were marginal pieces of land were allocated to farmers for their own exploitation. Today they can be found in any kind of possession.

The tools used by the P'urhépechas to cultivate their ekuaros were lytic type and some metal. This being important because they were the ones who were more advanced than the other Mesoamerican peoples, who worked gold and silver mainly metallurgical industry. The P'urhépecha worked particularly copper and bronze alloy. With him they manufactured pliers, awls, axes, hoes and other tools to work the land (Uribe, 1996; Roskamp, 2003).

If the ekuaro speak, would tell us stories of survival and economy. Begin with the attacks that have suffered from the conquest, technological changes of modern agriculture and urban growth; which they have been made in an effort to introduce a "more productive technological development" or disappear him slowly. This situation can produce counterproductive effects, it is known that the aim of increasing production and productivity is to create economic, social and political power (Urquidi, 1981); more economic dependence and pollution due to intensive use of inputs and lack of technological self- determination with ability to decide the technological direction of a country, or the use of human and material resources to achieve indict technology to certain objectives (Urquidi, 1981). When these are not met, the changes initiated usually modify traditional functional structures and put in situation to its users, by new techniques and products, who often put resistance to their dissemination and appropriation.

The ekuaro and corn

Michoacan as part of the center of origin of maize domestication and migration route of ethnic groups, has favored the existence of a wide variety of Zea mays L. and their wild relatives. Within this species and varieties such as corn Mushito ekuaro they are. Since imperial times P'urhépecha in sowings different varieties of corn were planted in the cornfield (tarheta) which are mentioned in the relations of Michoacán, written by Fray Jerónimo de Alcalá mid-sixteenth century; and Gilberti (1901), who describe the presence of eight varieties whose classification is based on the consistency and color of grain: dry in ears, white, black, yellow, red, painted colors, tawny, and corn it is done in fifty days. Varieties that have been modified over time by the traditional and modern technology, and the presence of the green revolution in the state. Moreno-Calles et al. (2013); Alarcón-Chaires (2009) also mention that in the ekuaro landraces red, blue cultured and solar or ecuaro purple (uarhuti), in association with beans (kókok). Which they are at risk of disappearing.

Proposal qualifying the ekuaros

According to his description, the ekuaro may be a production system located within the forest combined with the use of a variety of cultivated wild plants and animals. Found on the hill and worked "hand". Or located within the home and garden, yard or other. The reality is that the ekuaro is a mega-diverse multifunctional system, which covers all the expectations of the authors and producers who can be classified according to its location and technology into four types.

Ekuaro plot

a) Type courtyard, plot, orchards or garden

Part of the house, like yard, backyard or garden. Its size is usually small. Many of them have Mesoamerican origin, which, in addition to meeting immediate food and economic needs of their owners, are traditional ethnoagroforestry systems, whose origin is prior to the arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century; that a clash occurred when confronted key ecosystems between the old and the new world (Crosby, 2013). Currently he is serving as repositories of local biodiversity, by the existence of a dynamic mix of useful native species. The main function of this ekuaro is to provide a basic source of food and marketable products for the family, which is extremely important given the socioeconomic conditions prevailing today in Mexico and Mesoamerica; because inside there is a mixture of native and exotic, perennial and annual species, distributed in different strata that meet the needs of farmers (Montagnini and Metzel, 2015; Cahuich-Campos et al., 2014).

These spaces, depending on where they are and dwell time, acquire particular names. For example, Guzmán (2005) mentions that in the state of Morelos, the great people they talk to the courtyard called him "callmil" and clarifies that this assignment refers more to growing vegetables on a bed made with soil and manure decomposed and litter, which is no longer practiced; and "calmill" (vegetables in solar), which is a small batch or lot where several varieties of seeds and corn, squash, beans, peppers and flowers are planted. Similarly they are called the small gardens that are located next to the house of the tenants (Palerm, 1997), and the small ekuaro located on the side of the house, where several vegetation strata for particular uses are grown.

b) Continuously ekuaro associated livestock agroforestry

It is a space of about one hectare, surrounded by a perimeter stone wall, inside which is located the house, the yard or stable livestock and poultry houses. At some points, circling, dividing or off the field, cultivated are plants nopal and maguey pulque. Stuck on stone fences timber, fruit and shade trees are located. Inside, surrounding the house and yard, is the ekuaro as arable land where corn, beans and bean associated with, which works with the team or trunk, as has been without stones is planted.

The corn crop is planted within it is to eat corn sweet and tender chew the cornstalks, whose varieties are usually: white, yellow, color, purple and red. The first is used to make tortillas and others to prepare some sweets and festive foods such as cornmeal (powdered toasted corn, sweetened with brown sugar and flavored with cinnamon, which can be eaten alone or gruel) and "tempoduro" (corn tan and confit with brown sugar), "uchepos" (corn tamales or sweet corn with brown sugar and carbonate) and corundas (tamale ash), michoacanos tamales whose production corn cooked with ash mesquite, butter and salt, and wrapped in green corn leaves. The ears of corn are cooked alone or accompanied with pumpkin and brown sugar. This ekuaro is intensive exploitation.

Ekuaros on marginal lands or hills

a) Type ekuaro huamil

Palerm (1997) mentions that the huamil (coa-cornfields: cornfield carved with sharp stick) is a recent introduction and spread in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, but very old in Michoacán. It mentions the following: involves working to some uncultivated land, barren and marginal time; rangelands located in the old hacienda in the steep, rocky slopes of hills, and the rocky land and tepetate. Inaccessible not only to modern traction machines but also the plow, whose production of many peasant families gather not achieve the essential elements to meet their basic subsistence places. The huamil system was borrowed from the Tarascan Indian neighbors who practice it from time immemorial on the mountainous and dificult michoacano landscape, where it is known under the name tarasco ecuaro.

In the Morelia-Queréndaro valley, this traditional farming system is also called "by hand" because of the way to work it, as they are very rocky terrain, the cultivation method according to (Franco-Gaona et al. (2012), begins with "clean and arrangement of stones in lines perpendicular to the slope when the terrain permits or making holes in the stony ground to place the seed, perform work clean, harvesting and collection of organic waste, if possible removal, otherwise stover was left to enrich the soil ". The work done in this system is measured in”tasks". At ask equivalent to planting corn, beans and squash in a space of 18 for 18 holes; i.e. excavate soil or make a hole with the spade and place three or four seeds of corn, beans and squash interleaving. Of this system he picked up the comment that "we continue sowing for pleasure to hoe, although I have irrigated land and work with the machine."

b) Ekuaro intensive cultivation of land

It is commonly located on marginal land temporarily, larger than that used for huamil and mostly modernized, where the corn is grown using the yoke or trunk and work your way is familial. In its periphery stone fences dividing shade trees and timber, "nopales the hill" a kind of edible Opuntia, and weedy plants, where wood and other products for household consumption and trade are observed it is extracted. Usually they are grown continuously year or time. Usually this is associated ekuaro the house via cattle.

Linck (1982 and 1987) mentions that the fact of having an own plot with its traditional home, his small garden, its ecuaro or corral, with their economic implications, reinforces the membership of each domestic group to the community. Having this space favors labor activity and multiplies, because it is a space of a family, served outside everyday activities related to agriculture, which main activity is carried out or away from the house, as technology traditional it has not disappeared, because the integration of agriculture in the national economy is still too recent, so that their fingerprints are deleted entirely.


The ekuaro is a traditional ethnoagroforestry system multifunctional, rich in agricultural knowledge and biodiversity that has persisted for over 500 years, part of the michoacana indigenous and mestizo family economy. It is polysemic as it is located inside the house as a family garden, yard, yard and/or plot in the house and outside it and the rocky hills with marginal land where it is grown "by hand" with use of the hoe, of where it is considered that migrated to neighboring states, acquiring own names, as in Guanajuato, known as huamil.

As an extension of housing the ekuaro is preserved, it maintained and resists the threat of population growth and public policies based on the paradigm of agricultural modernization, and attempts to show it as an unproductive space because it does not use its technology packages or their knowledge from the centers of public and private research. Because of its location, size and marginality only I could be managed and exploited traditional knowledge and technologies from indigenous and mestizo peasants with adherence to good living.

The ekuaro is a traditional ethnoagroforestry system due to the presence of vegetation with different strata, which is managed and utilized, particularly women and children. Due to its age and evolution inside they have developed own varieties of corn, with the case of corn ekuaro or uarhuti, which is at risk of disappearing. Its spatial and technological condition classify allowed: a) type ekuaro courtyard, plot, orchard or garden; and b) ekuaro of agroforestry associated with livestock; c) ekuaro huamil type; and d) ekuaro intensive cultivation of land; which by its technological, economic and syncretic qualities he has transpired and demonstrated their effectiveness in providing satisfactions to their farmers; which in situ study you are needed to rescue their knowledge and propose conservation alternatives attached to the indigenous worldview.

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Received: December 2015; Accepted: March 2016

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