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Investigación en educación médica

versión On-line ISSN 2007-5057


GAXIOLA-GARCIA, Miguel Ángel; KUSHIDA-CONTRERAS, Beatriz Hatsue  y  SANCHEZ-MENDIOLA, Melchor. Teaching surgical skills: relevant educational theories (part two). Investigación educ. médica [online]. 2022, vol.11, n.42, pp.95-105.  Epub 30-Ene-2023. ISSN 2007-5057.


In the context of medical education, surgical education is an area with its own characteristics. Multiple concepts, models and theories have been developed to characterize surgical education; however, most have been reported in isolated manner.


To identify the main concepts and theories used in surgical education and describe them in a sequential and integrated overview.


As part of a scoping review of the surgical education literature, the relevant concepts and their potential relationships were identified. The analysis continued as follows: non-traditional models for surgical education, technological strategies for surgical education such as simulation, online learning or use of social networks, and assessment in surgical education including technical and non-technical skills.


In this second half of the report, alternatives to the traditional Osler and Halsted apprentice model for surgical education are described. The knowledge and implementation of these models rests on proven theoretical bases, in some contexts. The use of technology for surgical education is more feasible when it is consistent with the learning models, integrated into the curricular design, and the multiple available options are considered. There are multiple tools that allow assessment of students’ psychomotor skills as part of a formative assessment strategy. Also, the assessment of non-technical skills is an increasingly important component of surgical education.


Directors of surgical education programs should privilege a theoretically grounded approach, in the planning and implementation stages. This will allow the definition of goals and strategies for educational achievement, in the context and formality of a structured program, beyond a merely scheduled one.

Palabras llave : Graduate medical education; surgery; educational models; conceptual frameworks; theories.

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