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Botanical Sciences

versão On-line ISSN 2007-4476versão impressa ISSN 2007-4298


HERNANDEZ-LOPEZ, Leticia  e  MUNGUIA-LINO, Guadalupe. Distribution, conservation status and threats of Lobelia villaregalis (Campanulaceae) in Bosque La Primavera, Jalisco. Bot. sci [online]. 2023, vol.101, n.3, pp.725-743.  Epub 31-Jul-2023. ISSN 2007-4476.


Lobelia villaregalis was described in 1987 from a single locality in Bosque La Primavera, Zapopan, Jalisco. Another locality was recorded in 2008 which suggests that knowledge about the distribution of the species is incomplete.


What is the known and potential distribution of L. villaregalis in Bosque La Primavera? What is its conservation status and what are the main threats?

Studied species:

Lobelia villaregalis T.J. Ayers.

Study site and dates:

Zapopan, Jalisco, 2018-2020.


Explorations were carried out in the natural protected area Bosque La Primavera to locate new populations of the species. In order to characterize the habitat and the threats faced by the species, data were recorded in the field and complemented using geographic information systems. Its conservation status was also determined. Potential distribution was obtained with Maxent.


A total of six sites with the presence of L. villaregalis are recorded, which are located in the management zones of greater protection; Restricted use and Recovery. However, the species is Endangered with an area of occupancy of 28 km². The sites are adjacent to crop fields, human settlements, forest fires, among others. The estimated potential area of distribution with climatic variables was 160.051 km², the sites with probabilities of one were validated in the field but the species was not found.


Lobelia villaregalis is at high risk, urgent actions are required in situ and ex situ for its conservation.

Palavras-chave : Bosque La Primavera; endemic species; potential distribution; risk of extinction; threatened species.

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