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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versão impressa ISSN 2007-0934

Resumo

ESPITIA RANGEL, Eduardo et al. Genetic variability and criteria for selecting yield and its components in rainfed wheats. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2021, vol.12, n.2, pp.305-315.  Epub 25-Abr-2022. ISSN 2007-0934.  https://doi.org/10.29312/remexca.v12i2.2787.

Knowledge of the genetic variability and yield heritability and its components within the plant breeding allows to optimize the selection process. The objective of the research was to determine the genetic variability of yield and its components, as well as their correlations to identify selection criteria for increased grain productivity. 19 genotypes, planted in the spring-summer cycle, were used in 7 locations of rainfed in Mexico’s High Valleys. The experimental design was Alpha lattice with two repetitions in each environment. The experimental unit was four grooves 3 m long with a separation of 30 cm. The variables evaluated were: days at maturity, plant height, grains per spigot, number of spikes of wheat and grains per square meter, as well as harvest index, weight of a thousand grains and grain yield. The highest coefficients of genetic variation 20.8 and 18.4 were for grain and grain yield per spigot, respectively. But the highest genetic variations and heritability are presented by the weight of a thousand grains and grains per spigot which facilitates the selection of these characters. The yield had significant correlations with number of grains per square meter, grains per spigot, number of spikes and harvest index with values of 0.92, 0.57, 0.54 and 0.54, respectively. So, they can be used as selection criteria to promote productivity. For this group of genotypes, it is necessary to increase the genetic variability for spigot per square meter and weight of a thousand grains. It is proposed to the genotypes Don Carlos M2015, 6, 11 and 8 as genetic sources to increase the weight of grain, number of grains per spike, greater number of spikes and grains per square meter to promote grain yield.

Palavras-chave : coefficient of genetic variation; genetic variability; heritability; selection criteria; yield components.

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