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Revista fitotecnia mexicana

versión impresa ISSN 0187-7380


RAMIREZ-GOMEZ, Juan S. et al. Agronomic performance of bimonthly tropical maize native to Tabasco, Mexico under different population densities. Rev. fitotec. mex [online]. 2020, vol.43, n.3, pp.251-258.  Epub 14-Ago-2023. ISSN 0187-7380.

Bimonthly maize (Zea mays L.) is a type of native maize used in the milpa system of Tabasco, Mexico. This maize is appreciated for its tortilla quality and great adaptation to the conditions of the Mexican tropics. Recommendations for its agronomic management need to be created to improve its use. This study evaluated the productive potential of bimonthly tropical maize native to Tabasco, Mexico at different populations densities created by alteration of the distance between rows (0.8 and 1.0 m), the distance between hills (0.20 and 0.25 m) and the number of seeds per hill (one and two). A regional control (RC) at 1.0 m between rows, 1.0 m between hills and four seeds per hill, as well as a modified control at 0.8 m between rows, 1.0 m between hills and four seeds per hill were included. A randomized complete block experimental design with three replications was used, with a factorial arrangement of treatments. The recorded traits were days to 50 % anthesis (50 % A) and 50 % silking (50 % S) after planting, ear height (EH, cm), plant height (PH, cm), PH/EH ratio, lodging percentage (LP), (PH/EH)/LP ratio, barren plants percentage (BPP), prolificacy percentage (PP) and grain yield (GY, kg ha-1). A significant interaction of distance between rows × seeds per hill was detected for GY (P ≤ 0.01) and BPP (P ≤ 0.01). The highest GY, 3836 kg ha-1, was observed at 1.0 m distance between rows and two seeds per hill, with 80,000 plants ha-1, which exceeded RT controls yield of 2198 kg ha-1. The highest BPP, 73 %, was observed in rows at 0.80 m and two seeds per hill. There was significant triple interaction for PH (P ≤ 0.01) and EH (P ≤ 0.05), both in rows at 0.80 m, 0.20 m between plants, and one seed per hill, with mean 2.67 and 1.26 m, respectively. There was a significant simple effect of seed number per hill for PP (P ≤ 0.05), with 17 and 4 % for one and two seeds per hill, respectively. No significant effects were detected for 50 % A, 50 % S, LP, and the PH/EH and (PH/EH)/LP ratios (P > 0.05). The observed GY indicates a high potential for the crop under high population density, compared to the traditional planting system.

Palabras llave : Zea mays; grain yield; interaction; native tropical maize; population density.

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