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Acta botánica mexicana

versão On-line ISSN 2448-7589versão impressa ISSN 0187-7151


ESCARCEGA-BATA, Alexis et al. Diversity of athecate dinoflagellates of the order Gymnodiniales (Dinophyceae), with emphasis on those that form harmful algal blooms on the Mexican Pacific coast. Act. Bot. Mex [online]. 2023, n.130, e2126.  Epub 02-Jun-2023. ISSN 2448-7589.

Background and Aims:

The order Gymnodiniales is composed of 11 families, 63 genera and 641 taxonomically valid species. These dinoflagellates are characterized by having a very fragile cell wall. In addition, some species can produce phycotoxins and form dense blooms. In the case of the Mexican Pacific coast, studies focused on knowing the diversity of this group are still limited, despite the economic, social, and ecological importance of these microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to make a floristic list from a bibliographical review, integrating only the records supported by micrographs, to know the diversity of athecate dinoflagellates of the order Gymnodiniales present in the Mexican Pacific Ocean, with emphasis on those that form harmful algal blooms.


The search for information was carried out in publications (articles and book chapters), from the first record (1943) to the present (November 2022). Each record was confirmed only by the existence of optical and scanning electron micrographs.

Key results:

The Mexican Pacific is made up of 11 coastal states, where the presence of 10 families, 31 genera and 103 species (which represents 16% of the total number of species recorded worldwide) is currently reported for the order Gymnodiniales. Of the 11 families that make up this order, the Gymnodiniaceae family grouped 29% of the total number of species recorded for the Mexican Pacific, where the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium presented the largest number of species.


The evidence presented in this study showed that there is a low diversity for this order in the Mexican Pacific, so it is necessary to implement a greater sampling effort, in addition to venturing into different molecular tools that allow obtaining a better approximation of the diversity in the Mexican coasts.

Palavras-chave : Gymnodiniaceae; Gymnodinium; Gyrodinium; HAB; molecular tools.

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