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On-line version ISSN 2395-8464Print version ISSN 0186-0348


MEDINA ESQUIVEL, René. Article 123 schools: A Headache for the Secretariat of Education? Legal Disputes between the Mexican State and the Power of Employers, 1932-1942. Secuencia [online]. 2015, n.91, pp.149-170. ISSN 2395-8464.

The Article 123 federal schools project offers an insight into the processes of centralizing federalization of the post-revolutionary Mexican State. It also provides a case for analyzing the assumptions regarding Cardenist radicalism and the direction of State policies in the transition to the government of Ávila Camacho. The case of these schools highlights the State's inability to implement its policies and the ability of employers resist the State mandates legally. The State perspective in the community of Migdal provides valuable elements for understanding the State not only as an idealized representation, but also a complex and contradictory body that constantly interacts with other powers. From the sphere of the history of education, the article analyzes the legal confrontation that arose between employers and the Mexican State regarding Article 123 schools, based on the proposal and approval of laws, the legal arguments wielded to defend employers, and the rulings and jurisprudences issued by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.

Keywords : Article 123 schools; the power of employers; Mexican State; law; injunction jurisprudence.

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