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Salud mental

versión impresa ISSN 0185-3325


ULLOA FLORES, Rosa Elena; SAUER VERA, Tizbé del Rosario  y  APIQUIAN GUITART, Rogelio. Assessment and treatment of schizophrenia in children and adolescents: a current review. Salud Ment [online]. 2011, vol.34, n.5, pp.429-433. ISSN 0185-3325.

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic disorder affecting children, adolescents and adults. The international recommendations for the treatment of pediatric patients with this disorder point to a comprehensive management which includes early detection programs, pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. A review of current information regarding the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in children and adolescents, as well as the effect of psychosocial interventions on the academic and social functioning of patients with early onset schizophrenia is presented. The pharmacological treatment's goal is to achieve optimal outcome with the lowest effective dose and the fewest side effects. It should be started with an antipsychotic that has been evaluated on its efficacy and safety in this age group. Risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole have been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents, clozapine has shown greater efficacy for the treatment resistant condition. The side effects of these drugs must be monitored during treatment. The psychosocial treatment objectives are to provide information, to promote the patient's adaptation, to reduce comorbidity and to prevent relapses through psychoeducation, psychotherapy and rehabilitation programs. The psychoeducation programs include information about the characteristics and causes of the illness, the available treatment choices and the factors associated to recovery or relapse. Psychotherapy in schizophrenia has been examined in individual, group and family modalities, the cognitive behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life. The rehabilitation programs include the training on social skills, cognitive remediation therapy and exercise programs, which would increase the wellbeing of patients and reduce metabolic alterations associated to the use of antipsychotics. In conclusion, the treatment of patients with early onset schizophrenia must be multimodal and directed to improve their long term outcome.

Palabras llave : Child; adolescent; early-onset schizophrenia; antipsychotics; treatment.

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