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Investigación económica

versão impressa ISSN 0185-1667


GARCIA SALAZAR, José Alberto  e  SANTIAGO CRUZ, María de Jesús. Maize Imports in Mexico: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis. Inv. Econ [online]. 2004, vol.63, n.250, pp.131-160. ISSN 0185-1667.

Free trade and increased consumption have determined a rise in the Mexican imports of maize. In 1996,1999 and 2000 annual foreign acquisitions of maize exceeded 5 million tons, and for 2010 they are expected to reach 6.7 million tons. Due to the growing necessity of maize imports it seems insoslayable, to look for a more efficient form of carrying out them in space as well as in time, to avoid the high costs of acquisition, transport and storage of the grain, that also block the efficient distribution of the internal production and increases prices of final product. To be able to formulate recommendations for trade policies which may improve the spatial and temporal aspeas of imports, a linear programming model was used to analyze the efficiency with which imports are carried out by month and port of entry. The results indicate that the distribution of maize imports is inefficient. In period from October 1999 to September 2000 the costs of acquisition, transport and storage were 1,061 million pesos higher with respect to an optimal situation of distribution, in which most of the maize should have been through Veracruz, Tampico, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, Manzanillo and Progreso during July, August and September, when international prices are at their lowest. The inefficient distribution of maize imports is present in a deficient institutional mark and insufficient storage infrastructure. Construction of warehouses and an import control system, that included production and consumption allocation, induce towards a best distribution of corn imports.

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