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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)

On-line version ISSN 2448-4865Print version ISSN 0026-1742


GONZALEZ-VILLALVA, Adriana et al. Healthy Endothelium and its Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Risk. Rev. Fac. Med. (Méx.) [online]. 2023, vol.66, n.6, pp.37-52.  Epub Mar 01, 2024. ISSN 2448-4865.

The endothelium is a monolayer of flatten cells named endothelial cells that form the inner layer of the heart, blood, and lymphatic vessels. Its function is not just as a barrier, but it is a regulator of vascular permeability and tone, hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This review is about the general aspects of vascular endothelium and endothelial dysfunction that leads to increased vascular risk. Activation and dysfunction are discussed, considering the endothelial activation as a self-limiting process, necessary to promote inflammation and hemostasis. Endothelial dysfunction is a pathological process in which the endothelium loses its ability for self-regulation and acquires a prothrombotic and proinflammation phenotype. Endothelial dysfunction is the initial step for atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk, so the main biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction are reviewed. As basic knowledge about endothelium increases, preventive or therapeutic measures can be designed as treatment or prevention the risk of its dysfunction.

Keywords : Healthy endothelium; activation; endothelial; endothelial dysfunction; cardiovascular risk; atherosclerosis.

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