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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)

On-line version ISSN 2448-4865Print version ISSN 0026-1742

Abstract

GONZALEZ-VILLALVA, Adriana et al. Physiology of Hemostasis and its Alteration by Coagulopathy in COVID-19. Rev. Fac. Med. (Méx.) [online]. 2020, vol.63, n.5, pp.45-57.  Epub Mar 05, 2021. ISSN 2448-4865.  https://doi.org/10.22201/fm.24484865e.2020.63.5.08.

COVID-19 global pandemic caused by Sars-CoV-2 virus, has worried to health care providers due to the high mortality rate related to coagulopathy in many patients. COVID-19 coagulopathy is mainly thrombotic, first locally in lungs but later on it becomes micro and macrovascular systemic coagulopathy. It has been associated to endothelial damage, inflammation, neutrophil-extracellular traps, monocyte and macrophage activation, cytokines storm that induce a vicious cycle of thrombosis and inflammation. The increased levels of prothrombotic factors as tissue factor, Von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, VIII factor and the decreased levels of antithrombotic factos, such as: antithrombin and Protein S have been reported in COVID-19 patients. Insufficiency of fibrinolysis because of the increased levels of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) have been reported also. During this disease there are intraalveolar fibrin deposits that needs to be degraded. Fibrinolysis of thrombus and fibrin intraalveolar degradation are responsible for the high increase of D-dimers levels that are an important predictor of severity of the disease. In this report, the physiology of hemostasis, thromboinflamation secondary to Sars-CoV-2 infection are reviewed, as well as the clinical evidence and the physiopathology of COVID-19 coagulopathy from the basic sciences point of view.

Keywords : Hemostasis; coagulation; thrombosis; coagulopathy; Sars-CoV-2; COVID-19.

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