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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)

On-line version ISSN 2448-4865Print version ISSN 0026-1742


GARCIA CERVANTES, Alejandro; TIRADO MENDOZA, Rocío  and  AMBROSIO, Javier R.. Is the pathogenesis of the human respiratory syncytial virus a risk factor for the development of childhood asthma?. Rev. Fac. Med. (Méx.) [online]. 2018, vol.61, n.3, pp.17-30. ISSN 2448-4865.

The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children. The severity of the infection is depending of its clinical presentation that is moving from uncomplicated upper airway infections, in healthy adults and children, to bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia that could be developed, in presence of risk factors, in children younger than 2 years. The virus belongs to the Pneumoviridae family and Orthopneumovirus genus, it is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity that is codifying 7 structural proteins (G, F, SH, M, P, N and L) and four non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, M1, M2). The viral infection has been considered as a risk factor for the development of childhood asthma, which is the most common airway inflammatory disease in children and characterized, by recurrent episodes of lower airway obstruction, by harmless environmental stimuli. The risk increases if primary infection occurs at an early age and in risk factors as prematurity and pulmonary broncho-dysplasia. Due to the morbidity and mortality associated with hRSV, since 2008 it has been approved the use of biopharmaceuticals as Palivizumab for prophylaxis in high-risk patients. In the present review, the aim is to present those factors that could be involved in the development of childhood asthma and their possible link to the presence of hRSV. In addition, it is an intention for presenting the possible facts of the risks in the potentially infected population. For a better comprehension of the virus, it is presented a briefly analysis of the viral structure, the induced immune response against the viral infection and those drugs that are approved in Mexico for the treatment and prophylaxis against hRSV.

Keywords : Respiratory syncytial virus; virus diseases; bronchiolitis; bronchial hyperreactivity; asthma.

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