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Referencias del artículo

LOMNITZ, Claudio. Cronotopos de una nación distópica: el nacimiento de la "dependencia" en México durante el Porfiriato tardío. Cuicuilco [online]. 2010, vol.17, n.48, pp. 193-228. ISSN 0185-1659.

    1 "Forms of Time and the Chronotope in the Novel", en The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M.M.Bakhtin, traducido por Caryl Emerson y Michael Holquist, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1981. [ Links ]

    2 Dependency and Development in Latin America, trad. Marjory Mattingly Urquidi, Berke–Oley, University of California Press, 1979. [ Links ]

    3 El esquema impulsó un lenguaje creíble, y sin embargo siempre desafiante, de perpetua transición, que se convirtió en objeto de crítica y elaboración bien entrado el siglo XX. El ejemplo paradigmático es Samuel Ramos, quien introdujo una especie de freudismo en la filosofía mexicana en su obra sobre el carácter nacional de 1930, arguyendo que los mexicanos sufrían de un complejo de inferioridad colectivo. La implicación era que este complejo, que encontraba su sujeto ideal típico en el pelado de la clase urbana baja, era principalmente una mentalidad, y por lo tanto era curable. Un horizonte terapéutico para curar a los mexicanos de su distancia de Dios se había abierto con el estado revolucionario. Samuel Ramos, Perfil del hombre y la cultura en México, Ciudad de México, P. Robredo, 1938 (1931). Para una crítica brillante a las teorías mexicanas del interminable tránsito al pleno desarrollo, v. Roger Bartra, La jaula de la melancolía, Ciudad de México, Grijalbo, 1987. [ Links ]

    4 John Mason Hart, Revolutionary México: The Coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1987, pp. 129–162; [ Links ]

    Empire and Revolution: The Americans in México Since the Civil War, Berkeley, University of California Press, 2002; Daniel Nugent, (Ed.), Rural Revolt in México: US Intervention and the Domain of Subaltern Politics, Durham, Duke University Press, 1998; [ Links ]

    William Schell, Integral Outsiders: The American Colony in México City, 1876–1911, Wilmington, Del., SR Books, 2001. [ Links ]

    5 Matías Romero, Artículos sobre México publicados en los Estados Unidos de América, México, Oficina Impresora de Estampillas, 1892, pp. 168–70. [ Links ]

    6 V., para una admirable recopilación, Matías Romero, Mexico and the United States: A Study of the Subjects Affecting their Political, Commercial, and Social Relations, made with a view to their Promotion, Nueva York, G.P. Putnam's sons, 1898. [ Links ]

    8 Para una perspectiva general, v. John Mason Hart (Ed.), Border Crossings: Mexican and Mexican–American Workers, Wilmington, Del., SR Books, 1998. [ Links ]

    9 V., por ejemplo, sobre San Antonio, Daniel Arreola, "The Mexican American Cultural Capital", Geographical Review 77(1): 17–34. [ Links ]

    10 Citado en Elliott Young, Catarino Garza's Revolution on the Texas–Mexico Border, Durham, Duke University Press, 2004, p. 50. [ Links ]

    13 Paul Vanderwood, The Power of God Against the Guns of Government: Religious Upheaval in Mexico at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1998, p. 304. [ Links ]

    14 Lumholtz, Carl 1987 (1902) Unknown Mexico: Explorations in the Sierra Madre and Other Regions, 1890–1898. New York: Dover Publications, vol.1, p. VIII. [ Links ]

    18 Thread of Blood: Colonialism, Revolution, and Gender on Mexico's Northern Frontier, Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 1997, p. 71. [ Links ]

    22 Las principales piezas de la entrevista, Eduardo Blanquel —Setenta años de la entrevista Díaz–Creelman—, Vuelta 2(17), abril 1978, pp. 28–33; y William Schell Jr. Integral Outsiders: The American Colony in Mexico City, 1876–1911, Wilmington, DE, SR Books, 2001, capítulo 6. [ Links ]

    23 James Creelman, "President Diaz, Hero of the Americas", Pearson's Magazine, vol. XIXX, 1 no. 3, March 1908, pp. 231–232. [ Links ]

    25 Richard Gray, About Face: German Physiognomic Thought from Lavatier to Auschwitz, Detroit, Wayne State University, 2004; [ Links ]

    Sharrona Pearl, As Plain as the Nose On Your Face: Physiognomy in 19th Century England, Ph.D. Dissertation, History of Science, Harvard University, 2005. [ Links ]

    26 Samuel R. Wells, How to Read Character: A New Illustrated hand–Book of Phrenology and Physiognomy for Students and Examiners, Nueva York, Fowler and Wells Co., Publishers, J 1894 (1869), p. VII. [ Links ]

    27 Comparative Physiognomy or Resemblances Between Men and Animals. Nueva York, Redfield, Clinton Hall, pp. 31–32. [ Links ]

    30 James Creelman, Diaz, Master of Mexico, Nueva York, D. Appleton and Company, 1911, [ Links ]

    32 James Creelman, The Wanderings and Adventures of a Special Correspondent, Boston, Lothrop Publishing Company, 1901, p. 295. [ Links ]

    39 Dirk Raat, Revoltosos: Mexico's Rebels in the United States, 1903–1920, College Station, Texas A & M Press, 1981; [ Links ]

    James Sandos, Rebellion in the Borderlands: Anarchism and the Plan de San Diego, 1904–1923, Norman, U of Oklahoma Press, 1992. [ Links ]

    Neil Foley, White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks and Whites in Texas Cotton Culture, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1997; [ Links ]

    Arnoldo de León, They Called them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes Toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1983. [ Links ]

    43 Para historias generales sobre la fotografía mexicana, v. Olivier Debroise, Mexican Suite: A History of Photography in Mexico, Austin, University of Texas Press, 2001; [ Links ]

    Estela Treviño, 160 años de fotografía en México, México, Conaculta/Cenart/Océano, 2005, [ Links ]

    y Emma Cecilia García Krinsky (Ed.), Imaginarios y fotografía en México: 1839–1970, Barcelona, Lunweg, 2005. [ Links ]

    44 John Kenneth Turner, Barbarous México, Chicago, Charles H. Kerr & Co, 1914 (1910), p. 38. [ Links ]

    46 V. Eugenia Meyer, John Kenneth Turner, periodista de México, México, Era, p.13. [ Links ]

    52 Alberto del Castillo Troncoso, La historia de la fotografía en México, en Rosa Casanova et. al. (Eds.), Imaginarios y fotografía en México, Barcelona, Lunwerg, 2005, pp. 71–72. [ Links ]