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Inter disciplina

versión On-line ISSN 2448-5705versión impresa ISSN 2395-969X

Inter disciplina vol.7 no.18 Ciudad de México may./ago. 2019  Epub 11-Dic-2020 



Frambel Lizárraga Salas*

When Donald Trump became the president–elect of the United States on November 10, 2016, the feeling of uncertainty, fear and xenophobia increased between Mexican and American society. And it is that among his campaign proposals, the then candidate of the Republican Party promised that in his first 100 days of government he would deport the 11 million undocumented immigrants of Mexican origin residing in that country, as well as build a border wall of more than 1,600 kilometers, and retain remittances and impose a 30% tax on Mexican exports.

In addition, Trump called Mexican immigrants “rapists” and “criminals”, which generates a negative and stereotyped image of Mexico abroad. But the most serious of this scenario that Trump has created are the negative consequences for the Mexican economy and its proposal for Mexico to pay for that border wall that it wants to build between both nations, as well as to modify a norm of the antiterrorism law to stop the remittances that Mexican immigrants who work in the United States send their help to their families who stayed in Mexico.

Given this scenario, the media have a relevant role in the informative treatment they give to the issue of migration, the bilateral relationship between Mexico and the United States, as well as their relationship with Donald Trump, president of the United States. The urgency of this challenge demands the coordinated participation of different sectors in Mexico, in order to guarantee the protection of the human rights of immigrants of Mexican origin in the United States, and the responsibility and ethics of the media in your information coverage. The media have been in charge of disseminating and reproducing a simplified image, and therefore negative and retyped of immigrants from countries known as “underdeveloped”. This stereotyped image of undocumented immigrants of Mexican origin has been disseminated and reproduced by both the Mexican and the United States press.

With the objective of analyzing, from an interdisciplinary and multisectorial perspective, the challenges of the media in the coverage of the information agenda on the migration process between Mexico and the United States, before the arrival of Donald Trump to the presidency of that country, in June of 2017, together with colleagues from the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the Journalism, migration and human rights workshop was held. Theoretical and methodological proposal to approach the study of migrations. This Workshop was also part of my activities as a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Sciences and Humanities of the UNAM, where I developed my research project: Gender, migration and media. Representation of migrant women in the press of Mexico and the United States. To complement my teaching and dissemination activities, I conducted this workshop where I also proposed to develop a research methodology consistent with the theories and practices of both the study of migration and sociology and communication sciences to observe the function of the written press to inform, transmit, reproduce messages and stereotypes on the subject of migration and the migrant population in both the international and local context, as well as to demand the regulation and ethics of the media in their journalistic coverage.

In this Workshop, students were offered theoretical and methodological tools to be able to analyze the messages that are transmitted in the written press of Mexico and the United States on the subject of migration. At the end, the students prepared a research article where they analyzed and interpreted the information treatment given by the media to the Mexican–United States migratory context.

The coordinators of this event were Frambel Lizárraga Salas (UNAM), Aimée Vega Montiel (CEIICH-UNAM) and Laura Canales (FCPyS-UNAM). The course was aimed at students, as well as general public. It was divided in two parts and lasted 40 hours. In the first one, analysis tables were held on the migration process between Mexico and the United States. In the second, the students analyzed the content of the news on the topic of migration between Mexico and the United States published in the written press of these nations. Approximately 40 students from the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy and Letters (where programs of history are hled), both of the UNAM, participated in this Workshop; as well as the Center for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology (CIESAS, Spanish acronym).

With the purpose of promoting the fulfillment of the objectives of the Journalism, migration and human rights workshop. Methodological theoretical proposal to approach the study of migrations, as well as to comply with the activities of my postdoctoral stay in the CEIICH, this issue of the INTERdisciplina magazine is dedicated to disseminating the research on migration and the informative treatment given by the written press of Mexico and the United States to this topic. As it is known, the articles that make up this volume are texts that study the migratory process from history, anthropology, political science, education and communication sciences.

The dossier includes several articles, among them the contribution of Guillermo Castillo Ramírez, researcher at the Institute of Geography of the UNAM, who in «International migrations from Chiapas and territorial change in rural locations» examines the processes of international migration of Chiapas peasants, as phenomena of social change and geographical mobility of a cross–border nature, they implied for the members and inhabitants of the indigenous–peasant localities of origin a set of new practical–material and symbolic–cultural uses of the territory, as well as a complex social and social dynamic policy of reconfiguring their sense of community.

In «‘How I see you I treat you’: social representations in a host community of migrants in Quebec, Canada», Aaraón Díaz Mendiburo analyzes some of the representations that the inhabitants of Saint–Rémi, Quebec, have, regarding the “temporary” agricultural migrant workers and, in turn, the representations that the latter construct in relation to those who live in that community permanently. The consulates implement programs to prevent and react to risks and vulnerabilities, as well as to promote capacities.

Karla Angélica Valenzuela Moreno observes, in «The Mexican consulates in the United States: an approach from social protection», the impact of consumer actions on foreign policy between Mexico and the United States and, particularly, that of consular protection in the individual life of users. It offers a summary of the main consumer actions, to enter into an analysis on transnational social protection, and also proposes to explain the operation of consular protection so that it opens its fields of interpretation beyond diplomatic and consular studies to complement with other areas of study, among them that of social protection, since there are several similarities between these two concepts.

«Meritocracy, segregation and agency: differential access to educational opportunities among young people of Mexican origin in Los Angeles, California» is the article written by Víctor Hugo Ramos Arcos, who studies the processes of change and generation of educational alternatives that provides evidence of the relevance of social agents, professors and counselors with experiences of marked politicization, around the social struggles of Chicanos, Latinos and migrants, who especially in disadvantaged educational contexts, manage to change educational trajectories that would otherwise follow the patterns that govern social reproduction.

Analyzing how information and communication technologies are being used by the Mexican migrant community in the United States is the objective of Enrique Vaquerizo Domínguez in «Digital media and social capital construction: about the case of Mexican migrants in the United States». In this text, it is argued about its consequences for the construction of social capital and integration in that society. To do so, it examines the dynamics and interactions of a specific virtual community such as the Facebook group “Mexicans in the City of New York” as well as questionnaires and qualitative interviews to Mexicans living in the cities of New York and Los Angeles.

Located in the journalistic field, Laura Canales Lizaola and Frambel Lizárraga Salas, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, analyze the informative treatment of the migratory process between Mexico and the United States published in the national newspapers El Universal and La Jornada, and in the American newspaper La Opinión. In this study it is observed that immigrants of Mexican origin are invisible by the written press and also these media are responsible for reproducing stereotypes by which undocumented immigrants are criminalized. It is worth mentioning that this work is the result of the exercises of the students who attended the Workshop on journalism, migration and human rights, organized by the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Sciences and Humanities (CEIICH) of UNAM, which took held from June 5 to 28, 2017. The students who contributed to this article are: Pablo Bonilla Juárez, Raúl Gerardo Parra Rosales, Sahian Itzel Cruz Arrieta, Diana Ibeth Ramos González, Diego Caso Rosas, Rocío Aimée Becerril Velasco, Diana Bremer Aztudillo, Karla Denisse Rios Osono, Mario Alberto González Nájera, Laura Oliva Ramírez García, Karla Denisse Ríos Osono, Angélica Gutiérrez Perdomo, Luis Enrique García Leger, Berenice Santos Anastacio.

The article «The media agenda on immigration on the covers of El Universal, La Jornada and La Opinión during the administration of Donald Trump» closes this section. Written also by Laura Canales Lizaola and Frambel Lizárraga Salas who demonstrate the way in which media establishes in their agendas the issue of migration between Mexico and the United States to their audiences after the arrival of the president of the United States, Donald Trump, who has exhibited a special animosity against Mexican migrants whom he has qualified as rapists, criminals, drug traffickers, murderers, in short the bad men. This argument is the basis for his proposal for the construction of a wall along the entire border between both nations and the tightening of migration policies. This work is also the result of the exercises of the students who attended the Journalism, migration and human rights workshop. The contributions to elaborate this article come from Alejandra Elizabeth Herrera López, Ana Ximena Maxínez Montes de Oca, Elfia Bihani Villalobos Pastrana, Guadalupe Jimarez Martínez, Jesús Adonis Martínez Peña, Luis Daniel Velázquez Bañales, Luis Enrique García Leger, Xanthe Iovan Tovar Aguirre, Nayeli Valencia Arrucha, Lesli Janeth Alanis Flores, Román Javier Navarro Vega, Sebastián Torres Perdigón, Eduardo Cedillo Martínez, Adriana Cecilia Arellano Cruz.

The interview with Raúl Hinojosa Ojeda, Founding Director of the Center for Integration and Development of North America, at the University of California, Los Angeles, was conducted by Frambel Lizárraga Salas; to know the reality and future faced by undocumented migrants of Mexican origin during the Donald Trump government, as well as to know their position and the social, political, economic and cultural effects that will be generated by the construction of the border wall between Mexico and the U.S.

The “Independent Communications” section opens with «Political participation in the digital multimedia communication context: towards an interdisciplinary approach», by Daniel Peña Serret, researcher and academic from the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of the UNAM, who analyzes the pertinence of an interdisciplinary approach to elucidate such a relationship, focusing on the ways in which communicative practices can alter the political practices of citizens.

The other contribution in this section, «Amateur audiovisual production: variations and continuities in the digital age», is made by Adriana Marcela Moreno Acosta, research professor at the Faculty of Communication of the Autonomous University of Coahuila, where she examines the visual and audiovisual productions of the new creators, as well as the changes that have taken place in the production, circulation and consumption of electronic images, which has led to important epistemic transformations in terms of the so–called regimes of representation.

In the section of book reviews, the text comments of Minimum history of migration Mexico–United States, were made by Rosa Mar Chávez y O., Vice President of Women in Film and Television, A.C. She indicates that the author, Jorge Durand, explains the complex and thorny migratory relationship that has occurred between Mexico and the United States, countries that share a 3-thousand- kilometer border. It locates its beginning as a social movement in 1884, when the Mexican Central Railroad arrives at Paso del Norte (Ciudad Juárez) and connects with the railway network and in agriculture. The causes that pushed both Mexico and the United States are exposed to begin the negotiation of supply and demand of labor, within a framework of structural asymmetry between the largest economy in the world and an emerging one.

Power, media, culture. A critical look from the political economy of communication, is the book reviewed by Sergio Miguel Hernández Medina, PhD student at the Complutense University of Madrid. He explains the proposal and the analysis carried out by Luis A. Albornoz (compiler of the work), as well as the collaborating authors of this text, who make up a collective work of the Latin Union of the Political Economy of Communication and Culture (ULEPICC), where they are exposed from diverse academic approaches, criticisms, current characteristics and development of the new political economy of communication and culture. In addition, it helps us to understand from different geographical, economic, cultural and political contexts, the different forms and mutations that have developed around media companies in the era of globalization.

These works show us from different disciplines and perspectives the topic of migration: its causes, effects and consequences both for expelling governments and recipients of immigrants, and above all, for the population of undocumented immigrants, who in their search for a better life and reach the “American dream” are victims of discrimination, racism, xenophobia, trafficking in persons, and in addition, are stereotyped with an image of “criminals” or “rapists”, as well as those responsible for the economic crises that have faced developed countries, especially the United States, without there being a deep and solid explanation about the origin of these migrations in the global era, and without recognizing the contributions that migrants have made to their country of origin. In that sense, the governments of both Mexico and the United States face new challenges to solve the negative consequences of this migratory process, as well as to offer better opportunities to their citizens.

*Guest Editor

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