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Botanical Sciences

versão On-line ISSN 2007-4476versão impressa ISSN 2007-4298

Bot. sci vol.96 no.2 México Abr./Jun. 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1870 

Taxonomy and floristics

Cyperaceae in Mexico: Diversity and distribution

M. Socorro González-Elizondo1  * 

Anton A. Reznicek2 

Jorge A. Tena-Flores1 

1 CIIDIR Unidad Durango, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Durango, Mexico

2 University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Abstract:

Background:

Cyperaceae, with about 5,500 species and 90 genera worldwide, are the third largest family among Monocots. A unique combination of morphological and karyotypical features, among which stand holokinetic chromosomes, favors a rapid evolution and diversification and a high level of endemism in some groups. Preliminary checklists of Mexican sedges have been published but an updating of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the group for the country is required.

Questions:

How many and which species and genera of Cyperaceae are in Mexico?, what patterns of geographic distribution display those species?, which are the main gaps in the systematic knowledge in the family?

Study site and years of study:

Mexico, 1990 to 2016.

Methods:

A database of Mexican Cyperaceae was generated with basis in literature review, study of herbarium specimens (11 herbaria in Mexico and the United States) and field work, the last mainly focused on Carex. Diversity and endemism level were calculated. Besides, we analyzed in different space scales their distributional range.

Results:

Our dataset includes 460 species and 20 infraspecific taxa in 21 genera that belong to 10 of the 17 tribes of the family. Subfamily Cyperoideae includes almost 100 % of the Mexican sedges, as only one representative of subfamily Mapanioideae is known for the country. At the generic level, a drastic reduction in number (21) in comparison to previous inventories (27) results of recent phylogenetic and taxonomic rearrangements. The most diverse genera are Carex (138 taxa) and Cyperus (125), followed by Rhynchospora (65) and Eleocharis (57). Sedges in Mexico are found from sea level to above 4,300 m, in all types of vegetation. The highest diversity was found for Chiapas (237 taxa, 52 % of the total) and Veracruz (206 taxa, 45 %), followed by Oaxaca and Jalisco. Two genera (Cypringlea and Karinia) and 111 species or infraspecific taxa are endemic to Mexico (24 %), 43 of them micro-endemic (only known from one state in the country). Endemism increases to 57 % when the biogeographic extension known as Megamexico is included. Forty six names are excluded from the Mexican flora.

Conclusions:

Regardless of the addition of taxa and refining of the databases, the checklist presented here is still preliminary. Collection deficiencies and insufficient taxonomic revision for Mexican sedges are reflected in gaps in their knowledge. There are at least 45 undescribed species; including them the richness of Mexican sedges would exceed 500 species. Many complexes of species are in need of taxonomic revision, mainly in Carex but also in Bulbostylis, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Rhynchospora and Scleria. To advance in the inventory and better understanding of the diversity of Mexican Cyperaceae, we propose some research topics to be addressed in the short term.

Key words distribution; endemism; checklist; sedges; taxonomy

Resumen:

Antecedentes:

La familia Cyperaceae es la tercera más grande entre las Monocotiledóneas, con unas 5,500 especies y 90 géneros. Presenta una combinación única de rasgos morfológicos y cariotípicos entre los que destacan los cromosomas holocinéticos (con centrómero no definido), lo cual favorece una rápida evolución cromosómica, una gran diversificación, altos ritmos de especiación y, en algunos grupos, altos grados de endemismo. Aunque se han publicado listas de las ciperáceas mexicanas, se requiere una actualización del conocimiento taxonómico y nomenclatural del grupo para el país.

Pregunta:

¿Cuántas y cuáles especies y géneros de Cyperaceae hay en México?, ¿Qué patrones de distribución geográfica presentan las especies?, ¿cuáles son las principales deficiencias en el conocimiento taxonómico de la familia?

Sitio y años de estudio:

México, de 1990 a 2016.

Métodos:

Se generó una base de datos de las ciperáceas mexicanas a partir de revisión de literatura, estudio de especímenes en 11 herbarios de México y Estados Unidos y trabajo de campo, este último enfocado principalmente a Carex. Con base en esta información se cuantificó su riqueza y nivel de endemismo y se analizó a diferentes escalas espaciales su distribución geográfica.

Resultados:

Se registran 460 especies y 20 taxa infraespecíficos de 21 géneros. Diez de las 17 tribus de la familia se encuentran representadas en México. La subfamilia Cyperoideae incluye casi el 100 % de las especies mexicanas, ya que para el país se conoce solamente un representante de la subfamilia Mapanioideae. Se reportan menos géneros (21) en comparación a inventarios previos (27), derivado de arreglos taxonómicos con base en estudios filogenéticos recientes. Los géneros más diversos son Carex (138 taxa) y Cyperus (125), seguidos por Rhynchospora (65) y Eleocharis (57). Cyperaceae tiene distribución cosmopolita. En México, sus especies se encuentran desde el nivel del mar hasta a más de 4,300 m, en todos los tipos de vegetación. A nivel estatal, la mayor diversidad se encontró para Chiapas (237 taxa, 52 % del total) y Veracruz (206 taxa, 45 %), seguidos por Oaxaca y Jalisco. Dos géneros (Cypringlea y Karinia) y 111 especies o taxa infraespecíficos son endémicos al país (24 %), 43 de ellos microendémicos (solo se registran de un estado). El endemismo se incrementa a 57 % cuando se calcula a nivel de las regiones de Megaméxico. Muchos nombres incluidos en registros previos corresponden a sinónimos y 46 nombres son excluidos de la flora del país.

Conclusiones:

El listado florístico aquí presentado incluye varias adiciones a la flora ciperológica de México y actualizaciones nomenclaturales, a pesar de lo cual es todavía muy preliminar. La falta de suficientes colecciones y de revisiones taxonómicas de las ciperáceas mexicanas se refleja en huecos en su conocimiento. Hay por lo menos 45 especies por describir; si éstas se incluyen, la riqueza de ciperáceas mexicanas excedería las 500 especies. Se requieren revisiones taxonómicas en muchos complejos de especies en Carex, Bulbostylis, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Rhynchospora y Scleria. Se sugieren líneas de investigación futura para inventariar y caracterizar de manera más integral la diversidad de las ciperáceas mexicanas.

Palabras clave: ciperáceas; distribución; endemismo; listado; taxonomía

Cyperaceae (Poales) are a cosmopolitan, monophyletic family, the third largest among Monocots after Orchidaceae and Poaceae and the seventh among angiosperms, with about 5,500 species (Muasya et al. 2009a, b, Escudero & Hipp 2013, Govaerts et al. 2015). Their origins are in the late Cretaceous (Escudero & Hipp 2013) in what is now South America (Spalink et al. 2016). Known as sedges, they superficially resemble grasses or rushes, Juncaceae being its sister group (Jones et al. 2007).

Cyperaceae possess a unique combination of cytogenetical features: holokinetic chromosomes, possibility of inverted meiosis, and pseudomonad development (asymmetric tetrads). These characteristics favor karyotype differentiation for agmatoploidy (fission), symploidy (fusion), and polyploidy (Luceño & Guerra 1997) as well as a broad variation in chromosome number (2n = 4 to 2n ≥ 200) (Roalson 2008). Chromosomes evolve more dynamically in sedges than in any other group of flowering plants and this, in turn, favors a rapid evolution and diversification and a high level of endemism in some groups (Hipp et al. 2006, 2009).

Sedges occur in a variety of habitats, being common in moist areas like wetlands, marshes, swamps, riverbanks, ponds and sandbank environments (Goetghebeur 1998), but they are well represented also in dry areas in many kinds of vegetation, including xerophytic scrub. Cyperaceae include several worldwide distributed genera. The largest genus is Carex L., one of the most species rich genera among angiosperms (Reznicek 1990a), with about 1,983 species, or nearly 2,000 species with the merger of satellite genera (The Global Carex Group 2015, 2016).

Most species have a great environmental value (e.g., as habitat and food for wild species and soil stabilizers) and many have ethnobotanical and economic importance (Bye 1979, Diego-Pérez 1995, Simpson & Inglis 2001, Ludlow-Wiechers & Diego-Pérez 2002). Some are among the world’s worst weeds, e.g., Cyperus rotundus L., C. esculentus L. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl (Bryson & Carter 2008). Other species are used as food, as the tuberous nodules on the rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus and Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch., or the rhizomes and tender young shoots of three species of Schoenoplectus (Rchb.) Palla, that were used by Native Americans (Rink & Licher 2015). Among the ornamentals are Cyperus alternifolius L., C. involucratus Rottb. and C. papyrus L. Several species of Cyperus L., Eleocharis R. Br. and Schoenoplectus are used in phytoremediation (Rice et al. 1997, Wang et al. 2010).

Among the taxonomic reviews of Cyperaceae for Mexico or larger regions including the country are those for Abildgaardia, Bulbostylis & Fimbristylis (Kral 1971), Carex (Hermann 1974), Cyperus (Tucker 1994), Eleocharis (Svenson 1929, 1932, 1934, 1937, 1939, 1957), Fuirena (Kral 1978), Lipocarpha (Goetghebeur & Van den Borre 1989), Rhynchospora (Kükenthal 1949, 1950a, b, 1951, Thomas 1984, 1992, 1994), Scleria (Core 1936, 1965), as well as sections of Carex (Reznicek 1986, 1993a, Reznicek & González-Elizondo 2001a, 2001b), Cyperus (Denton 1978), and Hypolytrum (Alves et al. 2015). Treatments of Cyperaceae for regional floras in Mexico include those in Flora Novo-Galiciana (McVaugh 1993, Reznicek 1993b, Tucker & McVaugh 1993); Flora Mesoamericana (Adams 1994); Yucatan (Diego-Pérez 1995); Guerrero (Diego-Pérez 1997); Veracruz (Diego-Pérez 2008, 2012) and Valle de México (González-Elizondo 2001).

Additional references for the family in Mexico include descriptions of new taxa (e.g., Reznicek 1982, 1990b, González-Elizondo 1985, Tucker 1982, 1986, Cochrane 1981, Kral & Thomas 1986, Reznicek & González-Elizondo 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001a, González-Elizondo & Reznicek 1997, 2005, Roalson 1999, Strong & González-Elizondo 2000, Ramos-Álvarez & Diego-Pérez 2002, González-Elizondo et al. 2005, 2007a, 2009, Reznicek et al. 2007, Rosen 2009, Saarela et al. 2010, Gómez-Sánchez et al. 2012, LeBlond et al. 2015); data on taxonomy or distribution (González-Elizondo & Rzedowski 1983, 1984, Strong 1993, 1994, 2003, González-Elizondo & Peterson 1997, Diego-Pérez et al. 2001, González-Elizondo & Tena-Flores 2000, González-Elizondo et al. 2002, 2007b, Reznicek & González-Elizondo 2008, Rosen et al. 2007, 2008a,b, Herbario CICY 2010 onwards), and uses or bioprospecting of sedges for pharmacology or phytoremediation (Flores-Tavizón et al. 2005, González-Elizondo et al. 2005, López-Martínez et al. 2008, Pérez-López et al. 2009).

Preliminary checklists of Cyperaceae for Mexico include those of Espejo-Serna & López-Ferrari (1997), Diego-Pérez & González-Elizondo (2009) and Villaseñor (2016), but no conspectus of the family has been made for Mexico. An updating of the taxonomy and nomenclature of Mexican sedges is required to reflect recent taxonomic rearrangements in many genera as well as additions and exclusions of names for the Mexican flora. We present a checklist of the Cyperaceae currently known for Mexico with comments on diversity, endemism and distribution by state, and we discuss the main gaps in the knowledge of the family for the country.

Materials and methods

A database of Mexican Cyperaceae was generated with basis in literature review, study of herbarium specimens and field work. Most of the references are cited in the text, mainly at the Background, Methods and Discussion sections. Field work, mainly focused on Carex, has been done from 1990 to date in the whole country with the exception of the states of Guerrero, Quintana Roo, Tlaxcala and Yucatan. Herbaria reviewed from Mexico and elsewhere include CIIDIR, ENCB, GBH, HCIB, IBUG, IEB, INEGI, MICH, MEXU, QMEX, and SLPM (herbarium acronyms according to Thiers, continuously updated). Refining of the database involved nomenclatural updating, detection of synonyms, review of doubtful names and exclusion from the Mexican flora of names of taxa whose presence in the country has not been corroborated. The classification at the subfamily and tribe levels follows Muasya et al. (2009a, b) and the circumscription of genera follows Dorr (2014), Larridon et al. (2011, 2013, 2014), Bauters et al. (2014), and The Global Carex Group (2015, 2016). To verify the names of species and authors, the web sites Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org) and The International Plant Names Index (http://www.ipni.org) were used.

From the dataset obtained, we calculated diversity, distribution by state and endemism level. Those taxa with distribution restricted to the country are considered as endemic, whereas micro-endemic are those known from only a state. Endemicity to a zone known as Megamexico (Rzedowski 1991) was also considered. It slightly extends the ecological conditions of the country, including three regions: MM1 (Mexico and zones of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and Tamaulipan scrub that lie in southern United States), MM2 (Mexico and the area of Central America northern of the Nicaraguan depression) and MM3 (MM1 and MM2).

A comparison of the species richness among the Mexican states was made using absolute values, and also standardized values by applying Squeo et al. (1998) correction to soften the area effect: S/lnA (species number/natural logaritm of the state area in km2).

Results

Cyperaceae are represented in Mexico by 460 species and 20 varieties or subspecies (480 taxa) which belong to 21 genera in 10 of the 17 family tribes. The checklist of taxa with state distribution and endemism level is presented in the Appendix 1. The two subfamilies currently recognized are in the country, with Cyperoideae including almost 100 % of the species and Mapanioideae represented by only one species. The most diverse genera are Carex (138 species and varieties) and Cyperus (125), followed by Rhynchospora (65) and Eleocharis (57) (Table 1, Figure 1). The species previously treated under Uncina are at present recognized as Carex, whereas Kyllinga, Lipocarpha, Oxycaryum and Remirea are incuded in Cyperus. The main synonyms for those combinations are presented in Table 2.

Table 1 Cyperaceae in Mexico. Genera and number of species and subspecies/varieties by tribe and subfamily. 

Subfamilies Tribes Genera Species Subsp./Var.
Cyperoideae Abildgaardieae Abildgaardia 2
Bulbostylis 14
Fimbristylis 16
Cariceae Carex 137 1
Cypereae Cyperus 113 12
Isolepis 2
Karinia 1
Eleocharideae Eleocharis 55 2
Fuireneae Bolboschoenus 2
Fuirena 7 2
Schoenoplectiella 2
Schoenoplectus 5
Rhynchosporeae Rhynchospora 63 2
Schoeneae Cladium 1 1
Schoenus 1
Scirpeae Amphiscirpus 1
Cypringlea 3
Scirpus 4
Sclerieae Calyptrocarya 1
Scleria 29
Mapanioideae Hypolytreae Hypolytrum 1

Figure 1 Genera of Cyperaceae and number of species and infraspecific taxa in Mexico. 

Table 2 Main synonyms under Carex and Cyperus proposed or confirmed in recent studies: 1. Bauters et al. (2014), 2. Dorr (2014), 3. Larridon et al. (2011), 4. Larridon et al. (2013), 5. Larridon et al. (2014), 6. The Global Carex Group (2015)

Previous name Accepted name Source
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Endl. ex Hassk. 5
Kyllinga odorata Vahl Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. 5
Kyllinga pumila Michx. Cyperus hortensis (Salzm. ex Schltdl.) Dorr 2, 5
Lipocarpha mexicana Liebm. Cyperus lipomexicanus Goetgh. 1
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G. C. Tucker Cyperus subsquarrosus (Muhl.) Bauters 1
Lipocarpha microcephala (R. Br.) Kunth Cyperus leptocarpus (F. Muell.) Bauters 1
Lipocarpha salzmanniana Steud. Cyperus salzmannianus (Steud.) Bauters 1
Oxycaryum cubense (Poeppig et Kunth) Palla Cyperus blepharoleptos Steud. 3
Remirea maritima Aubl. Cyperus pedunculatus (R. Br.) J. Kern 4
Uncinia hamata (Sw.) C.B. Clarke Carex hamata Sw. 6
Unicinia koyamae Gómez-Laur. Carex koyamae (Gómez-Laur.) J.R.Starr. 6
Uncinia phleoides (Cav.) Pers. Carex phleoides Cav. 6
Uncinia tenuis Poepp. ex Kunth Carex firmula (Kük.) J.R. Starr 6

At the state level, the highest richness was found in Chiapas (237 taxa, 52 % of the total) and Veracruz (206, 45 %), followed by Oaxaca (171, 37 %) and Jalisco (148, 32 %) (Figure 2, 3; Appendix 1). Two genera (Cypringlea and Karinia) and 111 species or infraspecific taxa are endemic to the country (24 %), 78 of them at a regional level, including 43 micro-endemics. Endemism increases to 57 % when the biogeographic region known as Megamexico is included.

Figure 2 Number of species and infraspecific taxa of Cyperaceae by state. 

Figure 3 Cyperaceae species richness by state/surface area. 

Discussion

The dataset of the Mexican sedge flora includes 460 species and 20 infraspecific taxa. Additionally, at least 45 undescribed species have been detected (not included in the checklist), which would increase to 525 the sedge taxa for the country. Suprageneric classification. The two subfamilies currently recognized (Cyperoideae and Mapanioideae) (Simpson et al. 2007, Muasya et al. 2009a) are in Mexico, although the predominantly tropical Mapanioideae is represented by only one species (Hypolytrum nicaraguense). As for the family tribes, 10 out of the 17 are in the country. The most diverse are Cariceae with 138 taxa and Cypereae with 128, whereas Hypolytreae is represented by one (Table 1). The Cariceae is a temperate group, mainly montane in Mexico, where represented by Carex (30 % of the taxa of this family). If compared with Madagascar, where the Cariceae are 11 % of the Cyperaceae (Muasya et al. 2011) or with Brazil (4.4 %, Alves et al. 2009), the group is fairly well represented in Mexico although still not quite as in any boreal zone, e.g., North America, where it composes 57 % of the sedge flora (Ball & Reznicek 2002). On the other hand, the tribe Cypereae, mainly tropical, includes 28 % of the sedge flora in Mexico, a high proportion when compared with North America (13 %) or even with Brazil (20 %), but low in relation with Madagascar, where the clade composes about half of the species in the family (Muasya et al. 2011).

Current circumscription of genera. The number of genera recognized in the present contribution is 21, which means a drastic reduction in comparison to previous inventories (27 genera recorded in Diego-Pérez & González-Elizondo 2009 following Bruhl 1995; 26 genera in the checklist of Villaseñor 2016). This is a result of recent phylogenetic findings and taxonomic rearrangements (Larridon et al. 2011, 2013, 2014, Bauters et al. 2014, the Global Carex Group 2015, 2016). According to these references, Uncinia is included into Carex, whereas Kyllinga, Lipocarpha, Oxycarium and Remirea are now part of Cyperus (Table 2), besides Pycreus and Torulinum, previously subsumed. On the contrary, several genera are split from what was previously considered as Scirpus s.l. (Lye 2003, Strong 2003). The possition of Abildgaardia is debatable. It is placed in Fimbristylis by some authors (e.g., Govaerts et al. 2015), but it has a significantly different embryology and anatomy (Kral 2002).

The relationships of the two genera endemic to the country still require study. Cypringlea is closely related to Trichophorum Pers. (Léveillé-Bourret et al. 2014) whereas Karinia is related to Scirpoides Scheuchz. ex Seguier (Goetghebeur 1998) and has been recently combined under it as Scirpoides mexicanus (Reznicek & McVaugh) Goetghebeur ex C.S. Reid & J.R. Carter (Reid et al. 2017). Ball et al. (2002) pointed out that no consensus exists regarding the number of genera in Cyperaceae; that is still true in part, although new approaches to their study are rapidly increasing our understanding on the family.

Distribution and ecology. The state distribution data are preliminary. The highest richness was found in Chiapas and Veracruz, followed by Oaxaca (Figure 2, 3). Jalisco, Michoacán, Tabasco, Durango and the state of Mexico form the next richest group. However, it is possible that Durango and the state of Mexico are not actually among the richest states but they have just a more complete inventory of sedges. The data of species richness standardized with the logarithm of the state surface area (Figure 3) corroborates that the higher diversity is located in Chiapas and Veracruz and reveals that the lower is in Baja California Sur and Tlaxcala. As already said, this may be related to the thoroughness of the inventories. However, the richness by state is strikingly similar to the obtained by Dávila-Aranda et al. (in rev.) for Mexican Poaceae, with Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Jalisco as the most diverse (in the same order than for Cyperaceae), and Baja California Sur and Tlaxcala among the three less diverse states, also as with sedges. Although Oaxaca is ranked as the richest state of vascular plants in Mexico (Villaseñor 2016), with regard to grasses and sedges it holds the third position, behind Chiapas and Veracruz. This may be a result of under-representation of grasses and sedges from Oaxaca in herbaria and floristic lists and a better knowledge about them for Chiapas and Veracruz, or it may be explained for ecological reasons (e.g., perhaps the open habitats preferred by sedges and grasses are less available in Oaxaca). These ideas are beyond of the scope of the present work and demand future research.

Sedges in Mexico are found from sea level to above 4,300 m and grow practically in all types of land vegetation, from tropical forests to xerophytic scrub. Besides, a little more than a fourth of the Mexican sedges are aquatic or subaquatic (Diego-Pérez & González-Elizondo 2013), and many others, although not strictly aquatic, can be dominant in moist areas. However, other species can grow in dry areas in many types of vegetation. The wide variety of habitats that sedges can occupy explains in part the high diversity of this family in Mexico. Wetland loss and degradation, as well as overgrazing, are the main threats for many species of sedges (González-Elizondo & Tena-Flores 2017).

Endemism. Two genera (Cypringlea and Karinia) and 109 species (and two infraspecific taxa) are endemic to the country (24 %). A total of 78 of those endemic species display a very narrow geographical range; in fact, 43 are known from only a state (micro-endemics) and almost a half of them belong to Carex. The proportion of sedges endemic to the country is almost the same as the proportion of endemic grasses (22.5 %) reported by Dávila-Aranda et al. (in rev.), mirroring the striking similitude of the distribution by state of sedges and grasses above discussed. Although, the proportion of sedges with distribution restricted to a single state is slightly higher than for grasses (38.7 and 32.6 %, respectively).

Most of the species with a very restricted distribution are montane, e.g., Carex austromexicana, C. durangensis, C. evadens, Eleocharis cryptica, E. svensoniana. Environmental heterogeneity and niche diversity in montane habitats foster restricted distribution and speciation in many species, as also occurs in groups like Asteraceae or Salvia (Lamiaceae) (Villaseñor et al. 1998, González-Zamora et al. 2007, Cornejo-Tenorio & Ibarra-Manríquez 2011). Jiménez-Mejías et al. (2011) found that small ecological changes are drivers for speciation in a group of European Carex. But the main driver for fast speciation in small populations in sedges appears to be the chromosomal plasticity and differentiation via fission, fusion, and polyploidy favoured by the diffuse kinetochore that is typical of sedges (Luceño & Guerra 1996, Hipp et al. 2007).

Karinia mexicana, from the Mexican high plateau, is an example of regional endemism. Other species, although present in two or more states, have a restricted distribution, e.g., Carex eburnea in the Sierra Madre Oriental in Queretaro and San Luis Potosi; C. cochranei, C. hermannii and C. interjecta in small areas of the Neovolcanic Belt; another example is Cypringlea coahuilensis, confined to limestone ridges in desert habitats in Coahuila and Nuevo Leon.

Sedge endemism in Mexico (24 %) is lower than in Brazil (30 %, Alves et al. 2009) and Madagascar (37 % from out 321 species, Muasya et al. 2011). On the other hand, there are no genera endemic to Brazil and only one is endemic to Madagascar. As a no insular country, Mexico shares a high proportion of its flora with neighbor countries. Nevertheless, endemism increases remarkably when the biogeographic region known as Megamexico (MM) (Rzedowski 1991) is considered (for a description see Methods section). As for Cyperaceae, 57 % of the species are endemic to this region, which represents more than two-fold the ammount of sedges restricted to the political limits of the country. Some (e.g., Bulbostylis schaffneri, Carex bella, C. muriculata) are known from southwestern United States of America to northern or central Mexico (MM1); others, as Carex koyamae and E. yecorensis, are distributed from Mexico to Nicaragua (MM2); and a third group (e.g., Carex geophila, C. planostachys) distribute from southern United States of America to Central America (MM3). Another kind of regional endemics are those restricted to the Californian region, e.g., Carex globosa and C. triquetra, the first from moist places with conifers and the second from dry grasslands and scrub (Ball & Reznicek 2002).

Excluded names for the Mexican flora. About 46 names are excluded from the Mexican flora. Among them are Bulbostylis juncoides (Vahl) Kük. ex Osten, and Carex brehmeri Boeckeler, whose distribution is restricted to South America, as well as Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torr.) Soják, Carex atrata L., Carex aurea Nutt., Carex densa (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey, C. leporina L., and C. leptopoda Mack., which are known from North America or are Holarctic in distribution, but not known to reach Mexico.

Bulbostylis hirta (Thunb.) Svenson is a synonym of Fimbristylis squarrosa Vahl, a pantropical species whose presence in Mexico has not been confirmed; the Mexican and North American plants to which the name B. hirta has been misapplied shall be called Bulbostylis hispidula (Lye 2006). Lipocarpha humboldtiana Nees (= Cyperus sellowianus (Kunth) T. Koyama) is known from Honduras to South America, and Lipocarpha maculata (Michaux) Torrey (= Cyperus neotropicalis Alain), from eastern North America (Washington, D.C. to Florida). Lipocarpha mexicana (= Cyperus lipomexicanus Goetgh.) is considered as a synonym of L. maculata in recent catalogs but is recognized as an independent species in a revision of the group (Bauters et al. 2014).

Given that many previously cited names correspond to synonyms and 46 names are excluded here, the current number of recognized species (460) is lower than the 489 listed by CONABIO (Diego-Pérez & González Elizondo 2009), although higher than the 416 species included in the checklist of Villaseñor (2016).

Some gaps in the knowledge of Mexican Cyperaceae. The cytology of a few species has been studied in Eleocharis (Tena-Flores et al. 2013) and Schoenoplectus (Tena-Flores et al. 2014) and Mexican species have been included in several molecular studies elsewhere. Nevertheless, many of the endemic species have not been cytogenetically or molecularly analyzed.

Collection deficiencies and insufficient taxonomic revision for Mexican sedges are reflected in gaps in their knowledge. It is very probable that species that are widely distributed may be in Mexico but have not yet been discovered in its territory. For example, Eleocharis confervoides (Poir.) Steud. is known from southeastern United States and eastern Central America and may be in coastal areas of Campeche and Yucatan. Some Cyperus are cited by Tucker (1994) as of probable presence in Mexico given that they are known from localities close to the Mexican border: Cyperus hayesii (C.B. Clarke) Standley from the Pacific coast from Guatemala to Colombia, and C. setigerus Torr. & Hook. and C. strigosus L. from the United States of America reaching San Diego County and the Rio Grande plains, respectively.

Many complexes of species are in need of taxonomic revision. The main gaps in taxonomic knowledge are in Carex, as noted also elsewhere by Reznicek (1989), The Global Carex Group (2015), Jiménez-Mejías et al. 2016, among others. However, many problems remain to be solved also in Bulbostylis, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Rhynchospora and Scleria. Additional to the 460 species recorded for the country, there are at least 45 undescribed species. With them, the net richness of Mexican sedges is of about 505 species plus 20 infraspecific taxa.

Therefore, regardless of the addition of taxa and refinement of the database of sedges for Mexico, the checklist presented here is still preliminary. There is still much basic work to be done before Mexican Cyperaceae are well understood.

Acknowledgements

Nelly Diego and Rosa Guaglianone (†) made valuable contributions to the knowledge of Mexican sedges. Gabriela López is collaborating to solve some taxonomic problems in Bulbostylis. Guillermo Ibarra Manríquez, Hilda Flores Olvera and Abisaí García Mendoza helped to improve a first version of the manuscript and two anonymous reviewers provided helpful suggestions. Curators and other staff of CIIDIR, ENCB, GBH, HCIB, IBUG, IEB, INEGI, MICH, MEXU, QMEX, and SLPM have facilitate access to specimens and the personnel at GH, MO, NY, P, PRC, and US have helped with loans or during short visits.

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Associated Editor: Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

Appendix 1

Checklist of Mexican Cyperaceae with state distribution and endemism level.

Numbers following the name of each genus indicate: (number of species in Mexico/endemic to the country/endemic to a state). Before species name: *endemic to the country, **endemic to a state. Number following author in some species indicate endemism to the Megamexico region (explanation in Methods section) or to the Californian region: 1 (Mexico and southern United States), 2 (Mexico and Central America northern of the Nicaraguan depression), 3 (1 + 2), and 4 (Nortwestern Mexico and California).

States: Aguascalientes (Ags), Baja California (BC), Baja California Sur (BCS), Campeche (Cam), Ciudad de Mexico (CDM), Chiapas (Chis), Chihuahua (Chih), Coahuila (Coah), Colima (Col), Durango (Dgo), Estado de Mexico (Mex), Guanajuato (Gto), Guerrero (Gro), Hidalgo (Hgo), Jalisco (Jal), Michoacan (Mich), Morelos (Mor), Nayarit (Nay), Nuevo Leon (NL), Oaxaca (Oax), Puebla (Pue), Queretaro (Qro), Quintana Roo (QRoo), San Luis Potosi (SLP), Sinaloa (Sin), Sonora (Son), Tabasco (Tab), Tamaulipas (Tam), Tlaxcala (Tlx), Veracruz (Ver), Yucatan (Yuc), Zacatecas (Zac).

Taxon Distribution in Mexico
Abildgaardia (2/1/0)
*Abildgaardia mexicana (Palla) Kral Ags, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Zac
Abildgaardia ovata (Burm. f.) Kral Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Amphiscirpus (1/0/0)
Amphiscirpus nevadensis (S. Wats.) Oteng-Yeb. Mex
Bolboschoenus (2/0/0)
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in W. D. J. Koch subsp. paludosus BC, BCS, CDM, Chih, Coah, Col, Dgo, Mex, Mich, Sin, Son
Bolboschoenus robustus (Pursh) Soják Tab, Tam, Ver
Bulbostylis (14/3/2)
*Bulbostylis arcuata Kral Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Dgo, Jal, Sin, Zac
Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke QRoo?
Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) C.B. Clarke Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, CDM, Chih, Chis, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Bulbostylis funckii (Steud.) C.B. Clarke Ags, CDM, Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, NL, Oax, Qro, Pue, SLP, Son, Ver, Zac
Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W. Haines in R.W.Haines & K.A. Lye BCS, Chis, Col, Jal, Nay, Oax, Ver
Bulbostylis junciformis (Kunth) C.B. Clarke Chis, Col, Jal, Oax, Tab, Tam, Ver
**Bulbostylis nesiotica (I. M. Johnst.) Fernald Col
Bulbostylis paradoxa (Spreng.) Lindm. Chis, Oax, Ver
Bulbostylis pubescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) Svenson Chis, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mor, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son
Bulbostylis schaffneri (Boeckeler) C.B. Clarke1 Chih, Dgo, SLP
**Bulbostylis sepiacea Kral Col
Bulbostylis tenuifolia (Rudge) J. F. MacBr. Chis, Hgo, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Pue, Son, Tab, Ver
Bulbostylis trilobata Kral2 Chis, Oax, Ver
Bulbostylis vestita (Kunth) C.B. Clarke Cam, CDM, Chis, Col, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Ver
Calyptrocarya (1/0/0)
Calyptrocarya glomerulata (Brongn.) Urb. Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab
Carex (137/58/23)
Carex agrostoides Mack.1 Chih, Son
*Carex albicans var. australis (L.H. Bailey) Rettig Hgo, Pue, Ver
Carex alma L.H. Bailey BC, Chih, Son
Carex angustata Boott BC
**Carex angustispica Reznicek & S. González Oax
*Carex anisostachys Liebm. Chis, CDM, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Oax, Qro, Pue, Ver
*Carex arsenei Kük. Jal, Mex, Mich
*Carex asynchrona Naczi Chis, Qro, SLP, Tam
Carex athrostachya Olney BC, Mich
*Carex atractodes F. J. Herm. Chis, SLP
Carex aureolensis Steudel Coah, NL
**Carex austromexicana Reznicek Oax
*Carex aztecica Mack. Chis, Mex, Oax
**Carex ballsii Nelmes Ver
Carex bartlettii O'Neill2 Cam, Chis, QRoo, Yuc
Carex bella L.H. Bailey1 NL
Carex bolanderi Olney Chih, Dgo
Carex boliviensis van Heurck & Müll. Arg. subsp. boliviensis CDM, Col, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Oax, Pue
*Carex boliviensis van Heurck & Müll. Arg. subsp. occidentalis Reznicek & S. González Chih, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Zac
Carex bonplandii Kunth Chis
Carex brachycalama Griseb. Mex
Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. Tam
Carex bromoides Willd. Hgo
Carex brunnipes Reznicek2 Chis, CDM, Hgo, Mex, Mor
*Carex caeligena Reznicek Tam
Carex capitata L. Chih, Son
*Carex chiapensis F. J. Herm. Chis, Oax
Carex chordalis Liebm. Chis, CDM, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Oax, Pue, Ver
*Carex ciliaris Fernald Ags, Dgo, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Qro
*Carex cochranei Reznicek Mex, Mich
Carex comosa Boott Hgo, Mex, Mich
**Carex complanata Torr. & Hook. subsp. tropicalis Reznicek & S. González Chis
Carex congestiflora Reznicek & S. González2 Chis
*Carex conspecta Mack. CDM, Pue, Ver
*Carex coulteri W. Boott ex Hemsl. CDM, Gto, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Qro, SLP, Ver
*Carex curviculmis Reznicek Chis, CDM, Gto, Mex, Mich, Pue, Qro
Carex diandra Schrank BC?
Carex distentiformis F. J. Herm.2 Hgo, Chis
Carex donnell-smithii L.H. Bailey2 Chis, Gro, Oax, Ver
Carex douglasii Boott BC
**Carex durangensis Reznicek & S. González Dgo
Carex eburnea Boott Qro, SLP
Carex echinata Murray subsp. townsendii (Mack.) Reznicek2 Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, SLP, Ver
Carex emoryi Dewey Chih, Coah
Carex endlichii Kük.1 Chih, Dgo
**Carex evadens S. González & Reznicek Qro
**Carex festivelloides Reznicek Chih
Carex filifolia Nutt. var. filifolia Chih
Carex firmula (Kük.) J.R. Starr Oax
**Carex flexirostris Reznicek Oax
Carex fracta Mack. BC
**Carex fructus Reznicek Tam
Carex galeottiana C. Meyer Chis, CDM, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Oax, Pue, Ver
Carex geophila Mack.3 BCS, Chih, Chis, CDM, Hgo, Mex, Pue, Ver
Carex globosa Boott4 BC
Carex hamata Sw. Chis, CDM, Hgo, Mex, Mor, Oax, Tam, Ver
Carex hassei L.H. Bailey BC
*Carex hermannii Cochrane Mex, Pue
Carex huehueteca Standl. & Steyerm. Chis [no confirmado]
*Carex hultenii Aspl. Chis, Hgo, Pue, Qro
Carex humboldtiana Steud. Chis, CDM, Gro, Mex, Mich, Oax, Pue, Ver
Carex hystericina Muhl. Coah, Mex?, Ver
Carex interior L.H. Bailey Chih
*Carex interjecta Reznicek Mex, Mor
**Carex ixtapalucensis Reznicek Mex
Carex kelloggii W. Boott var. kelloggii Chih? Dgo, Mor, Son?
Carex koyamae (Gómez-Laur.) J.R.Starr.2 Chis, Oax
Carex laevivaginata (Kük.) Mack. Mich
*Carex lagunensis M. E. Jones BCS, Chih, CDM, Dgo, Mex, Mor
Carex lativena S. D. Jones & G. D. Jones1 Coah
Carex leptalea Wahlenberg Chis
*Carex leucodonta Holm. Chih, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mich, Nay, NL, Qro, Sin, Son, SLP, Son, Tam, Zac
*Carex longicaulis Boeckeler Ags, CDM, Dgo?, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, Tlx, Ver
Carex longii Mack. Chis, CDM, Dgo, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Ver
**Carex longiligula Reznicek & S. González Chis
**Carex longissima M. E. Jones BCS
Carex lurida Wahlenb. Chis, Hgo, Ver
**Carex mackenziana Weath. NL
*Carex madrensis L.H. Bailey Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich, Mor, Qro, Ver
*Carex marianensis Stacey Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Son, Tlx
**Carex mcvaughii Reznicek Jal
Carex meadii Dewey Chih
Carex melanosperma Liebm.2 Chis, Mex, Mor, Pue, Tab, Ver
**Carex michoacana Reznicek, Hipp & S. González Mich
Carex microptera Mack. Coah, Dgo, Mex
Carex muriculata F.J. Hermann1 Chih, Coah
Carex nigromarginata Schwein. Pue
**Carex novogaliciana Reznicek Jal
*Carex oaxacana L.H. Bailey Chis, Oax
Carex occidentalis L.H. Bailey BC, Coah, Hgo?
Carex oreocharis Holm. Coah
Carex orizabae Liebm.2 CDM, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, Ver
Carex pellita Muhl. ex Willd. BC, Chis?, Dgo, SLP
*Carex percostata F. J. Herm. Chih, Dgo, Gro
*Carex perlonga Fernald Hgo, Oax, Ver
*Carex perstricta Mack. Coah, Hgo, NL, Qro, SLP, Tam
Carex pertenuis L.H. Bailey2 Chis, Tab, Ver
Carex peucophila Holm.2 Ags, Chih, Chis, CDM, Gto, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL?, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Ver
Carex phleoides Cav. CDM
**Carex pinophila Reznicek & S. González Qro
Carex planostachys Kunze3 Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Mex, NL, Oax, Qro, SLP, Son?, Tab?, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Carex polystachya Sw. ex Wahlenb. var. polystachya Cam, Chis, Col, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Qro, SLP, Tam, Ver, Zac
Carex polysticha Boeckeler Ver
*Carex potosina Hemsl. Coah, NL, SLP, Zac
Carex praegracilis W. Boott BC, BCS, Chih, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Mor, Son
*Carex pringlei L.H. Bailey Coah, SLP
**Carex pubigluma Reznicek Chis
**Carex queretarenesis Reznicek & S. González Qro
Carex quichensis F.J. Herm.2 Oax
*Carex rhynchoperigynium S. D. Jones & Reznicek Hgo, NL, Qro
Carex rossii Boott BC
**Carex rzedowskii Reznicek & S. González Mich
*Carex schiedeana Kunze Hgo, Pue, Qro, Ver
Carex schottii Dewey4 BC
*Carex seatoniana L.H. Bailey Hgo, Jal?, Mex?, Oax, Pue
Carex senta Boott ex Olney1 BC, Chih
Carex spilocarpa Steud.2 Chis, Hgo, Mex, Mor, Oax, Ver
Carex spissa L.H. Bailey1 BC
Carex standleyana Steyerm.2 Chis, Oax, Ver
*Carex stellata Mack. Coah, Gto, Hgo, NL, Qro, SLP, Tam, Zac
Carex steyermarkii Standl.2 Chis
Carex subfusca W. Boott BC
**Carex tenejapensis Reznicek & S. González Chis
Carex tetrastachya Scheele Coah
Carex thurberi Dewey3 Chih, Chis, Coah, Dgo, Jal, Son, Ver
**Carex tolucensis (F. J. Herm.) Reznicek Mex
Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. var. sangamonensis Clokey Ver
Carex triquetra Boott4 BC
*Carex tuberculata Liebm. CDM, Hgo, Mex, Pue
Carex tunimanensis Standl. & Steyerm.2 Chis
*Carex turbinata Liebm. Ags, Chih, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Sin, SLP, Son, Zac
Carex ultra L.H. Bailey1 Coah, Son
Carex utriculata Boott BC, Mor
*Carex vallicola var. hidalgensis F. J. Herm. CDM, Hgo, Mex
**Carex vizarronensis Gómez-Sánchez, A. Cabrera L., S. González & Reznicek Qro
Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Oax, Son, Ver
Carex wootonii Mack.1 Chih, Coah, Dgo, NL
Carex xalapensis Kunth2 Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Mex, Mich, Oax, Qro, SLP, Tam, Ver
Cladium (1/0/0)
Cladium jamaicense Crantz subsp. jamaicense Cam, Chis, Coah, Col, Hgo, NL, QRoo, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cladium jamaicense Crantz subsp. californicum (S. Watson) Coah, Son
Cyperus (113/19/8)
Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. Coah, NL, Tam
Cyperus aggregatus (Willd.) Endl. Ags, Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus amabilis Vahl var. amabilis BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, SLP, Son, Ver
Cyperus andinus Palla ex Kük. CDM, Dgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, SLP, Zac
*Cyperus arsenei O'Neill & Ben. Ayers. BCS, CDM, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Sin, Son
Cyperus articulatus L. BCS, Cam, Chis, Col, CDM, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc, Zac
*Cyperus aschenbornianus Boeckeler CDM, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Ver
Cyperus blepharoleptos Steud. Cam, Chis, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mich, Nay, QRoo, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
**Cyperus breedlovei G. C. Tucker Chis
Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Endl. ex Hassk. BC, Cam, Chis, Jal, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, QRoo, Tab, Tam, Ver
*Cyperus calderoniae S. González CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, NL, Qro, SLP, Zac
Cyperus camphoratus Liebm. Chis, Gro, Oax, Tab, Ver
Cyperus canus J. Presl & C. Presl Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus chorisanthos C.B. Clarke2 Cam, Chis, Oax
Cyperus ciliatus Jungh.2 Chis, Gro, Oax, Ver
Cyperus compressus L. Cam, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, NL?, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus conservator-davidii G.C. Tucker Chis, Oax
Cyperus costaricensis Gómez-Laur. Cam, Yuc
Cyperus croceus Vahl Cam, QRoo, Tab, Yuc
Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mor, Nay, Oax, SLP, Ver
Cyperus dentoniae G. C. Tucker Chih, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich?, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus difformis L. Introduced: BTC, Chih, Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mich, Sin, Son
Cyperus digitatus Roxburgh Cam, Chis, Col, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mich, Nay, NL, Oax, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
*Cyperus dioicus I. M. Johnst. BC, BCS
Cyperus dipsaceus Liebm.1 BCS, Chih, Dgo?, Nay, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus distans L.f. Introduced: Chis, Gro
**Cyperus duripes I. M. Johnst. Col
Cyperus elegans L. Cam, Chis, QRoo, Yuc
Cyperus entrerianus Boeckeler BCS, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Ver, Zac
Cyperus eragrostis Lam. Coah, Mich, Oax
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. BC, BCS, Son, Tam, Tab
Cyperus esculentus L. Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus fendlerianus Boeckeler BC, BCS, Chih, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Mex, Mich, NL, Qro, SLP, Son, Tlx, Tam
Cyperus flavescens L. var. piceus (Liebm.) Fernald Ags, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gto, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus flavicomus Michx. BC, Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Tam, Zac
Cyperus floribundus (Kük.) J. Rich. Carter & S. D. Jones1 NL, SLP, Tam
Cyperus fugax Liebm. Chih, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus gardneri Nees Cam, QRoo, Tab
Cyperus giganteus Vahl Chis, Col, Jal, Oax, QRoo, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus haspan L. BCS, Cam, Chis, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus hermaphroditus (Jacq.) Standl. Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus hortensis (Salzm. ex Schltdl.) Dorr Introduced: Cam, Chis, CDM, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus humilis Kunth Cam, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Oax, Qro, QR, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus hypopitys G.C. Tucker1 Chih, Dgo, Sin, Son
Cyperus imbricatus Retz. Chis, Col, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Tab, Ver
Cyperus involucratus Rottb. Introduced: BC, Chih, Chis, Col, CDM, Jal, Mor, NL, Oax, Qro, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus iria L. Introduced: Cam, Chih, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus ischnos Schltdl. Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus laevigatus L. Introduced: Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus lanceolatus Poir. BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Ver
Cyperus laxus Lam. Chis, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus lentiginosus Millsp. & Chase Cam, Chis, Gro, QRoo, SLP, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus leptocarpus (F. Muell.) Bauters Introduced: Chis
Cyperus ligularis L. BCS, Cam, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus lipomexicanus Goetgh. Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Nay, Oax, Ver
Cyperus lundellii O´Neill Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tam
Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz. Cam, Chis, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus macrocephalus Liebm. var. eggersii (Boeckeler) S.D. Jones Cam, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus macrocephalus Liebm. var. macrocephalus Cam, Chis, Gro, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus manimae Kunth var. apiculatus (Liebm.) C.D. Adams Mex
Cyperus manimae Kunth var. asperrimus (Liebm.) Kük. BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, SLP, Son, Tam, Ver
Cyperus manimae Kunth var. divergens (Kunth) Kük.2 Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Pue, Qro, Son, Ver
Cyperus manimae Kunth var. manimae Ags, BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Mex, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus manimae Kunth var. phaeocephalus (Griseb.) O'Neill & Ben. Ayers CDM, Dgo, Mex, Hgo, Pue, Ver.
**Cyperus matudae G. C. Tucker Chis
*Cyperus michoacanensis Britton ex C.B. Clarke Jal, Mich
Cyperus microbrunneus G. C. Tucker Chis, Oax
Cyperus mutisii (Kunth) Griseb. var. asper (Liebm.) Kük. Col, Jal, Mex, Nay, Pue, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus mutisii (Kunth) Griseb. var. mutisii Ags, BCS, Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tlx, Ver, Zac
*Cyperus nayaritensis G. C. Tucker Col, Jal, Mich, Nay
Cyperus niger Ruiz & Pav. var. capitatus (Britton) O'Neill BC, BCS, Chih, Jal, Son, Tam
Cyperus niger Ruiz & Pav. var. niger Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus ochraceus Vahl Cam, Chis, Coah, Col, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus odoratus L. Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chis, Chih, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus oxylepis Nees ex Steud. Introduced: Chis, Col, Gro, Oax, Sin, Son, Tam
Cyperus pallidicolor (Kük.) G. C. Tucker Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Son, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus panamensis (C. B. Clarke) Britton ex Standl. Chis, Gro, Oax, Sin, Ver
Cyperus papyrus L. Introduced: Mich, Mor, Ver
Cyperus parishii Britton1 Son
Cyperus pedunculatus (R. Br.) J. Kern QRoo, Yuc
**Cyperus penicillatus Conz. Oax
Cyperus pennellii O'Neill & Ben. Ayers. Dgo, Mex, Mich
*Cyperus perennis (M. E. Jones) O'Neill BC, BCS, Son
Cyperus planifolius Rich. Cam, QRoo, Yuc
Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. Cam, Chis, Gro, Oax, QRoo, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus prolixus Kunth Chis, CDM, Dgo, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Tam, Ver
Cyperus pseudothyrsiflorus (Kük.) J. Rich. Carter & S.D. Jones1 NL, Qro
Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. var. megalanthus Kük.2 Cam, Chis, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Tam, Ver, Yuc
*Cyperus pycnostachyus (Kunth) Kunth CDM, Mex, Mich, Pue, Tlx
Cyperus reflexus Vahl CDM, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Qro, SLP, Ver
Cyperus regiomontanus Britton3 Chis, Col, Gro, Jal, Oax, Mich, Sin, Son
Cyperus retroflexus Buckley Chih, Coah, NL, Qro, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus retroflexus Buckley var. pumilus1 Tab
Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. Tam
Cyperus rotundus L. BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, Col, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus salzmannianus (Steud.) Bauters Ver
**Cyperus sanguineo-ater Boeckeler var. floribundus Kük. Mor
Cyperus sanguineo-ater Boeckeler var. sanguineo-ater Chih, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Pue, Qro, Oax, Sin, Son, Zac
*Cyperus schaffneri Boeckeler CDM
Cyperus schweinitzii Torr. Chih, Dgo
Cyperus semiochraceus Boeckeler2 BCS, Chih, CDM, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Son, Ver
Cyperus seslerioides Kunth Ags, Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. Chis, Col, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Qro, Pue, SLP, Sin, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver
Cyperus simplex Kunth Chis, Oax
*Cyperus sordidus J. Presl & C. Presl Col, Gro, Jal, Nay, Sin
Cyperus spectabilis Link Ags, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Tam, Ver, Zac
*Cyperus spectabilis Link var. parryi (C. B. Clarke) Kük. CDM, Gto, Mex, SLP
Cyperus sphaerolepis Boeckeler1 Ags, Chih, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, NL, Pue, Qro, SLP, Son, Tlx, Zac
Cyperus squarrosus L. Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Cyperus subsquarrosus (Muhl.) Bauters BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Cyperus surinamensis Rottb. Ags, BCS, Cam, Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus svensonii G. C. Tucker2 Chis
Cyperus swartzii (A. Dietr.) Boeckeler ex Kük. SLP, Ver
*Cyperus tempeae G. C. Tucker SLP, Tam, Ver
Cyperus tenerrimus J. Presl & C. Presl Chis, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Sin, Son, Ver
Cyperus tenuis Sw. BC, BCS, Cam, Chis, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Son, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Cyperus thyrsiflorus Jungh. Cam, Chis, Coah, Hgo, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, QRoo, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus trachynotus Torr.1 BC, BCS, Col, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver
Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. ex Nees Chis, Oax
Cyperus unioloides R. Br. Chis, CDM, SLP, Tab, Oax, Ver
Cyperus virens Michx. var. drummondii (Torr. & Hook.) Kük. Dgo
Cyperus virens Michx. var. minarum (Boeckeler) Denton Chis, Mex
Cyperus virens Michx. var. virens Ags, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Qro, SLP, Son, Tab, Ver, Zac
**Cyperus wilburii G. C. Tucker Oax
**Cyperus sp. [Kyllinga microcephala Liebm. non Steud.] Ver
Cypringlea (3/3/0)
*Cypringlea analecta (Beetle) M. T. Strong Hgo, NL, Qro, SLP, Tam
*Cypringlea coahuilensis (Svenson) M. T. Strong Coah, NL
*Cypringlea evadens (C.D. Adams) Reznicek et S. González Chis, Gro, Oax, Pue
Eleocharis (55/10/5)
Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. Ags, BC, Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Ver, Zac
Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult. subsp. acutangula Chis, Hgo, Jal, Nay, Oax, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult. subsp. breviseta D.J. Rosen Cam, Chis, Gro
Eleocharis albibracteata Nees & Meyen ex Kunth Chis, Gro
Eleocharis albida Torr.3 Tam, Yuc
**Eleocharis arsenifera S. González, J. Tena et T. Alarcón Chih
Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J. Presl & C. Presl Cam, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Oax, Son, Yuc
Eleocharis bella (Piper) Svenson BC, Chih, Dgo, Son
Eleocharis bonariensis Nees CDM, Dgo, Mex, Mich, Oax, Qro
Eleocharis brachycarpa Svenson1 Tam
Eleocharis cancellata S. Watson1 Chih, CDM, Gto, Mex, SLP
Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. Cam, Chis, Coah, Gro, Jal, Nay, NL, QRoo, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis coloradoensis (Britton) Gilly BC, Coah, Chih, Dgo, Sin, Tam, Ver
**Eleocharis cryptica Saarela, P.M. Peterson, S. González & D.J. Rosen Dgo
Eleocharis densa Benth.2 Ags, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Ver, Zac
Eleocharis dombeyana Kunth Chis, CDM, Coah, Dgo, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, SLP, Son, Ver, Zac
Eleocharis elegans (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. Cam, Chis, Col, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis elongata Chapm. Cam?, Yuc?
Eleocharis filiculmis Kunth Cam, Chis, Gto, Gro, Jal, Mor, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Tab, Ver
Eleocharis flavescens (Poir.) C.B. Clarke BCS, Coah, Chis, Jal, Mor, SLP, Son, Tam, Ver
Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc, Zac
**Eleocharis gonzaleziae D.J. Rosen Dgo
*Eleocharis ignota S. González & Reznicek Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mich, Zac
Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl) Roem. & Schult. Cam, Chis, Col, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis macrostachya Britton Ags, BC, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Zac
Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl) R. Br. Chis
Eleocharis minima Kunth Cam, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Qro, QRoo, Sin, Tab, Tam, Ver
Eleocharis minutissima Britton Cam, Chis, Oax, QRoo
Eleocharis montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. Ags, Cam, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Son, Ver, Yuc, Zac
Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, Coah, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
*Eleocharis moorei M. Strong & S. González Hgo, Ver
Eleocharis mutata (L.) Roem. & Schult. Cam, Chis, Coah, Col, Gro, Jal, Nay, QRoo, Sin, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis nigrescens (Nees) Steud. Ags, Cam, Chis, Jal, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Eleocharis obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees) Steud. Ver
Eleocharis pachystyla (C. Wright) C.B. Clarke Chis, Oax, Tab, Ver
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. BC
Eleocharis parishii Britton Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Coah, Dgo, NL, Son, Zac
Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff, Nees & S. Schauer. BC, Cam, Chis, Tab, Ver
Eleocharis plicarhachis (Griseb.) Svenson Cam, Chis, Tab, Yuc
Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O. Schwarz BC
Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O. Schwarz var. bernardina (Munz & I.M. Johnst.) S. González & P.M. Peterson4 BC
Eleocharis radicans (A. Dietr.) Kunth BC, Chih, Chis, Coah, Dgo, Gro, Mex, Mich, Oax, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver
Eleocharis ravenelii Britton1 SLP, Tam?
Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir.) C.B. Clarke Cam, Chis, Oax, Tab, Ver
*Eleocharis reznicekii S. González, D.J. Rosen, R. Carter & P.M. Peterson Ags, Dgo, Gto, Zac
Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr. BC, Chih, Chis, Coah, Dgo, Mich, NL, Pue, Son, Tam, Zac
**Eleocharis rzedowskii S. González NL
Eleocharis schaffneri Boeckeler Ags, Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mich, Oax, Qro, SLP, Zac
Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth Chis
**Eleocharis subcancellata C.B. Clarke Jal
*Eleocharis svensoniana S. González Chih, Dgo, Jal, Sin, Son
*Eleocharis tenarum S. González & M. González E. Ags, Dgo, Gto, Mex, Qro, Zac
Eleocharis tiarata Gómez-Laur. Cam
Eleocharis urceolata (Liebm.) Svenson Cam, Chis, Ver
Eleocharis xyridiformis Fernald & Brackett CDM, Dgo, Mex, Zac
Eleocharis yecorensis E. Roalson2 Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mex, Nay, Son, Zac
Fimbristylis (16/2/0)
Fimbristylis annua (Allioni) Roem. & Schult. Ags, BC, Cam, CDM, Chih, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Pue, Qro, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tab, Ver, Zac
*Fimbristylis argillicola Kral Ags, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Pue, Zac
Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. Chis, Oax, Sin, SLP, Tab, Ver
Fimbristylis caroliniana (Lam.) Fernald Tab, Tam, Ver
Fimbristylis castanea (Michaux) Vahl Tam, QRoo, Yuc
Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br. Cam, Chis, Col, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl Ags, BC, BCS, Cam, Chis, Chih, Dgo, Gto, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Qro, Sin, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl Cam, QRoo, Yuc
Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich. Cam, Col, Chis, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Sin, SLP, Tab, Ver
*Fimbristylis pentastachya Boeckeler Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax, Sin, Son, Ver
Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl Cam, Chih, SLP, Tam
Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth Dgo, Jal, Nay, Oax, Sin
Fimbristylis spadicea (L.) Vahl Cam, Chis, Coah, Col, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Fimbristylis thermalis S. Watson1 BC, Chih, Coah, SLP, Son
Fimbristylis vahlii (Lam.) Link BC, Chis, NL, Son, Tab, Tam
Fuirena (7/3/1)
Fuirena camptotricha C. Wright Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Fuirena incompleta Nees var. incompleta Chis, Dgo, Mex, Mich, Ver
*Fuirena incompleta Nees var. obliterata Kral Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mex, Nay, Son
*Fuirena repens Boeckeler Dgo, Qro, SLP
Fuirena robusta Kunth Cam, Tab
*Fuirena simplex Vahl var. aristulata (Torr.) Kral BC, Son
Fuirena simplex Vahl var. simplex BC, BCS, Cam, Chih, Chis, Coah, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, Sin, SLP, Son, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
**Fuirena stephani Ramos & N. Diego Cam
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Tab, Yuc
Hypolytrum (1/0/0)
Hypolytrum nicaraguense Liebm. Chis, Oax, Tab, Ver
Isolepis (2/0/0)
Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. BC?
Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. & Schult. BC, BCS, Son
Karinia (1/1/0)
*Karinia mexicana (C.B. Clarke,ex Britton) Reznicek & McVaugh Ags, CDM, Dgo, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Qro, Pue, SLP, Zac
Rhynchospora (63/7/3)
**Rhynchospora angosturensis W. W. Thomas SLP
Rhynchospora aristata Boeckeler var. aristata Chis, CDM, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Oax, Ver
*Rhynchospora aristata Boeckeler var. suberecta Kük. Dgo, Mex, Gro, Jal, Mich, Nay, Oax
Rhynchospora barbata (Vahl) Kunth Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora berteroi (Spreng.) C.B. Clarke Cam, QRoo, Yuc?
Rhynchospora boliviensis C.B. Clarke Oax
Rhynchospora brevirostris Griseb. Chis, Gro, Jal, Mich, Mor, Nay, Oax
Rhynchospora brittonii Gale Tab
Rhynchospora brownii Roem. & Schult. subsp. americana Guagl. Chis
Rhynchospora cephalotes (L.) Vahl Cam, Chis, Gro, Oax, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora ciliata (G. Mey.) Kük. Cam, Chis, Oax, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff. Cam, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Mor, NL, Oax, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora consanguinea (Kunth) Boeckeler Chis, Oax, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora contracta (Nees) J. Raynal Cam, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Jal, Mex, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton Cam, Chis, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora divergens Chapm. ex M. A. Curtis Chis
Rhynchospora dives Standl.2 Chis, Tab, Ver
*Rhynchospora durangensis Kral & W. W. Thomas Dgo, Zac
Rhynchospora eximia (Nees) Boeckeler Cam, Chis, Col, Gro, Jal, Nay, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora fascicularis (Michx.) Vahl Cam, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora filifolia A. Gray Tab
Rhynchospora filiformis Vahl Cam, Chis, Tab, QRoo
Rhynchospora floridensis (Britton ex Small) H. Pfeiff. Cam, Chis, Oax, QRoo, Yuc
Rhynchospora gigantea Link Cam, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora globosa (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. Cam, Chis, Oax, QRoo, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora globularis (Chapm.) Small var. recognita Gale Chis
Rhynchospora gracilenta A. Gray Chis
Rhynchospora harveyi W. Boott. var. harveyi Coah
Rhynchospora hassleri C.B. Clarke Ver
Rhynchospora hirsuta (Vahl) Vahl Cam, Chis, Tab
Rhynchospora holoschoenoides (Rich.) Herter Cam, Chis, Jal, Nay, Oax, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora inundata (Oakes) Fern. Tab
*Rhynchospora jaliscensis McVaugh Dgo, Jal
*Rhynchospora jubata Liebm. Chis, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora kunthii Nees ex Kunth Chih, Chis, CDM, Dgo, Gro, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, Oax, Pue, SLP, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora lindeniana Griseb. var. bahamensis (Britton) Gale QRoo, Yuc
Rhynchospora marisculus Lindl. & Nees ex Nees Chis, Ver
Rhynchospora marliniana Naczi, W. M. Knapp & W.W. Thomas Tab
Rhynchospora mexicana (Liebm.) Steud. Chis, Jal, Oax
Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeckeler Cam, Chis, Gro, Jal, Mex, Nay, Oax, QRoo, SLP, Sin, Tab, Tam, Ver
Rhynchospora cf. nitens (Vahl) A. Gray Yuc
Rhynchospora nivea Boeckeler1 Coah
Rhynchospora oligantha A. Gray Cam
Rhynchospora plumosa Elliott QRoo, Tab
Rhynchospora polyphylla (Vahl) Kunth Chis, Ver
Rhynchospora pusilla Chapm. ex M. A. Curtis Chis, Tab
Rhynchospora radicans (Schltdl. & Cham.) H. Pfeiff. subsp. microcephala (Bertero ex Spreng.) W. W. Thomas Chis, Gro, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Rhynchospora radicans (Schltdl. & Cham.) H. Pfeiff. subsp. radicans Cam, Chis, Hgo, Oax, Pue, Qro, QRoo, SLP, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora robusta (Kunth) Boeckeler Chis, Tab, Ver [Pendiente]
**Rhynchospora rosae W.W. Thomas Chis
Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale Chis, Oax, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora ruiziana Boeckeler Chis, Oax
Rhynchospora schiedeana Kunth Chis, Ver
Rhynchospora scutellata Griseb. Cam, Gro, Mich, Tab, Yuc
Rhynchospora tenerrima Nees ex Spreng. Cam, Chis, Tab
Rhynchospora tenuis Link Cam, Chis, Jal, Nay, Sin, Ver
Rhynchospora tracyi Britton Yuc
Rhynchospora triflora Vahl Cam
Rhynchospora trispicata (Nees) Schrad. ex Steud. Cam, Chis, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora tuerckheimii C.B. Clarke ex Kük. Chis, Gro, Ver
Rhynchospora velutina (Kunth) Boeckeler Cam, Chis, Tab, Ver
Rhynchospora vulcani Boeckeler Chis
Rhynchospora watsonii (Britton) Davidse Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Ver
**Rhynchospora zacualtipanensis M. Strong Hgo
Schoenoplectiella (2/0/0)
Schoenoplectiella erecta (Poir.) Lye NL, QRoo, Tam, Yuc
Schoenoplectiella saximontana (Fernald) Lye BC, BCS, Chih, Coah, NL, Qro, SLP, Tam
Schoenoplectus (5/0/0)
Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhlenberg ex Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. occidentalis (S. Watson) S. G. Smith Ags, BC, Chih, Coah, Dgo, Mich, NL, Son, Zac
Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volkart ex Schinz et R. Keller Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Qro, Pue, Sin, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Schoenoplectus californicus (C. A. Meyer) Soják Ags, BC, BCS, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Gto, Hgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, NL, Oax, Pue, Qro, SLP, Son, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Zac
Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla BC, BCS, Coah, Gto, Jal, Mich, Son, Tam, Ver
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C. C. Gmelin) Palla Cam, Chih, Chis, CDM, Coah, Col, Dgo, Jal, Mex, Mich, Mor, Nay, NL, Oax, Pue, QRoo, Qro, Son, Tab, Tam, Tlx, Ver, Yuc
Schoenus (1/0/0)
Schoenus nigricans L. Cam, Chis, Coah, Dgo, NL, Oax, QRoo, SLP, Yuc
Scirpus (4/0/0)
Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Chih
Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Hgo, Ver
Scirpus microcarpus J. Presl & C. Presl BC, Dgo
Scirpus pendulus Muhl. Coah
Scleria (29/2/1)
Scleria anceps Liebm. Chis, Ver
Scleria bellii LeBlond Dgo, Jal
*Scleria bourgeaui Boeckeler Chih, Chis, Dgo, Jal, Nay, Ver
Scleria bracteata Cav. Cam, Chis, Gro, Oax, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Scleria ciliata Michx. Cam, Chis, Dgo, Jal, Mex, Nay, QRoo
Scleria distans Poir. Chis, QRoo, Tab
Scleria eggersiana Boeckeler Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Scleria flagellum-nigrorum P. J. Bergius Tab, Ver
Scleria georgiana Core Cam
Scleria hirtella Sw. Chis, Mich, Nay, Oax, Tab, Ver
Scleria interrupta Rich. Cam, Chis, Jal?
Scleria latifolia Sw. Chis
Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. Cam, Chis, Col, Gro, Mich, Oax, QRoo, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver, Yuc
Scleria macrophylla J. Presl & C. Presl BC, BCS, Cam, Chis, Gro, Oax, Tab, Ver
Scleria melaleuca Rchb. ex Schltdl. & Cham. Cam, Chis, Gro, Oax, SLP, Tab, Tam, Ver
Scleria mexicana (Liebm.) Boeckeler Chis, Gro, Tab, Ver
Scleria microcarpa Nees ex Kunth Cam, Chis, QRoo, Tab, Ver
Scleria muehlenbergii Steudel Cam, Chis, Dgo, Gro, Gto, Jal, Mex, Mich, Nay, NL, Oax, QRoo, Sin, Son, Tab, Ver
Scleria oligantha Michx. Cam, Chis, Dgo, NL, Qro, Tab, Tam, Ver
Scleria phylloptera C. Wright ex Griseb. Chis, Tab
Scleria purdiei C.B. Clarke Chis
Scleria scabriuscula Schltdl.2 Chis, Jal, Nay, Ver
Scleria schiedeana Schltdl. Gro, Jal, Nay, Oax, Ver
Scleria secans (L.) C.B. Clarke Cam, Chis, Jal, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
Scleria setuloso-ciliata Boeckeler Cam, Chis, Gro, QRoo, Tab, Ver, Yuc
**Scleria sp. [S. hirta Boeckeler] Ver
Scleria tenella Kunth Jal, Oax, Ver
Scleria vaginata Steud. QRoo
Scleria verticillata Muhl. NL, Tam

Received: October 02, 2017; Accepted: November 10, 2017

* Corresponding author: M. Socorro González-Elizondo, e-mail: herbario_ciidir@yahoo.com.mx.

Author Contributions: M. Socorro González-Elizondo compiled the data, curated databases, wrote and reviewed the manuscript. Anton A. Reznicek compiled the data, curated databases, wrote and reviewed the manuscript. Jorge A. Tena-Flores analyzed the data, made figures, and critically reviewed the manuscript.

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