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Therya

versión On-line ISSN 2007-3364

Therya vol.9 no.1 La Paz ene. 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.12933/therya-18-587 

Reviews

Spanish and English Vernacular Names of Mammals of North America

Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda1  * 

Noé Gónzalez-Ruiz2 

1 Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195, CP. 23096, La Paz. Baja California Sur, México. E-mail: sticul@cibnor.mx (STA-C).

2 Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-535, C.P. 09340. Ciudad de México, México. E-mail: noegr@xanum.uam.mx (NGR).

Abstract:

Vernacular names are important to know the characteristics of an organism, and are essential to improve the exchange of information between academic and non-academic areas. These are popular in the English language by improving the efficiency of communications in this language, even being more frequently used in the academic environment even when the scientific name is known. In contrast, common names are only occasionally used in Spanish, only for charismatic mammal species; however, these are applied collectively to a wide range of animals that share the same characteristics, such as bats, mice, gophers. Due to the lack of consensus regarding vernacular names in English and of a matching commong name in Spanish for many species, our objective was to gather, rescue and propose vernacular names for 800 species of mammals in North America. The approach used was to follow, to the extent possible, basic principles to propose vernacular names.

Keywords: Scientific names; mammals; common name; Mexico

Resumen:

Los nombres vernáculos son importantes para conocer las características que tiene un organismo y esenciales para mejorar el intercambio de información entre el ámbito académico y no académico. En el idioma ingles son populares porque representan ventajas al hacer más eficiente la comunicación en su propio idioma, incluso es más utilizado en el medio académico aun cuando se conoce en nombre científico. Pero en el idioma español se usan en ocasiones, solamente son utilizados en especies de mamíferos carismáticas, pero se aplican colectivamente para una amplia gama de animales que comparten las mismas características como los murciélagos, ratones, tuzas. Debido a la falta de consenso de los nombres vernáculos en el idioma inglés y su ausencia en muchas especies en el idioma español, nos dimos a la tarea de recopilar, rescatar y proponer los nombres vernáculos de 800 especies de mamíferos de Norteamérica. Sin embargo, decidimos seguir, en la medida de lo posible, principios básicos para proponer los nombres vernáculos.

Keywords: Scientific names; mammals; common name; Mexico

Introduction

Since early in history, man has attempted to describe his environment; this required naming the local plants and animals in the surroundings (Clutton-Brock 2015). The names of living organisms serve two essential purposes. The first is that the properties of any organism such as color, size and shape can be associated with its name, so that we can infer the information on an organism through its name alone; for instance, the word “mouse” automatically communicates the intrinsic characteristics of this animal. Second, the name is essential for communication, and the more widespread the name is, the better the communication between people.

These roles of information and communication of names are equally applicable to scientific and vernacular names. However, since the publication of the tenth edition of Sistema Nature (Linnaeus 1758) and after a number of issues of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to the latest revision (ICZN 1999), scientific names acquired additional functions, such as being unique and universal, both characteristics not shared by vernacular names. However, the vernacular name is the first thing we know about a mammal (Verts and Carraway 1998); thus, early in life we learn names such as “cat” or “dog”. These common names, which we learn from childhood or by interacting and communicating with others in adulthood, are key because they remain in our memory and are part of our common sense. Ultimately, these play an important role in meeting the need to identify and have in place an efficient communication means about a specific kind of mammal (Verts and Carraway 1998).

Another advantage of vernacular names vs. scientific names is that, outside of the academic environment, the latter are little known, unfriendly, and difficult to learn and remember. The lack of knowledge of Greek and Latin roots do not allow to understand and express their meaning to our partners (Álvarez-Castaneda and Alvarez 1996).

In Spanish, vernacular names are little used in scientific literature; in fact, there are questions and discussion as to the definition of common, vulgar and vernacular names (Mones and Mones 1991). Here we define common name as the one used by ordinary people, in most cases at the local level, and generally in little known languages or dialects; this is the case of “citli”, a name of Nahuatl origin that refers to the hare (Lepus sp.; Sanchez 1985). Vernacular names are those used in a regional context. These are usually designed by zoologists, and their use has expanded over time; an example is the name “murciélago magueyero” (long-nosed bat) mentioned by Arita and Humphrey (1988) to refer to the species of the genus Leptonycteris, the use of which became subsequently widespread. Vulgar name refers to any of the previous two. It must be recognized, however, that in many cases the distinction between these two types of names is ambiguous or unclear. For example, the vulgar names coyote (Canis latrans), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and temazate (Mazama sp.) have their origin in the common names of the Nahuatl words “coyotl”, “ocelotl”, and “temazatl”, respectively.

In English, the use of vernacular names is extremely widespread even in the academic environment. It is commonly used in the description of species (e. g., Porter et al. 2017), being used in taxonomic monographs since the end of the 18th century (Kerr 1792; Allen 1894; Merriam 1918), as well as in monographs at the state level in the English language (Hall and Dalquest 1963; Anderson 1972, Sánchez-Hernández et al. 2016). In addition, it is traditionally used in taxonomic list of the mammals of North America (Jones et al. 1973; Hall 1981; Wilson and Ruff 1999; Baker et al. 2003; Reid 2006) and of the world (Wilson and Cole 2000; Wilson and Reeder 2005). U.S. researchers discovered the advantages of the vernacular name, namely that it improves the efficiency of communications by having names in their own language. These names are even more frequently used in the academic environment even when the scientific name is known, and because vernacular names can contribute to resolve taxonomic or nomenclature issues since, in many cases, these are more stable than scientific names (Jackson and Groves 2015).

In Mexico, vernacular names are frequently used in publications to the general public (e. g., Alvarez and González 1987), being widely accepted for birds (Escalante et al. 2014) and marine mammals (Gallo-Reynoso 1985); however, these are rarely used in most scientific publications of terrestrial mammals, even when remarkable reviews are available. Sanchez (1985) performed a search of names in the Mexican Nahuatl dialect, and found 51 names of common use, whereas Gaumer (1917) provided the names of the mammals of Yucatan in the Mayan language; in both cases, common names were correctly associated with the respective scientific names. To the best of our knowledge, pioneering work in Mexico on the use of vernacular names was conducted by Villa (1967) and Ramírez-Pulido et al. (1983). From then on, these have been used in some regional monographs (e. g., Ceballos and Galindo 1984; González-Christen 2010) and in extensive monographs of the mammals of Mexico (Aranda 2000; Villa-Ramirez and Cervantes 2003; Ceballos and Oliva 2005). However, all these publications have particular vernacular names that are unique to charismatic species of mammals, of economic importance in medicine or as food, of in conservation, as is the case of the jaguar (Panthera onca), or the tapir (Tapirella bairdii). Other names are applied to a wide range of mammals that share common characteristics such as bats, mice, and gophers; some of these names are applicable to all species in the same family or belonging to several families. Collective names for similar species are frequently used in many parts of the world (Simpson 1941; Verts and Carraway 1998).

Today, electronic media have made it possible to increase the flow of information and its accessibility. They have also allowed non-specialists in the study of mammals to access information about various species. Vernacular names are particularly important in this case, as they serve as a link between the academia and users that share information: in fact, this is the modern objective of vernacular names (Jackson and Groves 2015). That is why the use of the vernacular names is necessary in disclosure documents or official, as in the Mexican Official Standard 059 (SEMARNAT 2001, 2010) and the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN; http://www.iucn.org).

We are currently working on keys to identify mammals in North America, where we have recorded 800 species, Based the previous works of Álvarez-Castañeda et al. (2015, 2017). In virtually all cases a vernacular name in English is available for each species, and less than 15 % of species have a name in Spanish. The work will be published as a book in bilingual format; thus, it was decided that all species should have a common name in English and one in Spanish to facilitate their identification. This motivated us to produce a list of names that may be useful and of wide distribution and use at the regional level (Table 1). As vernacular names in English are already extensively used, we only gathered a list, seeking matches between the different lists available, as needed (Jones et al. 1973; Hall 1981; Wilson and Ruff 1999; Wilson and Cole 2000; Baker et al. 2003; Wilson and Reeder 2005; Reid 2006); we designed novel names in the case of either new species or those with recent taxonomic changes. For the Spanish names, we reviewed all the literature to the extent possible (see above), compiling vernacular names commonly used in the literature in Spanish; for the majority of species, however, there is no information on their names, so a common name is proposed for each in these cases.

Table 1 Scientific and Vernacular Names (in English and Spanish) of the mammals of North America. When more than one vernacular name is available for a species, a forward slash (/) is used to separate each individual name. 

Nombre cientifico Nombre en inglés Nombre en español
Artiodactyla
Antilocapridae
Antilocapra americana Pronghorn berrendo
Bovidae  
Bison bison American bison bisonte americano
Oreamnos americanus Mountain goat cabra de montaña/cabra blanca
Ovibos moschatus Muskox buey almizclero/toro almizclero
Ovis canadensis Bighorn sheep borrego cimarrón
Ovis dalli Dall’s sheep borrego cimarrón de las rocallosas/borrego cimarrón blanco
Cervidae    
Alces americanus Moose alce
Cervus canadensis Wapiti wapití/ciervo canadiense
Cervus elaphus Elk/Red deer ciervo rojo
Mazama pandora Yucatan brown brocket temazate café/yuk café, mazate, cabrito café
Mazama temama Central american red brocket temazate rojo/yuk rojo, mazate rojo, cabrito rojo
Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer venado bura
Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer venado cola blanca
Rangifer tarandus Caribou/Reindeer reno/caribú
Tayassuidae  
Dicotyles angulatus Western collared peccary jabalí de collar del oeste
Dicotyles crassus Eastern collared peccary pecarí o jabalí de collar del este
Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary pecarí o jabalí de labios blancos, senso
Carnivora
Canidae    
Canis latrans Coyote coyote
Canis lupus Gray wolf lobo gris, lobo de bosque
Canis lycaon Eastern wolf lobo canadiense
Canis rufus Red wolf lobo rojo
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox zorra gris
Urocyon littoralis Island gray fox zorra gris de isla catalina
Vulpes lagopus Arctic fox zorra del ártico
Vulpes macrotis Kit fox zorra del desierto, zorra norteña
Vulpes velox Swift fox zorra del desierto
Vulpes vulpes Red fox zorro rojo
Felidae    
Leopardus pardalis Ocelot ocelote
Leopardus wiedii Margay tigrillo/margay
Lynx canadensis Canada lynx lince canadiense
Lynx rufus Bobcat gato montés/lince rojo/lince americano
Panthera onca Jaguar jaguar/tigre/pantera
Puma concolor Cougar puma/león, león de montaña
Herpailurus yagouaroundi Jaguarundi Jaguarundi/leoncillo/onza real
Mephitidae    
Conepatus leuconotus American hog-nosed skunk zorrillo espalda blanca
Conepatus semistriatus Striped hog-nosed skunk zorrillo bilistado
Mephitis macroura Hooded skunk zorrillo rayado sureño
Mephitis mephitis Striped skunk zorrillo rayado norteño
Spilogale angustifrons Southern spotted skunk zorrillo manchado del sur
Spilogale gracilis Western spotted skunk zorrillo manchado del oeste
Spilogale putorius Eastern spotted skunk zorrillo manchado del este
Spilogale pygmaea Pygmy spotted skunk zorrillo pigmeo
Eira barbara Tayra tayra/cabeza de viejo/viejo de monte
Enhydra lutris Sea otter nutria marina
Galictis vittata Greater grison grisón
Gulo gulo Wolverine glotón/carcayú
Lontra canadensis North american river otter nutria de río norteamericana
Lontra longicaudis Neotropical otter nutria de río/perro de agua
Martes americana American marten marta americana
Martes pennanti Fisher marta pescadora
Mustela erminea Ermine armiño
Mustela frenata Long-tailed weasel comadreja, oncita, hurón
Mustela nigripes Black-footed ferret hurón de patas negras
Mustela nivalis Least weasel comadreja pequeña
Neovison vison American mink mink
Taxidea taxus American badger tlalcoyote/tejón
Odobenidae    
Odobenus rosmarus Walrus morsa
Otaridae    
Arctocephalus philippii Guadalupe fur seal lobo fino de guadalupe
Callorhinus ursinus Northern fur seal lobo marino del ártico
Eumetopias jubatus Steller sea lion león marino del norte
Zalopus californicus California sea lion león marino de California
Phocidae    
Cystophora cristata Hooded seal foca capuchina
Erignathus barbatus Bearded seal foca barbuda
Halichoerus grypus Gray seal foca gris
Histriophoca fasciata Ribbon seal foca listada
Mirounga angustirostris Northern elephant seal elefante marino
Monachus tropicalis Caribbean monk seal foca del caribe
Pagophilus groenlandicus Harp seal foca pia
Phoca largha Spotted seal foca manchada
Phoca vitulina Harbor seal foca común/foca moteada
Pusa hispida Ringed seal foca anillada
Procyonidae    
Bassariscus astutus Ringtail cacomixtle/sietillo/babisuri
Bassariscus sumichrasti Cacomistle cacomixtle tropical/huiloncha
Nasua narica White-nosed coati coatí/pizote/amátze/tejón
Potos flavus Kinkajou martucha/mico de noche
Procyon lotor Raccoon mapache
Procyon pygmaeus Cozumel raccoon mapache pigmeo
Ursidae    
Ursus americanus American black bear oso negro
Ursus arctos Brown bear, grizzly bear oso pardo/grizzly
Ursus maritimus Polar bear oso polar
Cetacea
Balaenidae    
Balaena mysticetus Bowhead ballena de Groenlandia/ballena boreal
Eubalaena japonica North Pacific Right Whale ballena franca
Balaenopteridae    
Balaenoptera acutorostrata Common Minke Whale rorcual enano/rorcual picudo
Balaenoptera borealis Sei Whale rorcual boreal
Balaenoptera edeni Bryde’s Whale rorcual tropical
Balaenoptera musculus Blue Whale ballena azul/rorcual azul
Balaenoptera physalus Fin Whale rorcual común/rorcual de aleta
Megaptera novaeangliae Humpback Whale ballena jorobada/rorcual jorobado
Eschrichtiidae    
Eschrichtius robustus Gray Whale ballena gris
Delphinidae    
Delphinus capensis Long-beaked Common Dolphin delfín común de rostro largo
Delphinus delphis Short-beaked Common Dolphin delfín común
Feresa attenuata Pygmy Killer Whale orca pigmea
Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned Pilot Whale calderón/ballena piloto
Globicephala melas Long-finned Pilot Whale ballena piloto de aleta larga/calderón común
Grampus griseus Risso’s Dolphin delfín gris
Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser’s Dolphin delfín de botella
Lagenorhynchus acutus Atlantic White-sided Dolphin delfín de flancos blancos
Lagenorhynchus albirostris White-beaked Dolphin delfín hocico blanco
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Pacific White-sided Dolphin delfín de costados blancos
Lissodelphis borealis Northern Right Whale Dolphin delfín liso boreal
Orcinus orca Killer Whale orca
Peponocephala electra Melon-headed Whale ballena cabeza de melón
Pseudorca crassidens False Killer Whale falsa orca/orca bastarda
Stenella attenuata Pantropical Spotted Dolphin delfín manchado tropical
Stenella clymene Clymene Dolphin delfín giradora del atlántico
Stenella coeruleoalba Striped Dolphin delfín rayado
Stenella frontalis Atlantic Spotted Dolphin delfín manchado del Atlántico
Stenella longirostris Spinner Dolphin delfín tornillo
Steno bredanensis Rough-toothed Dolphin delfín de dientes rugosos
Tursiops truncatus Bottlenose Dolphin tonina
Monodontidae    
Delphinapterus leucas Beluga beluga
Monodon monoceros Narwhal narval
Phocoenidae    
Phocoena sinus Vaquita vaquita
Phocoenoides dalli Dall’s Porpoise marsopa
Physeteridae    
Kogia breviceps Pygmy Sperm Whale cachalote pigmeo
Kogia sima Dwarf Sperm Whale cachalote enano
Physeter macrocephalus Sperm Whale cachalote
Ziphiidae    
Berardius bairdii Baird’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda/zifio picudo grande
Indopacetus pacificus Tropical Bottlenose Whale ballena nariz del Indopacífico
Mesoplodon bidens Sowerby’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda del atlántico del norte
Mesoplodon carlhubbsi Hubb’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda de Hubbs
Mesoplodon densirostris Blainville’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda rostro grande/zifio rostro grande
Mesoplodon europaeus Gervais’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda del atlántico/zifio europeo
Mesoplodon ginkgodens Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale ballena picuda japonesa
Mesoplodon mirus True’s Beaked Whale ballena picuda gris
Mesoplodon peruvianus Pygmy Beaked Whale ballena picuda tropical
Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier’s Beaked Whale ballenato picudo
Chiroptera
Emballonuridae    
Balantiopteryx io Thomas’s sac-winged bat murciélago de sacos pardo
Balantiopteryx plicata Gray sac-winged bat murciélago de sacos gris
Centronycteris centralis Thomas’s shaggy bat murciélago lanudo
Diclidurus albus Northern ghost bat murciélago blanco
Peropteryx kappleri Greater dog-like bat murciélago perro mayor
Peropteryx macrotis Lesser dog-like bat murciélago perro menor
Rhynchonycteris naso Proboscis bat murciélago narigón
Saccopteryx bilineata Greater sac-winged bat murciélago rayado mayor
Saccopteryx leptura Lesser sac-winged bat murciélago rayado menor
Molossidae    
Cynomops mexicanus Mexican dog-faced bat murciélago cara de perro mexicano
Eumops auripendulus Black bonneted bat murciélago de gorra negro
Eumops ferox Central america bonneted bat murciélago de gorra Centroamericano
Eumops floridanus Florida bonneted bat murciélago de gorra de Florida
Eumops hansae Sanborn’s bonneted bat murciélago de gorra pigmeo
Eumops nanus Eastern lesser bonneted bat murciélago de gorra pigmeo del este
Eumops perotis Greater bonneted bat murciélago de gorra mayor del oeste
Eumops underwoodi Underwood’s bonneted bat murciélago de gorra del Pacífico
Molossus alvarezi Alvarez’s mastiff bat murciélago mastín de Yucatán
Molossus aztecus Aztec mastiff bat murciélago mastín de Azteca
Molossus coibensis Coiban mastiff bat murciélago mastín de Coiban
Molossus molossus Pallas’s mastiff bat murciélago mastín peludo
Molossus rufus Black mastiff bat murciélago mastín negro
Molossus sinaloae Sinaloan mastiff bat murciélago mastín de Sinaloa
Nyctinomops aurispinosus Peale’s free-tailed bat murciélago de cola libre
Nyctinomops femorosaccus Pocketed free-tailed bat murciélago de cola libre de bolsa
Nyctinomops laticaudatus Broad-eared free-tailed bat murciélago de cola libre de orejas grandes
Nyctinomops macrotis Big free-tailed bat murciélago de cola libre mayor
Promops centralis Big crested mastiff bat murciélago mastín crestado
Tadarida brasiliensis Brazilian free-tailed bat murciélago mexicano de cola libre
Mormoopidae    
Mormoops megalophylla Ghost-faced bat murciélago cara arrugada
Pteronotus davyi Davy’s naked-backed bat murciélago de espalda desnuda menor
Pteronotus gymnonotus Big naked-backed bat murciélago de espalda desnuda mayor
Pteronotus parnellii Common mustached bat murciélago bigotudo mayor
Pteronotus personatus Wagner’s mustached bat murciélago bigotudo menor
Natalidae    
Natalus lanatus Hairy funnel-eared bats murciélago orejas de embudo lanudo
Natalus mexicanus Mexican greater funnel-eared bat murciélago orejas de embudo mexicano
Noctilionidae    
Noctilio albiventris Lesser bulldog bat murciélago pescador menor
Noctilio leporinus Greater bulldog bat murciélago pescador mayor
Phyllostomidae    
Anoura geoffroyi Geoffroy’s tailless bat murciélago sin cola gris
Artibeus hirsutus Hairy fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero de patas peludas
Artibeus jamaicensis Jamaican fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero común/murciélago zapotero
Artibeus lituratus Great fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero gigante
Dermanura azteca Aztec fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero menor de patas peludas
Dermanura phaeotis Pygmy fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero pigmeo
Dermanura tolteca Toltec fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero menor de patas desnudas
Dermanura watsoni Thomas’s fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero Centroamericano
Carollia perspicillata Seba’s short-tailed bat murciélago colicorta
Carollia sowelli Sowell’s short-tailed bat murciélago colicorta pardo
Carollia subrufa Gray short-tailed bat murciélago colicorta gris
Centurio senex Wrinkle-faced bat murciélago cara de viejo
Chiroderma salvini Salvin’s big-eyed bat murciélago ojudo pardo
Chiroderma villosum Hairy big-eyed bat murciélago ojudo güero
Choeroniscus godmani Godman’s long-tongued bat murciélago de cola larga
Choeronycteris mexicana Mexican long-tongued bat murciélago trompudo mexicano
Chrotopterus auritus Woolly False Vampire bat falso vampiro lanudo
Desmodus rotundus Common vampire bat vampiro común
Diaemus youngi White-winged vampire bat vampiro de alas blancas
Diphylla ecaudata Hairy-legged vampire bat vampiro de patas peludas
Enchisthenes hartii Velvety fruit-eating bat murciélago frutero negro
Glossophaga commissarisi Commissaris’s long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo pequeño
Glossophaga leachii Gray’s long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo gris
Glossophaga morenoi Western long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo del oeste
Glossophaga soricina Pallas’s long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo común
Glyphonycteris sylvestris Tri-colored big-eared bat murciélago tricolor
Hylonycteris underwoodi Underwood’s long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo moreno
Lampronycteris brachyotis Yellow-throated big-eared bat murciélago orejón de garganta amarilla
Leptonycteris nivalis Mexican long-nosed bat murciélago magueyero mayor
Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Lesser long-nosed bat murciélago magueyero menor
Lichonycteris obscura Dark long-tongued bat murciélago lenguilargo oscuro
Lonchorhina aurita Common sword-nosed bat murciélago nariz de espada
Lophostoma brasiliense Pygmy round-eared bat murciélago orejas redondas brasileño
Lophostoma evotis Davis’s round-eared bat murciélago orejas redondas Mesoamericano
Macrophyllum macrophyllum Long-legged bat murciélago patas largas
Macrotus californicus California big-eared bats murciélago orejón norteño
Macrotus waterhousii Waterhouse’s big-eared bats murciélago orejón sureño
Micronycteris microtis Common little big-eared bats murciélago orejón pequeño
Micronycteris schmidtorum Schmidts’s little big-eared bats murciélago orejón centroamericano
Mimon cozumelae Cozumelan golden bat murciélago dorado de Cozumel
Mimon crenulatum Striped hairy-nosed bat murciélago dorado nariz peluda
Musonycteris harrisoni Banana bat murciélago hocicudo del Balsas
Phylloderma stenops Pale-faced bat murciélago cara pálida
Phyllostomus discolor Pale spear-nosed bat murciélago pálido de nariz de lanza
Platyrrhinus helleri Heller’s broad-nosed bat murciélago listado nariz ancha
Sturnira hondurensis Highland yellow-shouldered bat murciélago de charreteras mayor
Sturnira parvidens Little yellow-shouldered bat murciélago de charreteras menor
Tonatia saurophila Stripe-headed round-eared bat murciélago cabeza rayada orejas redondas
Trachops cirrhosus Fringe-lipped bat murciélago labio verrugoso
Trinycteris nicefori Niceforo’s big-eared bat murciélago orejón raro
Uroderma bilobatum Tent-making bat murciélago acampador moreno
Uroderma magnirostrum Brown tent-making bat murciélago acampador pálido
Vampyressa thyone Northern little yellow-eared bat murciélago cara pintada menor
Vampyrodes major Great stripe-faced bat murciélago cara pintada mayor
Vampyrum spectrum Spectral bat murciélago espectral
Thyropteridae    
Thyroptera tricolor Spix’s disk-winged bat murciélago muñecas con ventosas
Vespertilionidae    
Antrozous pallidus Pallid bat murciélago pálido/ murciélago desertícola
Bauerus dubiaquercus Van gelder’s bat murciélago pálido trópical
Corynorhinus mexicanus Mexican big-eared bat murciélago orejudo mexicano
Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque’s big-eared bat murciélago orejudo norteamerícano
Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend’s big-eared bat murciélago orejudo pálido
Eptesicus brasiliensis Brazilian brown bat murciélago pardo de Brasil
Eptesicus furinalis Argentinian brown bat murciélago pardo tropical
Eptesicus fuscus Big brown bat murciélago pardo grande
Euderma maculatum Spotted bat murciélago orejudo manchado
Idionycteris phyllotis Allen’s big-eared bat murciélago orejudo negro
Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-haired bat murciélago plateado
Lasiurus blossevillii Western red bat murciélago colapeluda rojo del oeste
Lasiurus borealis Eastern red bat murciélago colapeluda rojo del este
Lasiurus cinereus Hoary bat murciélago colapeluda canoso
Lasiurus ega Southern yellow bat murciélago colapeluda amarillo del sur
Lasiurus intermedius Northern yellow bat murciélago colapeluda amarillo del norte
Lasiurus seminolus Seminole bat murciélago colapeluda canoso de Florida
Lasiurus xanthinus Western yellow bat murciélago colapeluda amarillo del oeste
Myotis albescens Silver-tipped myotis murciélago ratón plateado
Myotis auriculus Southwestern myotis murciélago ratón suroccidental
Myotis austroriparius Southeastern myotis murciélago ratón del sureste
Myotis californicus California myotis murciélago ratón de California
Myotis ciliolabrum Western small-footed myotis murciélago ratón occidental
Myotis elegans Elegant myotis murciélago ratón tropical/murciélago ratón elegante
Myotis evotis Long-eared myotis murciélago del oeste
Myotis findleyi Findley’s myotis murciélago ratón de las Islas Marías
Myotis fortidens Cinnamon myotis murciélago ratón canela
Myotis grisescens Gray myotis murciélago ratón gris
Myotis keaysi Hairy-legged myotis murciélago ratón pata peluda
Myotis keenii Keen’s myotis murciélago ratón de la Columbia Británica
Myotis leibii Eastern small-footed myotis murciélago ratón oriental
Myotis lucifugus Little brown myotis murciélago ratón Norteamericano
Myotis melanorhinus Dark-nosed small-footed myotis murciélago ratón de nariz negra
Myotis nigricans Black myotis murciélago ratón negro
Myotis occultus Arizona myotis murciélago ratón de Arizona
Myotis pilosatibialis Haired legs myotis murciélago ratón patas peludas
Myotis planiceps Flat-headed myotis murciélago ratón de cabeza plana
Myotis septentrionalis Northern myotis murciélago ratón grande del norte
Myotis sodalis Indiana myotis murciélago ratón de Indíana
Myotis thysanodes Fringed myotis murciélago ratón peludo
Myotis velifer Cave myotis murciélago ratón de las cuevas
Myotis vivesi Fish-eating myotis murciélago ratón pescador
Myotis volans Long-legged myotis murciélago ratón patas largas
Myotis yumanensis Yuma myotis murciélago ratón pequeño
Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat murciélago del anochecer
Parastrellus hesperus American parastrelle murciélago pequeño del oeste
Perimyotis subflavus Eastern pipistrelle murciélago pequeño del este
Rhogeessa aeneus Yucatan yellow bat murciélago amarillo de Yucatán
Rhogeessa alleni Yellow bat murciélago amarillo grande
Rhogeessa bickhami Bickham’s yellow bat murciélago amarillo de la costa Chiapas
Rhogeessa genowaysi Genoways’s yellow bat murciélago amarillo de Chiapas
Rhogeessa gracilis Slender yellow bat murciélago amarillo delgado
Rhogeessa mira Least yellow bat murciélago amarillo pigmeo
Rhogeessa parvula Little yellow bat murciélago amarillo pequeño
Rhogeessa tumida Black-winged little yellow bat murciélago amarillo de alas negras
Cingulata
Dasypodidae    
Cabassous centralis Northern naked-tailed armadillo armadillo de cola desnuda
Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-banded armadillo armadillo/armadillo de nueve bandas
Didelphiomorpha
Didelphidae  
Caluromys derbianus Derby’s woolly opossum tlacuache lanudo
Chironectes minimus Water opossum tlacuache de agua
Didelphis marsupialis Common opossum tlacuache sureño/zarigüeya sureña
Didelphis virginiana Virginia opossum tlacuache norteño/zarigüeya norteña
Marmosa mexicana Mexican mouse opossum ratón tlacuache mexicano
Metachirus nudicaudatus Brown four-eyed opossum tlacuache de cuatro ojos moreno/cuatro ojillos moreno
Philander opossum Gray four-eyed opossum tlacuache de cuatro ojos gris/cuatro ojillos gris
Tlacuatzin balsasensis Balsas mouse opossum tlacuachín/ratón tlacuache del Balsas
Tlacuatzin canescens Gray mouse opossum tlacuachín/ratón tlacuache del Pacífico
Tlacuatzin gaumeri Yucatan mouse opossum tlacuachín/ratón tlacuache Yucateco
Tlacuatzin insularis Tres Marías mouse oposum tlacuachín/ratón tlacuache de Tres Marías
Tlacuatzin sinaloae Northern mouse opossum tlacuachín/ratón tlacuache norteño
Lagomorpha
Leporidae    
Brachylagus idahoensis Pygmy rabbit conejo pigmeo
Lepus alleni Antelope jackrabbit liebre antílope
Lepus americanus Snowshoe hare liebre de las nieves
Lepus arcticus Arctic hare liebre del ártico
Lepus californicus Black-tailed jackrabbit liebre de cola negra
Lepus callotis White-sided jackrabbit liebre de costados blancos, liebre torda
Lepus flavigularis Tehuantepec jackrabbit liebre de Tehuantepec
Lepus othus Alaskan hare liebre de Alaska
Lepus townsendii White-tailed jackrabbit liebre de cola blanca
Romerolagus diazi Volcano rabbit teporingo/zacatuche/conejo de los volcanes
Sylvilagus aquaticus Swamp rabbit conejo de los pantanos
Sylvilagus audubonii Desert cottontail conejo del desierto
Sylvilagus bachmani Brush rabbit conejo de los arbustos
Sylvilagus gabbi Tropical cottontail conejo tropical
Sylvilagus cognatus Manzano mountain cottontail conejo de las montañas manzano
Sylvilagus cunicularius Mexican cottontail conejo mexicano, conejo castellano
Sylvilagus floridanus Eastern cottontail conejo del este
Sylvilagus graysoni Tres marias cottontail conejo de las Islas Marías
Sylvilagus insonus Omiltemi cottontail conejo de Omilteme
Sylvilagus nuttallii Mountain cottontail conejo de las montañas
Sylvilagus obscurus Appalachian cottontail conejo de las montañas Apalaches
Sylvilagus palustris Marsh rabbit conejo de los humedales
Sylvilagus robustus Robust cottontail conejo del suroeste
Sylvilagus transitionalis New england cottontail conejo de Nueva Inglaterra
Ochotonidae    
Ochotona collaris Collared pika pica de collar
Ochotona princeps American pika pica americana
Perissodactyla
Tapiridae    
Tapirella bairdii Baird’s tapir tapir centroamericano/danta
Pilosa
Cyclopedidae    
Cyclopes didactylus Silky anteater osito hormiguero dorado
Myrmecophagidae  
Tamandua mexicana Northern tamandua tamandúa/oso hormiguero/brazo fuerte/chupamiel
Primates
Atelidae    
Alouatta palliata Mantled howler mono aullador de manto/saraguato de manto
Alouatta villosa Guatemalan black howler mono aullador negro/saraguato negro
Ateles geoffroyi Geoffroy’s spider monkey mono araña
Rodentia
Aplodontidae    
Aplodontia rufa Sewellel castor de montaña
Castoridae    
Castor canadensis American beaver castor
Cricetidae    
Arborimus albipes White-footed vole chincolo arborícola de patas blancas
Arborimus longicaudus Red tree vole chincolo arborícola de las sequollas
Arborimus pomo Sonoma tree vole chincolo arborícola de Sonoma
Baiomys musculus Southern pygmy mouse ratón pigmeo del sur
Baiomys taylori Northern pygmy mouse ratón pigmeo del norte
Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Nearctic collared lemming leming de tundra común
Dicrostonyx hudsonius Ungava collared lemming leming de tundra de Ungava
Dicrostonyx nelsoni Nelson’s collared lemming leming de tundra de Alaska
Dicrostonyx nunatakensis Ogilvie mountains collared lemming leming de tundra del Yukon
Dicrostonyx richardsoni Richardson’s collared lemming leming de tundra de la Bahía Hudson
Dicrostonyx unalascensis Umnak island collared lemming leming de tundra de la isla Umnak
Habromys chinanteco Chinanteco deermouse ratón de arbóreo de Oaxaca
Habromys delicatulus Delicate deermouse ratón de arbóreo delicado
Habromys ixtlani Ixtlán deermouse ratón de arbóreo de Ixtlán
Habromys lepturus Zempoaltepec deermouse ratón de arbóreo de Zempoaltepec
Habromys lophurus Crested-tailed deermouse ratón de arbóreo de cola crestada
Habromys schmidlyi Schmidlyi crested-tailed mouse ratón de arbóreo de Guerrero
Habromys simulatus Jico deermouse ratón de arbóreo Sierra Madre Oriental
Handleyomys alfaroi Alfaro’s rice rat ratón de agua tropical
Handleyomys chapmani Chapman’s rice rat ratón de agua de la Sierra Madre Oriental
Handleyomys guerrerensis Guerrero rice rat ratón de agua de Guerrero
Handleyomys melanotis Black-eared rice rat ratón de agua de orejas negras
Handleyomys rhabdops Highland rice rat ratón de agua de las tierras altas
Handleyomys rostratus Long-nosed rice rat ratón de agua de nariz larga
Handleyomys saturatior Cloud forest rice rat ratón de agua del bosque de niebla
Hodomys alleni Allen’s woodrat rata de campo del occidente
Lemmiscus curtatus Sagebrush vole chincolo de las artemisas
Lemmus trimucronatus Nearctic brown lemming leming pardo
Megadontomys cryophilus Oaxacan big-toothed deermouse ratón gigante de Oaxaca
Megadontomys nelsoni Nelson’s big-toothed deermouse ratón gigante de Veracruz
Megadontomys thomasi Thomas’ big-toothed deermouse ratón gigante de Guerrero
Microtus abbreviatus Insular vole ratón colicorto/metorito de la Isla San Mateo
Microtus breweri Beach vole ratón colicorto/metorito de la Isla Muskeget
Microtus californicus California vole ratón colicorto/metorito de California
Microtus canicaudus Gray-tailed vole ratón colicorto/metorito de cola gris
Microtus chrotorrhinus Rock vole ratón colicorto/metorito de las rocas
Microtus guatemalensis Guatemalan vole ratón colicorto/metorito de Guatemala
Microtus longicaudus Long-tailed vole ratón colicorto/metorito de cola larga
Microtus mexicanus Mexican vole ratón colicorto/metorito mexicano común
Microtus miurus Singing vole ratón colicorto/metorito del Yukon
Microtus mogollonensis Mogollon Vole ratón colicorto/metorito Mogollón
Microtus montanus Montane vole ratón colicorto/metorito de las montañas
Microtus oaxacensis Tarabundí vole ratón colicorto/metorito de Oaxaca
Microtus ochrogaster Prairie vole ratón colicorto/metorito de las praderas
Microtus oeconomus Tundra vole ratón colicorto/metorito nórdico
Microtus oregoni Creeping vole ratón colicorto/metorito de Oregon
Microtus pennsylvanicus Meadow vole ratón colicorto/metorito de los pastizales
Microtus pinetorum Woodland vole ratón colicorto/metorito de los bosques
Microtus quasiater Jalapan vole ratón colicorto/metorito de Jalapa
Microtus richardsoni North American water vole ratón colicorto/metorito de agua
Microtus townsendii Townsend’s vole ratón colicorto/metorito de la costa noroeste
Microtus umbrosus Zempoaltépec vole ratón colicorto/metorito del cerro Zempoaltepec
Microtus xanthognathus Taiga vole ratón colicorto/metorito de la taiga
Myodes californicus Western red-backed vole chincolo de lomo rojo del oeste
Myodes gapperi Southern red-backed vole chincolo de lomo rojo del sur
Myodes rutilus Northern red-backed vole chincolo de lomo rojo del norte
Nelsonia goldmani Goldman’s diminutive woodrat rata enana michoacana
Nelsonia neotomodon Western diminutive woodrat rata enana del oeste
Neofiber alleni Round-tailed muskrat rata almizclera de cola redonda
Neotoma albigula White-throated woodrat rata de campo de garganta blanca/rata nopalera
Neotoma angustapalata Tamaulipan woodrat rata de campo de Tamaulipeca
Neotoma bryanti Bryant’s woodrat rata de campo de Baja California
Neotoma cinerea Bushy-tailed woodrat rata de campo de cola peluda
Neotoma devia Arizona woodrat rata de campo de Arizona
Neotoma ferruginea Guatemala woodrat rata de campo de Guatemala
Neotoma floridana Eastern woodrat rata de campo del este
Neotoma fuscipes Dusky-footed woodrat rata de campo de patas negras
Neotoma goldmani Goldman’s woodrat rata de campo del altiplano
Neotoma insularis Ángel de la Guarda island woodrat rata de campo de Isla Ángel de la Guarda
Neotoma lepida Desert woodrat rata de campo del desierto
Neotoma leucodon White-toothed woodrat rata de campo de las planicies
Neotoma macrotis Big-eared woodrat rata de campo de orejas grandes
Neotoma magister Allegheny woodrat rata de campo de los Apalaches
Neotoma melanura Dark woodrat rata de campo negruzca
Neotoma mexicana Mexican woodrat rata magueyera mexicana
Neotoma micropus Southern plains woodrat rata de campo de las planicies del sur
Neotoma nelsoni Nelson’s woodrat rata de campo de Perote
Neotoma palatina Bolaños woodrat rata de campo de Jalisco
Neotoma phenax Sonoran woodrat rata de campo de Sonora
Neotoma picta Tehuantepec woodrat rata magueyera del Istmo de Tehuantepec
Neotoma stephensi Stephen’s woodrat rata de campo de Arizona
Neotomodon alstoni Volcano deermouse ratón de los volcanes
Nyctomys sumichrasti Sumichrast’s vesper rat rata del amanecer
Ochrotomys nuttalli Golden mouse ratón dorado
Oligoryzomys fulvescens Fulvous colilargo ratón de agua pigmeo
Ondatra zibethicus Common muskrat rata almizclera común
Onychomys arenicola Chihuahuan grasshopper mouse ratón chapulinero/hediondo/silvador de Chihuahua
Onychomys leucogaster Northern grasshopper mouse ratón chapulinero/hediondo/silvador del norte
Onychomys torridus Southern grasshopper mouse ratón chapulinero/hediondo/silvador del sur
Oryzomys couesi Coues’s rice rat rata arrocera del Golfo
Oryzomys albiventer White-bellied rice rat rata arrocera de vientre blanco
Oryzomys nelsoni Nelson’s rice rat rata arrocera de las islas Tres Marías
Oryzomys palustris Marsh rice rat rata arrocera de los pantanos
Oryzomys peninsulae Lower California rice rat rata arrocera de Baja California
Oryzomys texensis Texas rice rat rata arrocera de Texas
Osgoodomys banderanus Michoacan deer mouse rata de Michoacán
Otonyctomys hatti Yucatán vesper rat rata arborícola de orejas grandes de Yucatán
Ototylomys phyllotis Big-eared climbing rat rata arborícola de orejas grandes
Ototylomys chiapensis Chiapas big-eared climbing rat rata arborícolade orejas grandes de Chiapas
Peromyscus attwateri Texas deermouse ratón de Texas
Peromyscus avius Cerralvo island deermouse ratón de isla Cerralvo
Peromyscus aztecus Aztec deermouse ratón azteca
Peromyscus beatae Orizaba deermouse ratón de Orizaba
Peromyscus boylii Brush deermouse ratón de los matorrales
Peromyscus bullatus Perote deermouse ratón de Perote
Peromyscus californicus California deermouse ratón de California
Peromyscus caniceps Monserrat Island deermouse ratón de la Isla Montserrat
Peromyscus carletoni Carleton’s deermouse ratón de Nayarit
Peromyscus crinitus Canyon deermouse ratón de las cañadas
Peromyscus dickeyi Dickey’s deermouse ratón de la Isla Tortuga
Peromyscus difficilis Southern rock deermouse ratón de las rocas del sur
Peromyscus eremicus Cactus deermouse ratón de los catus
Peromyscus eva Southern baja deermouse ratón de Baja California
Peromyscus fraterculus Northern baja deermouse ratón de las Californias
Peromyscus furvus Blackish deermouse ratón negruzco
Peromyscus gossypinus Cotton deermouse ratón del algodón
Peromyscus gratus Saxicoline deermouse ratón piñonero mexicano
Peromyscus guardia La Guarda deermouse ratón de la isla Ángel de la Guarda
Peromyscus guatemalensis Guatemalan deermouse ratón de Guatemala
Peromyscus gymnotis Naked-eared deermouse ratón de orejas desnudas
Peromyscus hooperi Hooper’s deermouse ratón de Coahuila
Peromyscus hylocetes Transvolcanic deermouse ratón del Eje Volcánico
Peromyscus interparietalis San Lorenzo deermouse ratón de Isla San Lorenzo
Peromyscus keeni Northwestern deermouse ratón del Noroeste
Peromyscus laceianus Northern white-ankled deermouse ratón de ancas blancas norteño
Peromyscus latirostris Northern blackish deer mouse ratón negruzco del norte
Peromyscus leucopus White-footed deermouse ratón de patas blancas
Peromyscus levipes Nimble-footed deermouse ratón de patas agiles
Peromyscus madrensis Tres Marías Island deermouse ratón de Isla Tres Marías
Peromyscus maniculatus North american deermouse ratón norteamericano/ratón de campo común
Peromyscus megalops Broad-faced deermouse ratón de rostro ancho
Peromyscus mekisturus Puebla deermouse ratón de Puebla
Peromyscus melanocarpus Black-wristed deermouse ratón de patas negras
Peromyscus melanophrys Plateau deermouse ratón del altiplano
Peromyscus melanotis Black-eared deermouse ratón de orejas negras
Peromyscus melanurus Black-tailed deermouse ratón de cola negra
Peromyscus merriami Mesquite deermouse ratón de los mezquites
Peromyscus mexicanus Mexican deermouse ratón mexicano
Peromyscus nasutus Northern rock deermouse ratón de las rocas del norte
Peromyscus ochraventer Brown belly deermouse ratón de vientre café
Peromyscus pectoralis White-ankled deermouse ratón de ancas blancas
Peromyscus pembertoni Pemberton’s deermouse ratón de la Isla San Pedro Nolasco
Peromyscus perfulvus Tawny deermouse ratón leonado
Peromyscus polionotus Oldfield deermouse ratón del sureste
Peromyscus polius Chihuahuan deermouse ratón del Desierto Chihuahuense
Peromyscus pseudocrinitus Coronados deermouse ratón de Isla Coronados
Peromyscus sagax Michoacán deermouse ratón de Michoacán
Peromyscus schmidlyi Schmidly’s deer mouse ratón de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Peromyscus sejugis Santa Cruz deermouse ratón de Isla Santa Cruz
Peromyscus simulus Sinaloan deermouse ratón de Sinaloa
Peromyscus slevini Catalina deermouse ratón de la Isla Catalina
Peromyscus spicilegus Gleaning deermouse ratón espiguero
Peromyscus stephani San esteban deermouse ratón de Isla San Esteban
Peromyscus truei Pinyon deermouse ratón piñonero del norte
Peromyscus winkelmanni Coalcomán deermouse ratón de Coalcomán
Peromyscus yucatanicus Yucatán deermouse ratón de Yucatán
Peromyscus zarhynchus Chiapan deermouse ratón de Chiapas
Phenacomys intermedius Western heather vole campañol del oeste
Phenacomys ungava Eastern heather vole campañol del este
Podomys floridanus Florida deermouse ratón de Florida
Reithrodontomys bakeri Baker’s harvest mouse ratón cosechero guerrerense
Reithrodontomys burti Sonoran harvest mouse ratón cosechero sonorense
Reithrodontomys chrysopsis Volcano harvest mouse ratón cosechero de los volcanes
Reithrodontomys fulvescens Fulvous harvest mouse ratón cosechero leonado
Reithrodontomys gracilis Slender harvest mouse ratón cosechero esbelto
Reithrodontomys hirsutus Hairy harvest mouse ratón cosechero peludo
Reithrodontomys humulis Eastern harvest mouse ratón cosechero del este
Reithrodontomys megalotis Western harvest mouse ratón cosechero común
Reithrodontomys mexicanus Mexican harvest mouse ratón cosechero mexicano
Reithrodontomys microdon Small-toothed harvest mouse ratón cosechero de dientes pequeños
Reithrodontomys montanus Plains harvest mouse ratón cosechero de las planicies
Reithrodontomys raviventris Salt-marsh harvest mouse ratón cosechero de la Bahía de San Francisco
Reithrodontomys spectabilis Cozumel harvest mouse ratón cosechero de Isla Cozumel
Reithrodontomys sumichrasti Sumichrast’s harvest mouse ratón cosechero de montaña
Reithrodontomys tenuirostris Narrow-nosed harvest mouse ratón cosechero de Guatemala
Reithrodontomys zacatecae Zacatecan harvest mouse ratón cosechero de Zacatecas
Rheomys mexicanus Mexican water mouse ratita nadadora mexicana
Rheomys thomasi Thomas water mouse ratita nadadora de Chiapas
Scotinomys teguina Short-tailed singing mouse ratón pígmeo negro
Sigmodon alleni Allen’s cotton rat rata matorralera del occidente
Sigmodon arizonae Arizona cotton rat rata matorralera de Arizona
Sigmodon fulviventer Tawny-bellied cotton rat rata matorralera de vientre amarillo
Sigmodon hispidus Hispid cotton rat rata cañera espinosa
Sigmodon leucotis White-eared cotton rat rata matorralera orejas blancas
Sigmodon mascotensis West mexican cotton rat rata cañera del oeste
Sigmodon ochrognathus Yellow-nosed cotton rat rata matorralera rostro amarillo
Sigmodon planifrons Miahuatlán cotton rat rata matorralera de Miahuatlán
Sigmodon toltecus Toltec cotton rat rata cañera del Golfo
Sigmodon zanjonensis Montane cotton rat rata matorralera de las montañas
Synaptomys borealis Northern bog lemming leming de pantano del norte
Synaptomys cooperi Southern bog lemming leming de pantano del sur
Tylomys bullaris Chiapan climbing rat rata de árbol de Chiapas
Tylomys nudicaudus Peters’s climbing rat rata de árbol común
Tylomys tumbalensis Tumbalá climbing rat rata de árbol de Tumbalá
Xenomys nelsoni Magdalena woodrat rata de Magdalena
Cuniculidae    
Cuniculus paca Lowland paca tepezcuintle/agutí manchado/cuautuza
Dasyproctidae    
Dasyprocta mexicana Mexican agouti agutí negro/guaqueque negro/serete
Dasyprocta punctata Central american agouti agutí centroamericano /guaqueque centroamericano
Erethizontidae    
Erethizon dorsatum North american porcupine puercoespín norteamericano
Coendou mexicanus Mexican hairy dwarf porcupine puercoespín tropical/vistlacuache
Geomyidae    
Cratogeomys castanops Yellow-faced pocket gopher tuza cara amarilla
Cratogeomys fulvescens Oriental Basin pocket gopher gran tuza de la Cuenca de Oriental
Cratogeomys fumosus Smoky pocket gopher gran tuza del centro de México
Cratogeomys goldmani Goldman’s pocket gopher tuza del altiplano
Cratogeomys merriami Merriam’s pocket gopher gran tuza del Valle de México
Cratogeomys perotensis Perote pocket gopher gran tuza de Perote
Cratogeomys planiceps Volcán de Toluca pocket gopher gran tuza del Nevado de Toluca
Heterogeomys hispidus Hispid pocket gopher tuza gigante trópical
Heterogeomys lanius Big pocket gopher tuza gigante Veracruzana
Geomys arenarius Desert pocket gopher tuza del desierto
Geomys attwateri Attwater’s pocket gopher tuza de Corpus Christe
Geomys breviceps Baird’s pocket gopher tuza texana del este
Geomys bursarius Plains pocket gopher tuza de las planicies
Geomys jugossicularis Hall´s pocket gopher tuza de las planicies centrales
Geomys knoxjonesi Knox jones’s pocket gopher tuza texana del oeste
Geomys lutescens Sand Hills pocket gopher tuza arenera
Geomys personatus Texas pocket gopher tuza texana del sur
Geomys pinetis Southeastern pocket gopher tuza del sureste
Geomys streckeri Strecker’s pocket gopher tuza texana del Carrizo
Geomys texensis Central texas pocket gopher tuza del centro de Texas
Geomys tropicalis Tropical pocket gopher tuza tropical
Orthogeomys grandis Giant pocket gopher tuza gigante del pácifico
Pappogeomys bulleri Buller’s pocket gopher tuza jalisiense
Thomomys bottae Botta’s pocket gopher tuza del norte
Thomomys atrovarius Black-and-brown pocket gopher tuza de Sinaloa
Thomomys bulbivorus Camas pocket gopher tuza del Valle de Camas
Thomomys clusius Wyoming pocket gopher tuza de Wyoming
Thomomys fulvus Fulvus pocket gopher tuza del suroeste
Thomomys idahoensis Idaho pocket gopher tuza de Idaho
Thomomys mazama Western pocket gopher tuza del oeste
Thomomys monticola Mountain pocket gopher tuza de las montañas
Thomomys nayarensis Nayarit pocket gopher tuza del Nayar
Thomomys nigricans Baja California pocket gopher tuza de Baja California
Thomomys sheldoni Sierra Madre Occidental pocket gopher tuza de pequeña de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Thomomys talpoides Northern pocket gopher tuza del norte
Thomomys townsendii Townsend’s pocket gopher tuza de las montañas del oeste
Thomomys umbrinus Southern pocket gopher tuza mexicana
Zygogeomys trichopus Michoacan pocket gopher tuza michoacana
Heteromyidae    
Chaetodipus ammophilus Dalquest’s pocket mouse ratón de bolsas del Sur de Baja California
Chaetodipus arenarius Little desert pocket mouse ratón de bolsas abazones de Baja California
Chaetodipus artus Narrow-skulled pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de cara delgada
Chaetodipus baileyi Bailey’s pocket mouse ratón de bolsas gigante
Chaetodipus californicus California pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de California
Chaetodipus eremicus Chihuahuan pocket mouse ratón de bolsas Chihuahuense
Chaetodipus fallax San diego pocket mouse ratón de bolsas San Diego
Chaetodipus formosus Long-tailed pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de cola larga
Chaetodipus goldmani Goldman’s pocket mouse ratón de bolsas Sonorense
Chaetodipus hispidus Hispid pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de los pastizales
Chaetodipus intermedius Rock pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de las rocas
Chaetodipus lineatus Lined pocket mouse ratón de bolsas Potosino
Chaetodipus nelsoni Nelson’s pocket mouse ratón de bolsas del altiplano
Chaetodipus penicillatus Desert pocket mouse ratón de bolsas del desierto
Chaetodipus pernix Sinaloan pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de Sinaloa
Chaetodipus rudinoris Baja california pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de Baja California
Chaetodipus siccus Cerralvo island pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de Isla Cerralvo
Chaetodipus spinatus Spiny pocket mouse ratón de bolsas espinoso
Dipodomys agilis Agile kangaroo rat rata canguro del Sur de California
Dipodomys californicus California kangaroo rat rata canguro de California
Dipodomys compactus Gulf coast kangaroo rat rata canguro de la costa del Golfo
Dipodomys deserti Desert kangaroo rat rata canguro del desierto
Dipodomys elator Texas kangaroo rat rata canguro de Texas
Dipodomys gravipes San Quintin kangaroo rat rata canguro de San Quintín
Dipodomys heermanni Heermann’s Kangaroo Rat rata canguro de la Bahía el Morro
Dipodomys ingens Giant kangaroo rat rata canguro gigante
Dipodomys merriami Merriam’s kangaroo rat rata canguro mexicana
Dipodomys microps Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat rata canguro con incisivos de cincel
Dipodomys nelsoni Nelson’s kangaroo rat rata canguro del altiplano norte
Dipodomys nitratoides San Joaquin valley kangaroo rat rata canguro del Valle de San Joaquín
Dipodomys ordii Ord’s kangaroo rat rata canguro común
Dipodomys ornatus Plateau kangaroo rat rata canguro coliblanca del norte
Dipodomys panamintinus Panamint kangaroo rat rata canguro del Valle de Panamint
Dipodomys phillipsii Phillips’s kangaroo rat rata canguro coliblanca del sur
Dipodomys simulans Dulzura kangaroo rat rata canguro de Baja California
Dipodomys spectabilis Banner-tailed kangaroo rat rata canguro de cola blanca
Dipodomys stephensi Stephens’ kangaroo rat rata canguro del Valle Moreno
Dipodomys venustus Narrow-faced kangaroo rat rata canguro de rostro angosto
Heteromys desmarestianus Desmarest’s spiny pocket mouse ratón espinoso trópical
Heteromys gaumeri Gaumer’s spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa de Yucatán
Heteromys goldmani Goldmani’s spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa de las tierras altas de Chiapas
Heteromys nelsoni Nelson’s spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa del sur Chiapas
Heteromys irroratus Mexican spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa mexicano
Heteromys pictus Painted spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa pintado
Heteromys salvini Salvin’s spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa de Centroamerica
Heteromys spectabilis Jaliscan spiny pocket mouse rata de bolsas espinosa de Jalisco
Microdipodops megacephalus Dark kangaroo mouse ratón canguro oscuro
Microdipodops pallidus Pale kangaroo mouse ratón canguro pálido
Perognathus alticolus White-eared pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de orejas blancas
Perognathus amplus Arizona pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de Arizona
Perognathus fasciatus Olive-backed pocket mouse ratón de bolsas verdoso
Perognathus flavescens Plains pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de las planicies
Perognathus flavus Silky pocket mouse ratón de bolsas sedoso
Perognathus inornatus San joaquin pocket mouse ratón de bolsas del Valle de San Joaquín
Perognathus longimembris Little pocket mouse ratón de bolsas minúsculo
Perognathus merriami Merriam’s pocket mouse ratón de bolsas del este
Perognathus parvus Great basin pocket mouse ratón de bolsas de la Great Basin
Sciuridae    
Ammospermophilus harrisii Harris’s antelope squirrel ardilla listada Sonorense
Ammospermophilus interpres Texas antelope squirrel ardilla listada Texana
Ammospermophilus leucurus White-tailed antelope squirrel juancito/ardilla listada coliblanca
Ammospermophilus nelsoni Nelson’s antelope squirrel ardilla listada del Valle de San Joaquin
Callospermophilus lateralis Golden-mantled ground squirrel ardilla de montaña dorada
Callospermophilus madrensis Sierra Madre ground squirrel ardilla de montaña de la Sierra Madre
Callospermophilus saturatus Cascade ground squirrel ardilla de montaña dorada
Cynomys gunnisoni Gunnison’s prairie dog perrito de las praderas de la planicie de Colorado
Cynomys leucurus White-tailed prairie dog perrito de las praderas coliblanca
Cynomys ludovicianus Black-tailed prairie dog perrito de las praderas colinegra
Cynomys mexicanus Mexican prairie dog perrito de las praderas mexicano
Cynomys parvidens Utah prairie dog perrito de las praderas de Utah
Glaucomys sabrinus Northern flying squirrel ardilla voladora del norte
Glaucomys volans Southern flying squirrel ardilla voladora del sur
Ictidomys mexicanus Mexican ground squirrel motocle/ardilla manchada mexicana
Ictidomys parvidens Texas ground squirrel ardilla manchada texana
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus Thirteen-lined ground squirrel ardilla manchada de trecelíneas
Marmota broweri Alaska marmot marmota de Alaska
Marmota caligata Hoary marmot marmota canosa
Marmota flaviventris Yellow-bellied marmot marmota de vientre amarillo
Marmota monax Woodchuck marmota americana
Marmota olympus Olympic marmot marmota de la península de Olimpia
Marmota vancouverensis Vancouver island marmot marmota de Isla Vancouver
Notocitellus adocetus Tropical ground squirrel cuinique, juancito del balsas
Notocitellus annulatus Ring-tailed ground squirrel ardilla de tierra cola anillada
Otospermophilus beecheyi California ground squirrel ardillón de California
Otospermophilus douglasii Douglas ground squirrel ardillón de California del norte
Otospermophilus variegatus Rock squirrel ardillón común
Poliocitellus franklinii Franklin’s ground squirrel ardilla de tierra gris
Sciurus aberti Abert’s squirrel ardilla orejas peludas
Sciurus alleni Allen’s squirrel ardilla de la Sierra Madre Oriental
Sciurus arizonensis Arizona gray squirrel ardilla de Arizona
Sciurus aureogaster Red-bellied squirrel ardilla de vientre rojo/ardilla gris mexicana
Sciurus carolinensis Eastern gray squirrel ardilla gris del este
Sciurus colliaei Collie’s squirrel ardilla de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Sciurus deppei Deppe’s squirrel ardilla tropical
Sciurus griseus Western gray squirrel ardilla gris del oeste
Sciurus nayaritensis Mexican fox squirrel ardilla de Nayarit
Sciurus niger Eastern fox squirrel ardilla zorra del este
Sciurus oculatus Peters’s squirrel ardilla mexicana
Sciurus variegatoides Variegated squirrel ardilla Centroamérica
Sciurus yucatanensis Yucatan squirrel ardilla Yucateca
Tamias alpinus Alpine chipmunk chichimoco alpino
Tamias amoenus Yellow-pine chipmunk chichimoco del pino ponderosa
Tamias bulleri Buller’s chipmunk chichimoco de Zacatecas
Tamias canipes Gray-footed chipmunk chichimoco de patas grises
Tamias cinereicollis Gray-collared chipmunk chichimoco de collar gris
Tamias dorsalis Cliff chipmunk chichimoco de los acantilados
Tamias durangae Durango chipmunk chichimoco de Durango
Tamias merriami Merriam’s chipmunk chichimoco del sur de California
Tamias minimus Least chipmunk chichimoco pigmeo
Tamias obscurus California chipmunk chichimoco de California
Tamias ochrogenys Yellow-cheeked chipmunk chichimoco de cachetes amarillos
Tamias palmeri Palmer’s chipmunk chichimoco de las Montañas Spring
Tamias panamintinus Panamint chipmunk chichimoco del Valle Panamint
Tamias quadrimaculatus Long-eared chipmunk chichimoco de orejas grandes
Tamias quadrivittatus Colorado chipmunk chichimoco de Colorado
Tamias ruficaudus Red-tailed chipmunk chichimoco de cola roja
Tamias rufus Hopi chipmunk chichimoco de los Hopi
Tamias senex Allen’s chipmunk chichimoco de la Sierra Nevada
Tamias siskiyou Siskiyou chipmunk chichimoco de las montañas Siskiyou
Tamias solivagus Howell’s chipmunks chichimoco de Coahuila
Tamias sonomae Sonoma chipmunk chichimoco de Sonoma
Tamias speciosus Lodgepole chipmunk chichimoco del pino
Tamias striatus Eastern chipmunk chichimoco de este
Tamias townsendii Townsend’s chipmunk chichimoco del noroeste
Tamias umbrinus Uinta chipmunk chichimoco común
Tamiasciurus douglasii Douglas’ squirrel ardilla de la costa oeste
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Red squirrel ardilla roja
Tamiasciurus mearnsi Mearns’s squirrel ardilla de San Pedro Mártir
Urocitellus armatus Uinta ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de las montañas Uinta
Urocitellus beldingi Belding’s ground squirrel ardilla de tierra del oeste
Urocitellus brunneus Idaho ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de Idaho
Urocitellus canus Merriam’s ground squirrel ardilla de tierra canosa
Urocitellus columbianus Columbian ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de la Columbia Británica
Urocitellus elegans Wyoming ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de Wyoming
Urocitellus mollis Piute ground squirrel ardilla de tierra del pueblo Piute
Urocitellus parryii Arctic ground squirrel ardilla de tierra del ártico
Urocitellus richardsonii Richardson’s ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de las praderas
Urocitellus townsendii Townsend’s ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de las planicies
Urocitellus washingtoni Washington ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de Washington
Xerospermophilus mohavensis Mohave ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de desierto de Mohave
Xerospermophilus perotensis Perote ground squirrel ardilla de tierra de Perote
Xerospermophilus spilosoma Spotted ground squirrel ardilla de tierra manchada, juancito manchado
Xerospermophilus tereticaudus Round-tailed ground squirrel ardilla de tierra cola redonda
Zapodidae    
Napaeozapus insignis Woodland jumping mouse ratón saltarín de los boques
Zapus hudsonius Meadow jumping mouse ratón saltarín de las praderas
Zapus princeps Western jumping mouse ratón saltarín del oeste
Zapus trinotatus Pacific jumping mouse ratón saltarín del Pacífico
Sirenia
Trichechidae    
Trichechus manatus West indian manatee manatí/vaca marina
Soricomorpha
Soricidae    
Blarina brevicauda Northern short-tailed shrew musaraña colicorta del norte
Blarina carolinensis Southern short-tailed shrew musaraña colicorta del sur
Blarina hylophaga Elliot’s short-tailed shrew musaraña colicorta de las planicies
Blarina peninsulae Eeverglades short-tailed shrew musaraña colicorta de Florida
Cryptotis alticola Central mexican broad-clawed shrew musaraña tropical de montaña
Cryptotis goldmani Goldman’s broad-clawed shrew musaraña tropical de la Sierra Madre del Sur
Cryptotis goodwini Goodwin’s broad-clawed shrew musaraña tropical de Chiapas
Cryptotis griseoventris Guatemalan broad-clawed shrew musaraña tropical de Guatemala
Cryptotis lacandonensis Lacandona small-eared shrew musaraña tropical de la Lacandona
Cryptotis magnus Big mexican small-eared shrew musaraña tropical gigante
Cryptotis mayensis Yucatan small-eared shrew musaraña tropical Maya
Cryptotis merriami Merriam’s small-eared shrew musaraña tropical de tierras altas
Cryptotis mexicanus Mexican small-eared shrew musaraña tropical mexicana
Cryptotis nelsoni Nelson’s small-eared shrew musaraña tropical de Catemaco
Cryptotis obscurus Grizzled mexican small-eared shrew musaraña tropical de Hidalgo
Cryptotis parvus North american least shrew musaraña tropical de Norte América
Cryptotis peregrina Oaxacan broad-clawed shrew musaraña tropical de Oaxaca
Cryptotis phillipsii Phillips’ small-eared shrew musaraña tropical la sierra sur de Oaxaca
Cryptotis tropicalis Tropical small-eared shrew musaraña de tropical
Megasorex gigas Mexican shrew musaraña gigante
Notiosorex cockrumi Cockrum’s gray shrew musaraña del desierto de Arizona
Notiosorex crawfordi Crawford’s gray shrew musaraña del desierto común
Notiosorex evotis Large-eared gray shrew musaraña del desierto del Pacífico
Notiosorex villai Villa’s gray shrew musaraña del desierto de Tamaulipas
Sorex alaskanus Glacier bay water shrew musaraña de Alaska
Sorex albibarbis Eastern water shrew musaraña de agua del este
Sorex arcticus Arctic shrew musaraña del Ártico
Sorex arizonae Arizona shrew musaraña de Arizona
Sorex bairdii Baird’s shrew musaraña de Oregón
Sorex bendirii Marsh shrew musaraña del pantano
Sorex cinereus Cinereus shrew musaraña canosa
Sorex dispar Long-tailed shrew musaraña de las Appalachian Mountains
Sorex emarginatus Zacatecas shrew musaraña de Zacatecas
Sorex fumeus Smoky shrew musaraña de las Smoky Mountains
Sorex gaspensis Gaspé shrew musaraña de Canadá
Sorex haydeni Prairie shrew musaraña de las praderas
Sorex hoyi American pygmy shrew musaraña pigmea americana
Sorex ixtlanensis Ixtlan shrew musaraña de la Sierra Madre del Sur
Sorex jacksoni St. Lawrence island shrew musaraña de la isla San Lawrence
Sorex longirostris Southeastern shrew musaraña del suroeste
Sorex lyelli Mt. Lyell shrew musaraña de la Sierra Nevada
Sorex macrodon Large-toothed shrew musaraña de dientes grandes
Sorex maritimensis Maritime shrew musaraña de Nueva Escocia
Sorex mediopua Jalisco shrew musaraña de Jalisco
Sorex merriami Merriam’s shrew musaraña del Great Basin
Sorex milleri Carmen mountain shrew musaraña de Sierra del Carmen
Sorex minutissimus Eurasian least shrew musaraña euroasiática
Sorex monticola Dusky shrew musaraña oscura
Sorex nanus Dwarf shrew musaraña enana
Sorex navigator Western water shrew musaraña de agua del oeste
Sorex neomexicanus New Mexico shrew musaraña de Nuevo México
Sorex oreopolus Mexican long-tailed shrew musaraña mexicana
Sorex orizabae Orizaba long-tailed shrew musaraña de Orizaba
Sorex ornatus Ornate shrew musaraña de las californias
Sorex pacificus Pacific shrew musaraña del Pacífico
Sorex palustris American water shrew musaraña de agua americana
Sorex preblei Preble’s shrew musaraña del noroeste
Sorex pribilofensis Pribilof island shrew musaraña de la isla Pribilof
Sorex rohweri Olympic shrew musaraña de la peninsula Olimpia
Sorex salvini Salvin’s shrew musaraña del sureste
Sorex saussurei Saussure’s shrew musaraña común de montaña
Sorex sclateri Sclater’s shrew musaraña selvática
Sorex sonomae Fog shrew musaraña de la niebla
Sorex stizodon San Cristobal shrew musaraña de San Cristóbal de las Casas
Sorex tenellus Inyo shrew musaraña de las montañas Inyo
Sorex trowbridgii Trowbridge’s shrew musaraña de la costa oeste
Sorex tundrensis Tundra shrew musaraña de la tundra
Sorex ugyunak Barren ground shrew musaraña del Ártico
Sorex vagrans Vagrant shrew musaraña común del oeste
Sorex ventralis Chestnut-bellied shrew musaraña de vientre castaño
Sorex veraecrucis Veracruz shrew musaraña de Veracruz
Sorex veraepacis Verapaz shrew musaraña de las tierras altas del sur
Talpidae    
Condylura cristata Star-nosed mole topo nariz de estrella
Neurotrichus gibbsii Shrew-mole topo musaraña
Parascalops breweri Hairy-tailed mole topo de cola peluda
Scapanus anthonyi Anthony’s mexican mole topo de San Pedro Mártir/topo de manoplas
Scalopus aquaticus Eastern mole topo de la costa este
Scapanus latimanus Broad-footed mole topo de la costa oeste
Scapanus orarius Coast mole topo de la costa
Scapanus townsendii Townsend’s mole topo de la costa noroeste

Formulating vernacular names is complicated and involves many discussions. We are aware that these names are subject to changes, may be potentially misleading, and in some cases may be even absurd and ridiculous (see Mones and Mones 1991). However, as we are convinced of the usefulness of vernacular names (see above), we took the task of collecting, rescuing and proposing vernacular names for all the species of mammals of North America (Table 1). However, to the extent possible, we decided to follow the following basic principles to propose vernacular names, which have been partially discussed by Jackson and Groves (2015):

1) We keep the names that are mentioned frequently in publications and/or that are used in many regions by the local people. These apply to the medium-sized and large mammals, such as the jaguarondi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), puma (Puma concolor), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), etc. Others should be modified as a result of the recent taxonomic changes, for example, the name mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) to differentiate it from the black howler monkey (Alouatta villosa).

2) Vernacular names must serve as a descriptor of the species; thus, they should be informative and facilitate using the name regardless of the extent of knowledge about the species. Accordingly, names are based on characteristics that provide information to the user; this may be a widely used name, a morphological trait, a distinctive coloration, or refer to the geographical distribution of the species. There are groups of names that refer to geographic location, as in the case of the Zempoaltepec Deer Mouse (Peromyscus melanocarpus), Cozumel Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), or Michoacan Pocket Gopher (Zygogeomys trichopus); others highlight a unique feature that differentiates a particular species from the rest: Collared Pika (Ochotona collaris), White-toothed Woodrat (Neotoma leucodon), or Black-eared Rice Rat (Handleyomys melanotis).

3) In both English and Spanish, our aim was that the name indicate the relationship between species; hence, the first (in Spanish) or last (in English) part of the name refers to the genus. For example we use “water mouse” or “ratita nadadora” for the genus Rheomys, and “spiny pocket mouse” or “ratón espinoso” for Heteromys. In both cases, we avoided using the same vernacular name for any other genus of rodent. Separately, it was decided to designate the genus Habromys using the name “ratón arborícola” to maintain the relationship between the species in the genus, although not all species are strictly arboreal (Leon-Paniagua et al. 2007).

4) We seek to choose the shortest names possible, although the two prerequisites just mentioned prevented this in some cases. In addition, names are written in singular to make them shorter, as in “Mexican shrew” instead of “Mexican shrews”.

5) The vernacular name should be easy to pronounce, be euphonious and hence easy to remember.

6) Vernacular names are written in lower case, except when these include the name of a geographic place or a proper noun.

7) We avoided using translations of vernacular names in English for the respective names in Spanish, as they do not convey sufficient information in the latter, even within the scientific community itself. Some are derived directly from the scientific name, as in the case of Geoffroy’s Tailless Bat (Anoura geoffroyi), Findley’s Myotis (Myotis findleyi) or Baker’s Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys bakeri); in other cases, we not used the name of the author who described the species, as in Thomas’s Fruit-eating Bat (Dermanura watsoni), Davis’s Round-eared Bat (Lophostoma evotis) or Baird’s Pocket Gopher (Geomys breviceps). In both cases, most persons are not familiar with the meaning of the name, thus making its use difficult. Adequate translations from English are used in some cases, provided these meet the above criteria; in other cases, completely new names were designed.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to colleagues, students and friends who have shared common names in Spanish and English with us over the years. G. Ameneyro discussed some ideas expressed in this work. Two anonymous reviewers improved the quality of the writing. María Elena Sánchez-Salazar translated the manuscript into English.

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Associated editor: Rafael Reyna

Received: December 22, 2017; Accepted: January 18, 2018

* Corresponding author: Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda, e-mail: sticul@cibnor.mx

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