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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.7 no.5 Texcoco jun./ago. 2016


Descripción de cultivares

Alondra F2014, new variety of bread wheat for the Bajío, Mexico

Ernesto Solís Moya1  § 

Julio Huerta Espino2 

Patricia Pérez Herrera2 

Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir2 

Aquilino Ramírez Ramírez1 

María de Lourdes de la Cruz González1 

1Campo Experimental Bajío-Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. A. P. 112 C. P. 38000 Celaya Gto., México. Tel: 01 (461) 6115323. (

2Programa de Trigo, Campo Experimental Valle de México-INIFAP. Carretera los Reyes-Texcoco, km 13.5 Coatlinchán, Texcoco, Estado de México, C.P. 56250.


Recent efforts in the Bajío Experimental Station of the National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Forestry, have allowed the development of wheat varieties high performance and high levels of disease resistance. Among these is the new superior genotypes variety Alondra F2014 that outperforms Maya S2007 with 9% also is resistant to stripe rust, resistant to leaf rust and industrial quality. The Alondra seed F2014 is available in the Experimental Field Bajío.

Keywords: adult plant resistance; performance; yellow rust


Los esfuerzos recientes en el Campo Experimental Bajío del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias, han permitido el desarrollo de variedades de trigo de alto rendimiento y altos niveles de resistencia a las enfermedades. Entre estos genotipos superiores esta la nueva variedad Alondra F2014 que supera el rendimiento de Maya S2007 con 9% además es resistente a roya lineal amarilla, resistente a roya de la hoja y de alta calidad industrial. La semilla de Alondra F2014 está disponible en el Campo Experimental Bajío.

Palabras clave: rendimiento; resistencia de planta adulta; roya amarilla


The genetic improvement factors has been one of the key sustainability of wheat in the region of the Bajio. The most significant progress has been achieved in grain yield has been increased from 1 500 kg ha-1 to 9 400 kg ha-1 in 75 years of research (Solis et al., 2014). Resistance to rusts has been another important character because it allowed obtaining high yields without the need for fungicide applications for control, reducing investment costs and avoid environmental damage. However, the continuous emergence of new races of rust or increasing populations of old breeds requires the release of new varieties resistant to the common races in the producing areas.

The genetic improvement work carried out in recent years in the Bajío have identified new more yielders and greater resistance to rusts genotypes than commercial varieties. Among them is the new variety Alondra F2014, which is resistant to the two races of stripe rust that appeared in 2009 and 2014, it is resistant to leaf rust and outperforms Cortazar S94 the most planted variety in the Bajío with 21.1%. Then the origin of the variety, their main phenotypic characteristics and agronomic performance compared to the reference varieties presented.

According to the law of Production, Certification and Trade of Seeds in force in Mexico, and after having met the requirements marking the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the variety Alondra F2014 obtained provisional registration 3050-TRI141-090914/C in the National Catalogue of Plant Varieties (CNVV).

The variety of bread wheat Alondra F2014 is habit spring, and was obtained in Breeding Program Wheat INIFAP in the Experimental field Bajio (CEBAJ), by hybridization and selection through the bulk method of breeding with selection, through a crossing between parents TJB368/ BUC//CUPE/3/ENE/ZITA, the number of crosses and history of selection is TR04074-2R-0C-0R-3RSE-1RSE0R. During the selection process the F1 generation was harvested massively; in the F2 plant is recognized as 2R threshed individually; F3 was harvested in massively in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was harvested in F4 massively in Roque, Guanajuato.

The F5 generation was planted in Celaya, Guanajuato and selection was applied in pin selected families, in this case the pin identified as 3RSE progressed as line; F6 spike in the 1RSE selected in Celaya, Guanajuato. Finally the F7 generation was harvested massively in Celaya, Guanajuato, having found no significant phenotypic differences. From 2008 it began to evaluate performance tests CEBAJ, and in 2011-12, 2013-14 and 2014-15 cycles in different locations in the region of the Bajío. In the cycle autumn-winter 201112 and 2012-13 was evaluated in the national wheat trial. The evaluations of disease resistance were conducted in the states of Guanajuato and Mexico.

The variety Alondra F2014 is spring growth habit, semidwarf, 90 cm; its growth cycle is intermediate, with 79 days to flowering and physiological maturity 130 days. The stem is strong, hollow, cream-colored and moderately resistant to lodging. The shank is white, parallel edges, slack, baleen, has a length of 13 to 15 cm, and produces from 17 to 19 spikelets of which 1 or 2 in the base can be sterile. Usually it produces three grains at the base, four in the middle and three at the apex.

The glumes are white, measuring 10.1 to 11.3 mm long and 3.8 to 4.4 mm wide. The bill is long, 9.1 mm in length. The predominant form shoulder is straight, although you can find some of the higher rate.

The grain is white, egg-shaped, rounded edges and strong endosperm. The grain is medium, measured from 6.3 to 7.0 mm long and 3.6 to 4.2 mm wide, with an average specific weight of 77 kg hL-1 and 1000 grain weight is 39 to 43 g depending on the date of Sowing.

Alondra F2014, has resistance genes specific race Lr1, Lr3, Lr16, Lr17 and Lr23. These genes are effective at seedling stage to the CBJ/QB, CBJ/QL, CBJ/QQ (Huerta-Espino and Singh, 1994), LCJ/BN, BBG/BP, TCT/QB, TBD/TM, TCB/ TD, MCJ/QM and MFB/SP (Singh, 1991). However, they are ineffective at MBJ/SP and MCJ/SP races are the most common since its identification in 1994 under both irrigated and rainfed conditions (Singh and Dubin, 1997). In adult plant resistance Alondra F2014, it is based on the action of at least four genes additive effect. One of these genes is Lr34, the second Lr46 which is identified using molecular marker.

The behavior Alondra F2014; however, it is not fully explained by the presence of these genes, which may possess two genes not yet adult plant cataloged; the above can be verified by genetic analysis of resistance to leaf rust of Alondra F2014.

Alondra F2014 is resistant (almost immune) to stripe rust in seedling stage against CEVAMEX14.25, MEX14.141 and MEX14.146 isolates identified during 2014. These isolates they were responsible for overcoming resistance of Luminaria F2012 and Nana F2007 which combine virulence Yr2, Yr3, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr27 and Yr31 among others. In the presence of mature plant Yr18 and Yr19 it was determined by using molecular markers.

When compared in planting dates performance Alondra F2014 with that obtained by the recommended of the Bajio varieties, the new variety outscored Salamanca S75, Nana F2007, Eneida F94, Cortazar S94, Luminaria F2012, Urbina S2002, Barcenas S2002 and Maya S2007 with 38.3%, 27.9%, 27.1%, 21.1%, 16.1%, 14%, 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively, their performance was superior to any variety in the period from 16 November to 31 December, and almost equal the Maya S2007 in late dates made of 15 January. Under irrigation restricted (calendars two and three irrigation) Alondra F2012 exceeded Salamanca S75, Cortazar S94, Maya S2007, Luminaria F2014 and Barcenas S2002 with 34.2%, 14.5%, 12.5%, 10.8% and 5.5%, respectively.

The test weight average presented by the variety Alondra F2014 (77 kg hl-1), located to the point of this variety in the classification of highest quality bread wheat Group 1 (quality grade Mexico 1), according to the specifications of Mexican Standard wheat marketing NMX-FF-036-1996 (DGN, 1996). The sedimentation volume (55 mL) of the new variety exceeds that of the control varieties of strong gluten Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2014 (49 and 50 mL, respectively). The average protein content in refined flour produced under irrigation (11.2%) is acceptable for use in industry. This value is lower by only 0.3 and 0.6 percentage points compared to the content of protein in flour control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2014 (11.8 and 11.5%, respectively).

Alondra F2014 presents a balanced gluten (T/L= 1.2), lower than the control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012 (T/L=1.6 y 2.7, respectively), a condition related to obtaining breads with increased volume of bread. Alondra F2014 flour produces high volumes of bread (average 780 cc); higher than those obtained by the control varieties Eneida F94 and Luminaria F2012 (767 and 727 cc, respectively). The crumb of bread has good color and structure; comparable to the characteristics of the bread produced with the flour control variety Eneida F94 and above the crumb structure of bread flour from the variety Luminaria F2012.


Alondra F2014 presents glutenin high molecular weight 0 associated genome A, 5+10 associated with the D genome, which is related to high gluten strength and high sedimentation volumes and glutenin high molecular weight 7+9 associated genome B with intermediate effect on these same characteristics.

The new variety Alondra F2014 is recommended for the region called the Bajío, which comprises the states of Guanajuato, Michoacán, Jalisco and Querétaro, with heights of 1 500 to 1 800 m, average temperature of 20 °C and rainfall of 450 to 650 mm. Alondra basic seed F2014 is available at the INIFAP-Experimental Field Bajío for sale to seed producing companies upon request from December 2014.

Literatura citada

DGN. 1996. Norma Mexicana NMX-FF-036-1996. Productos alimenticios no industrializados. Cereales. Trigo. (Triticum aestivum L. y Triticum durum Desf.). Dirección General de Normas. Especificaciones y Métodos de Prueba. 11 p. [ Links ]

Huerta, E. J. and Singh, R. P.1994. First report of virulence for wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in Mexico. Plant Dis. 78:640. [ Links ]

Singh, R. P. 1991. Pathogenicity variations of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. tritici in wheat-growing areas of Mexico during 1988 and 1989. Plant Dis. 75:790-794. [ Links ]

Singh, R. P. and Dubin, H. J. 1997. Sustainable control of wheat diseases in wheat. In: Memorias Primer Simposio Internacional de Trigo. 7-9 April 1997, Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. 93-103 pp. [ Links ]

Solís, M. E.; Grageda, C. O. A.; Ramírez, R. A.; de la Cruz, G. M. L.; Ledesma, R. L. y Suaste, F. M. P. 2014. Mejoramiento genético de trigo y respuesta de variedades a ambientes de riego y temporal en Guanajuato. In: Solís, M. E. y Rodríguez, G. A. (Comps.). Tecnología para la producción sustentable de trigo de riego en el Bajío. Celaya, Guanajuato, México. SAGARPA- INIFAP. Campo Experimental Bajío. 267 p. [ Links ]

Received: January 2016; Accepted: April 2016

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