SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.7 número5Índice de cosecha con macro-nutrimentos en grano de maízProductividad de la apicultura en México y su impacto sobre la rentabilidad índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO


Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.7 no.5 Texcoco jun./ago. 2016



Evaluation of advanced lines of rice, coarse-grained in Morelos, Mexico

Edwin Javier Barrios Gómez1  § 

Franccede González Gabriel1 

Jaime Canul Ku1 

Marianguadalupe Hernández Arenas1 

1Campo Experimental Zacatepec-INIFAP. Carretera Zacatepec-Galeana, km 0.5 Zacatepec, C. P. 62780 Morelos, México. Tel: 01 800 088 2222 ext. 86612. (;;


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the transplant date and environment on the agronomic performance of five advanced lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) type Morelos. The first date of transplant took place on april 11 and the second on 12 may 2014. It were evaluated in five locations: Jojutla, Cuautla, Mazatepec, E. Zapata and Cocoyoc, in the state of Morelos. Five lines were studied: C7Za05, C14Za06, C20Za06, C21Za06, C27Za06 and witness the variety Morelos A-2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement, where the sources of variation were: date of transplant, locations and genotypes (lines); for statistical data analysis see was used the SAS program. 9.0. During harvest, the variables recorded were: plant height, productive and unproductive tillers, panicle length, grains per panicle, stained grains per panicle vain grains and grain weight in one square meter. The transplant date showed significant differences for almost all variables; the environment, genotype and interaction between the two factors showed highly significant differences. For grain weight, the best atmosphere was Jojutla and outstanding materials were Morelos A-2010 and C21Za06 line, which obtained a yield of 1.22 kg m-2, the combination of Jojutla environment with C20Za06 line had the highest performance 1.4 kg m-2.

Keywords: Oryza sativa L.; environments; genotypes performance; planting date


El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la fecha de trasplante y el ambiente sobre el comportamiento agronómico de cinco líneas avanzadas de arroz (Oryza sativa L.) tipo Morelos. La primera fecha de trasplante se realizó el 11 de abril y la segunda el 12 de mayo de 2014. Se evaluaron en cinco localidades: Jojutla, Cuautla, Mazatepec, E. Zapata y Cocoyoc, en el estado de Morelos. Cinco líneas fueron estudiadas: C7Za05, C14Za06, C20Za06, C21Za06, C27Za06 y como testigo la variedad Morelos A-2010. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar en arreglo factorial, donde las fuentes de variación fueron: fecha de trasplante, localidades y genotipos (líneas); para el análisis estadístico de los datos se empleó el programa SAS ver. 9.0. Durante la cosecha, las variables registradas fueron: altura de planta, macollos productivos e improductivos, longitud de panícula, granos por panícula, granos manchados, granos vanos por panícula y el peso de grano en un metro cuadrado. La fecha de trasplante mostró diferencias significativas para casi todas las variables evaluadas; el factor ambiente, el genotipo y la interacción entre ambos mostraron diferencias altamente significativas. Para peso de grano, el mejor ambiente fue Jojutla y los materiales sobresalientes fueron Morelos A-2010 y la línea C21Za06, que obtuvieron un rendimiento de 1.22 kg m-2, la combinación del ambiente Jojutla con la línea C20Za06 obtuvo el rendimiento más alto con 1.4 kg m-2.

Palabras clave: Oryza sativa L.; ambientes; fecha de siembra; genotipos; rendimiento


The rice is the second cereal most consumed by man, after wheat. Worldwide is the largest acreage crop after corn. It is the staple food for half the world's population and provides little more than 50% of calories for human consumption (FAOSTAT, 2013).

Mexico, in 2013 produced 179 775 tons, representing 0.02% of world production (FAOSTAT, 2013). During this same period globally, palay rice yield was 4.48 t ha-1, Mexico exceeded this figure to obtain a yield of 5.43 t ha-1. The highest yield reported in Mexico was in the state of Morelos, with an average of 10.1 t ha-1 (SIAP, 2014), exceeding the average yields of countries like Egypt and the United States of America, which reported the highest yields worldwide (FAOSTAT, 2013). The factors that have allowed the high crop yield in Morelos have been releasing varieties with high yield potential, good weather conditions, sufficient water availability and the long life cycle of the varieties of 180 days after planting. Although there are three varieties in use in the state of Morelos, two of which are very susceptible to lodging: Morelos A-92 and Morelos A-98, hence the variety Morelos A-2010, a variety of short straw will be released and high yield potential, above 10 t ha-1 (Salcedo and Barrios, 2012).

This variety with the same quality of grain, like the sisters varieties predecessors, type of Morelos, is tolerant to lodging, but increasingly susceptible to disease stained grain. A similar situation has occurred in rainfed wheat crops such as where it has been reported that is affected by biotic problems that detract from their performance. In addition, the released varieties eventually become susceptible to diseases, mainly yellow stripe rust and leaf, these pathogens present great variability of races or because are presented new races that break the resistance of varieties (Singh et al., 2004). Currently, rice farmers face problems with varieties recent release since they have susceptibility to diseases such as burning rice or Pyricularia caused by the fungus Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. (Anam.) and severe problems with grain discoloration caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Hann) Shoemaker (Anam.) (Salcedo and Barrios, 2012; Hernández et al., 2012).

From the foregoing, the hypothesis that early planting dates reduce the severity of damage by diseases and that at least some line of new genotypes evaluated presented tolerance to grain discoloration and pyricularia was raised. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the transplant date and environment on the agronomic performance and tolerance to disease in five advanced lines of rice Morelos type.

Materials and methods


This research was conducted during the P-V 2014 cycle in five environments in the state of Morelos Jojutla (A1), Mazatepec (A2), Cuautla (A3), Cocoyoc (A4) and Zapata (A5), areas of great importance to the cultivation rice and stained with frequent outbreaks of grain. In Table 1 are described environmental conditions and geographical location of the localities in evaluation.

Table 1 Environmental characteristics and geographical location of test sites in the state of Morelos. 

Localidad Temperatura media (°C) Precipitación anual (mm) Altura sobre el nivel del mar (m) Latitud y longitud
Jojutla 24.1 948.2 902 L 18° 37’ 14.88” N L 99° 11’ 36.96” W
Mazatepec 24 867.2 951 L 18° 42’ 45.94” N L 99° 22’ 19.02” W
Cuautla 20.43 1015 1279 L 18° 48’ 24.19” N L 98° 58’ 6.10” W
Cocoyoc 22.12 960.6 1304 L 18° 52’ 29.10” N L 98° 59’ 50.24” W
Zapata 21.58 1564 1266 L 18° 50’ 42.16” N L 99° 10’ 28.51” W

Fuente: elaboración con datos de la red de estaciones meteorológicas del estado de Morelos, reporte climático 2014.

Genetic material used

It was established and evaluated five advanced rice lines coarse type Morelos, known as C7Za05 (T1), C14Za06 (T2), C20Za06 (T3), C21Za06 (T4) and C27Za06 (T5), additionally the variety Morelos A-2010 witness (T6).

Dates transplant

Were evaluated two date’s transplant: April 11 (F1) and May 12 (F2) of 2014.

Experimental design

Was used in each environment an experimental design completely randomized with three replications blocks, five lines were randomized within each block or pit, the size of the experimental unit was 10 m2 for each line and the useful area sampled was 1 m2.

For statistical analysis of the data was used a factorial design where the sources of variation were dates transplant, environments and genotypes.

Agronomic management

Two pacholes (seedlings) on various dates were set in the Campo Experimental Zacatepec, INIFAP in the state of Morelos, each 30 days before transplantation. The five advanced lines in F6 to evaluate (C7Za05, C14Za06, C20Za06, C21Za06 and C27Za06) were seeded, plus the variety Morelos A-2010 was planted as a witness. The pachol mesh covered to prevent damage from birds during the early days of its development.

The site preparation consisted of two fallow land, one normal and the second cross. As planting was under the transplant system, the preparation of three gashes (formation of levees), 10 m wide by 40 m long, was conducted within each pit, he was subsequently addressed (activity manually to they form levees, where completely flooded the pit and levees according to the water level) are built to hold water. This was done in advance in all environments and in both planting dates. At 30 days after planting pachol for both evaluation dates, transplantation was carried out; each line seedlings were placed in sacks identified and transported to the definitive site for its development.

For weed control Propavel+Hierbester was applied to the most persistent weeds (Esqueda and Rosales, 2004). The manual weeding were performed to control weeds in the streets and levees, mainly. The formula was applied fertilization 180-40-40 of N-P-K fractionated in two stages; the first 100-40-40 after the first month after transplant and the first application of herbicides, the second 80-0000 when differentiation reproductive vegetative apex in approximately 70 days after transplantation.

Variables registered

The variables recorded during physiological maturity were plant height (AP), number of productive tillers (MP) and unproductive (MI), panicle length (LP), number of grains per panicle (GP), stained grains (GM), openings per panicle (GV) and the grain weight (PG) in a square meter grains.

Statistical analysis

For statistical analysis of the data was used the SAS (2002) program ver. 9.0 with a factorial experimental design with three levels of variation transplant date (F), locations (A) and genotypes (G). For comparison of means Tukey test (α≤ 0.05) was used.

Results and discussion

Dates transplant

The statistical analysis showed ficant differences (p≤ 0.05) between the dates of transplantation, as shown in Table 2. The mean comparison test according to Tukey (α≤ 0.05) indicated that the date 1 (F1) was statistically than date 2 (F2). In this regard, in F1, the more grains per panicle (GP), fewer stained grains per panicle (GM) and higher grain weight (PG) and a yield of 1.21 kg m-2 compared was obtained with the second, which only got a weight of 1.04 kg m-2. The coefficients of variation in the statistical analysis for the different variables, but are above 20% are not considered high and are within the acceptable results. Although the aim of this study was not know the stability of the materials, a low percentage was obtained in the coefficient of variation (CVi) representing greater stability (Francis and Kannenberg, 1978), and the variable grain weight was a stable through varying environments therefore desirable and more stable genotype would be of higher performance and lower coefficient of variation.

Table 2 Comparison test averages for agronomic traits in rice varieties in two sowing dates. Morelos, 2014. 

AP (cm) MP MI LP (cm) GP GM GV PG (kg m-2)
Fecha 1 118.88a 15.79b 0.85a 28.99a 126.74a 5.20b 16.70a 1.21a
Fecha 2 117.87a 24.57a 0.33b 28.31a 110.61b 15.15a 17.03a 1.04b
MG 118.34 20.52 0.57 28.62 118.05 10.56 16.88 1.12
DMS 2.05 1.47 0.29 2.24 10.15 2.39 3.62 0.05
CV (%) 4.69 19.40 11.66 21.22 23.29 16.45 15.10 13.56

Valores con la misma letra son estadísticamente iguales, de acuerdo con la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p≤0.05). AP= altura de planta; MP= macollos productivos; MI= macollos improductivos; LP= Longitud de panícula; GP= granos por panícula; GM= granos manchados; GV= granos vanos y PG= peso del grano. DMS= diferencia mínima significativa; CV=coeficiente de variación; MG= media general.

The Figure 1 shows that during the first two months of crop development for the first date transplant (F1), the rooms had high temperatures and low rainfall, however, during the second day, the temperature dropped but there was an increase of cloudy days with more precipitation, these slight changes significantly affected the responses of the variables evaluated. In the second date (F2), there was a greater number of productive tillers; however, the panicles had a higher amount of stained beans, because during this phase of crop development increased cloudiness and high temperatures in the evaluated environments, conditions that could create an enabling environment for the development of fungal diseases environment was presented, the which coincides with the results of Torres (2015), who mentions that the increased field performance is the result of improvements genetic potential, crop management and appropriate environmental conditions for cultivation.

Source: own elaboration with data from meteorological system of the state of Morelos, with data from 2014.

Figure 1 Temperature and rainfall in the evaluated environments (Jojutla, Mazatepec, Cuautla, Cocoyoc and E. Zapata) for two dates transplant in the state of Morelos.  

Other studies have reported differences in behavior evaluated in different planting dates regarding yield components varieties, variation is attributed to the reproductive stage of the crop coincides with the shorter days, less solar radiation and low temperature (Adames, 2014).


Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the environments evaluated (p≤ 0.05) as shown in Table 3. The comparison of means test indicated that the environments significantly affect the response of the variables evaluated; in Jojutla town of genotypes they showed higher plant height, grains per panicle and higher yield, 1.25 kg m-2 of grain, but a larger number of unproductive tillers. The Cocoyoc and Zapata, environments showed more stained and vain grains per panicle, representing an undesirable characteristic as it lowers grain quality and promotes greater weight loss. The variable length panicle showed no significant differences between environments.

Table 3 Comparison test averages characters yield and its components in five environments evaluation. Morelos, 2014. 

Ambientes AP (cm) MP MI LP (cm) GP GM GV PG (kg m-2)
Jojutla 130.15a* 18.33bc 1.3a 30.22a 133.72a 7.09b 17.87bc 1.25a
Maza 118.88b 14.5d 0b 28.3a 122ab 5.5b 13.77bc 1.02b
Cuautla 102.39c 21.33b 0.36b 28.04a 101.9b 9.45b 10.51c 1.1b
Cocoyoc 122.11b 32a 0.27b 28.75a 124.22ab 18.33a 27.72a 1.1b
Zapata 122.26b 17cd 0.46b 26.6a 107b 17.4a 19.4ab 1.02b
DMS 4.79 3.43 0.69 5.23 23.71 5.59 8.45 0.13

*Valores con la misma letra son estadísticamente iguales, según Tukey (p≤ 0.05). AP= altura de planta en cm; MP= macollos productivos; MI= macollos improductivos; LP= longitud de panícula en cm; GP= granos por panícula; GM= granos manchados; GV= granos vanos y PG= peso del grano. DMS= diferencia mínima significativa.

The Figure 2 shows temperature differences in Jojutla, Mazatepec, Cuautla, Zapata Cocoyoc and locations. This difference caused differential response in the agronomic performance of the genotypes evaluated when changing an environmental condition to another.

Source: own elaboration with data from the meteorological system of the state of Morelos, climate report 2014.

Figure 2 Monthly mean temperature of Jojutla, Mazatepec, Cocoyoc, Zapata and Cuautla environments. 

According to the statistical analysis, Jojutla environment led to the best grain yield; on the contrary, the lowest values were for Zapata and Mazatepec. The temperature graph shows that Jojutla showed higher temperature throughout the crop cycle than other locations. The precipitation was higher in Cocoyoc, Zapata and Mazatepec localities (Figure 3), which could indicate that these environments had higher cloudiness and high temperatures (Figure 2), generating an environment conducive to the development of diseases like environment spotted grain, however Jojutla had lower precipitation (Figure 3), higher temperature (Figure 2) and better performance, although it is noteworthy that all experiments counted on irrigation water every third day and cultivation remained flooded during development.

Source: own elaboration with data from meteorological system of the state of Morelos, only data 2014.

Figure 3 Average monthly precipitation of Jojutla, Mazatepec, Cocoyoc, E. Zapata and Cuautla environments.  


Statistical analysis indicated significant differences (p≤ 0.05) for genotypes established on two dates transplant and in five locations. The test means comparison indicated that the C20Za06 line was statistically superior to others for the variable number of productive tillers and statistically lower for plant height (desirability), exceeding characters including the commercial variety Morelos A-2010; however, for the other components of performance as panicle length and grains per panicle all lines were statistically equal Caicedo (2008) obtained similar results with rice genotypes for most evaluated characteristics, except for the length of panicle. There were no significant differences for varying stained grains per panicle, for effect of genotypes, indicating that only the date of transplantation and this had an effect on environments. Spotted grain is a complex of causal agents among which are: fungi (Bipolaris oryzae, Phyllostica sp., Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia sp., Pyricularia sp., Cercospora orizae and Sarocladium sp.). In the state of Morelos, pathogens identified as causing grain discoloration are Cochliobolus miyabeanus, C. lunatus, Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Fusarium proliferatum, F. moniliforme, Curvularia spp., Cladosporium cladosporioides spp., and Aspergillus spp., and bacteria Pantoea stewartii and Xanthomonas spp. (Hernández et al., 2012). This complex affects the grain to reduce weight (up to 40%), germination (between 26 and 41%) and the grain filling (30%). Also they have reported significant differences in the incidence of grain discoloration in genotypes, which means that have been detected tolerant materials (Palacios et al., 2008).

For grain weight, the line C21Za06 was statistically superior to others, but failed to overcome the witness variety Morelos A-2010, since the latter obtained the same performance as shown in Table 4; however, it is less affected by the tainted grain.

Table 4 Comparison test mean for agronomic traits and yield of rice genotypes evaluated in different environments. Morelos, 2014. 

Genotipos AP (cm) MP MI LP (cm) GP GM GV PG (kg m-2)
C7Za05 127.19a* 20.38ab 0.66a 30.85a 128.76a 12.04a 16.14ab 0.98c
C14Za06 117.71b 19.04b 0.71a 26.76a 117.57a 9.19a 12.19b 1.05bc
C20Za06 106.42c 23.19a 0.33a 27.54a 105.95a 11.04a 22.23a 1.10abc
C21Za06 130.71a 21.09ab 0.23a 27.83a 107.71a 10.71a 13.19ab 1.22a
C27Za06 112.76b 20.14ab 0.80a 29.26a 124.19a 11.04a 18.71ab 1.18ab
A-2010 112.91b 18.33b 0.75a 30.12a 128.75a 8.41a 20.25ab 1.22a
DMS 5.31 3.80 0.77 5.81 26.30 6.20 20.25ab 0.14

*Valores con la misma letra son estadísticamente iguales, Tukey (p≤ 0.05). M A-2010= Morelos A-2010, AP= altura de planta en cm; MP= macollos productivos; MI= macollos improductivos; LP= longitud de panícula en cm; GP= granos por panícula; GM= granos manchados; GV= granos vanos y PG= peso del grano.

Interaction planting dates (F), locations (A) and genotypes (T)

Only interactions F*A and A*T were significant for most variables assessed. Indicating that assessment environments presented different conditions in the two dates transplant and productive potential of genotypes it was influenced by the environment. The F*A*T interaction in the vast majority of the variables evaluated and even grain yield was not significant, indicating that a single line/variety could be used indifferently in any planting date and environment, and it would have a except like plant height behavior (Table 5). According to the above within assessment strategies segregating generations of improved varieties and trials referred to in the widest range of environments to assess the potential performance and phenotypic stability of varieties (Crossa, 1990).

Table 5 Mean squares for planting dates (F), locations (A) and genotypes (T) in elite rice lines interaction. Morelos 2014. 

CM Fecha de siembra (F) Localidades (A) FxA Tratamientos (T) FxT AxT FxAxT CME
AP 30 3 371.71* 517.73* 1 770.92* 134.02* 258.9* 165.21* 30.88
MP 2 239* 847.5* 0 52.6* 13.41 79* 0 15.84
MI 7.81* 6.67* 40.41* 1.14 1.44 1.76* 0.62 0.65
LP 13.49 39.85 123.01 50.11 15.06 32.87 127.85 36.9
GP 7 557.35* 4 876.54* 7 586.27* 1 979.3 1 064.82 1 238.65 1 773.08 756.43
GM 2 881.59* 671.94* 0 30.29 52.72 110.11* 19.37 42.15
GV 3.12 938.56* 3 041.4* 313.78* 816.28* 393.5* 0 96.19
CM PG 0.79* 0.22* 0.7* 0.18* 0.08* 0.07* 0 0.02

Valores con la misma letra son estadísticamente iguales, de acuerdo con Tukey (p≤ 0.05). CM= cuadrados medios, AP= altura de planta en cm; MP= macollos productivos; MI= macollos improductivos; LP= longitud de panícula, GP= granos por panícula; GM= granos manchados; GV= granos vanos y PG= peso del grano.

Combination planting date locality (F*A)

Under conditions in which the experiment was conducted, there was interaction between transplant dates and locations. According to the Tukey test the combination F1A1 (date 1 Jojutla) showed higher plant height with 132.5 cm, more unproductive tillers, grains per panicle (153) and higher grain weight (1.33 kg m-2); the highest number of tillers developed in the F2A4 (date 2 Cocoyoc) with an average of 32 tillers per plant, but also obtained a greater number of stained and vain grains per panicle. The rice diseases are a major cause and barriers for maintaining high productivity and crop sustainability. On average rice diseases cause up to 15% of production losses under the current crop management. Among the most important diseases worldwide are considered Pyricularia (Pyricularia oryzae), bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae), the sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani), the virus Tungro in Asia and virus white sheet in some countries Latin America, and more recently the bacterial panicle blight caused by the bacterium Burkholderia glumae which has increased in incidence, severity and economic importance in many countries in Latin America and the United States of America (Correa, 2015).

Combination transplant date*genotypes (F*G)

In this interaction only significant differences for the variables plant height, empty grains and grain weight. The combination F2T4 (date 2 line C14Za06) showed higher plant height, F2T6 (date 2 Morelos A-2010) obtained the highest number of grains openings per panicle and the best grain weight was obtained in the F1T4 combination (date 1 line C21Za06) with a yield of 1.29 kg m-2.

Combination localities*genotypes (A*T)

The A5 and T2 combination (Zapata C14Za06) obtained greater plant height (141 cm); A4 and T3 (Cocoyoc C20Za06) presented greater number of productive tillers, spotted grains, as many unproductive tillers; A1 and T6 (Jojutla Morelos A-2010) obtained a greater number of grains per panicle; A4 and T6 (Cocoyoc Morelos A-2010) presented a higher number of empty grains and the best performance was obtained A1 and T3 (Jojutla C20Za06) with 1.40 kg m-2. The results are consistent with previous studies that mention a differential response in genotypes under different conditions, indicating that there were differences between environments and their influence on the expression of genotypes in yield and the variables evaluated (Orona, 2013).


The best transplant date turned out to be the first or earlier, which coincides with the largest solar radiation and less cloudy days. The best atmosphere was that of Jojutla, although on average all locations were above average performance of the state of Morelos. The best genotypes were the control variety Morelos A-2010 and C21Za06 line. The best combinations were between the town of Jojutla with C20Za06 line, the best combination of date and genotype was the first transplant date and C21Za06 line.

Literatura citada

Adames, A. 2014. Evaluación de genotipos de arroz por época de siembra en la zona noroeste de la República Dominicana. Revista Agropecuaria Forestal AFP. Sociedad Dominicana de Investigaciones Agropecuarios y Forestales (SODIAF). 3(1):9-16. [ Links ]

Caicedo, O. Y. J. 2008. Evaluación de características agronómicas de cuatro líneas interespecíficas de arroz (Oryza sativa/Oryza latifolia) comparadas con dos variedades comerciales y una nativa en el corregimiento # 8 de Zacarías municipio de Buenaventura. Universidad del Pacífico. Tesis para optar al título de Agrónomo del Trópico húmedo. Colombia. 28 p. [ Links ]

Correa, V. F. 2015. Desafíos en el manejo de enfermedades del arroz. In: XII Conferencia Internacional de Arroz para América Latina y el Caribe. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. 33-38 pp. [ Links ]

Crossa, J. 1990. Statistical analysis of multilocation trials. Adv. Agron. 44:55-85. [ Links ]

Esqueda E. V. A. y E. Rosales. 2004. Evaluación de Bispiribac-Sodio en el control de malezas en arroz de temporal. Agron. Mesoam. 15:09-15. [ Links ]

FAOSTAT. 2013. [ Links ]

Francis, T. R. and Kannenberg, L. W. 1978. Yield stability studies in short season maize. I. A descriptive method for grouping genotypes. Canadian J. Plant Sci. 58:1029-1034. [ Links ]

Hernández, A. M.; Barrios, G. E. J.; Canul, K. J.; Berriozabal, O. A. y Rodríguez, E. J. J. 2012. Calidad fitosanitaria y tratamiento químico para el control de patógenos en semillas de arroz tipo Morelos. Investigación Agropecuaria. 9(2):103-111. [ Links ]

Orona, C. F.; Medina, M. J.; Tucuch, C. F. M; Soto, R. S. M. y Almeyda, L. I. H. 2013. Parámetros de estabilidad en rendimiento y adaptabilidad de 25 genotipos de arroz en Campeche, México. Phyton. 82:255-261. [ Links ]

Palacios, M. E. R.; Pauth, M. M. J.; Chavarría, G. I. y Cuadra, C. S. A. 2008. Evaluación avanzada de nueve líneas de arroz (Oryza sativa L.) con resistencia al manchado del grano, Valle de Sébaco. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Nacional Agraria. Nicaragua. 45 p. [ Links ]

Salcedo, A. J. y Barrios G. E. J. 2012. Morelos A-2010, nueva variedad de arroz para siembra directa para el Centro de México. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc. 3:1453-1458. [ Links ]

Singh, R. P.; Huerta, E. J.; Figueroa, P. L. and Pfeiffer, W. 2004. Ocurrence and impact of a new leaf rust race on durum wheat in the Nothwestern Mexico during 2001-2002. Plant Dis. 87:230-236. [ Links ]

SIAP. 2014. [ Links ]

SAS. Versión 9.0 para Windows (XP).2002. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. [ Links ]

Torres, E. T. 2015. Contribuciones del mejoramiento genético a la competitividad del arroz: logros y perspectivas. In: XII Conferencia Internacional de Arroz para América Latina e Caribe. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. 20-22 pp. [ Links ]

Received: February 2016; Accepted: May 2016

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons