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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc vol.7 no.4 Texcoco may./jun. 2016


Investigation notes

Monogeneans parasites of Oreochromis spp., in point of sale

Jesús Montoya-Mendoza1  § 

Fabiola Lango Reynoso1 

María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez1 

1 Laboratorio de Investigación Acuícola Aplicada-División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación-Instituto Tecnológico de Boca del Río. Carretera Veracruz-Córdoba km 12, C. P. 94298, Boca del Río, Veracruz. México. Teléfono: 01-229-9860189 Ext. 113. (;


Oreochromis spp., is an important resource and aquaculture crop in different species have been detected P de monogeneans parasites, but we ignore the presence of parasites in specimens of sale. They were studied to helminthology to 9 fish on day one and 9 on the 15th day of a selling point of live tilapia. We recorded 5 species of monogeneans four species of gill parasites: Scutogyrus longicornis, Cichlidogyrus dossoni, C. sclerosus, C. tilapiae and a kind of intestinal monogenean Enterogyrus malmbergi. No species of other groups of parasites were recovered. The prevalence and average intensity higher was for C. sclerosus in both groups and no host zoonotic risk.

Keywords: Oreochromis; Cichlidogyrus; Enterogyrus; crop


Oreochromis spp., es un importante recurso acuícola y en los cultivo se han detectado diferentes especies Pde monogéneos parásitos, pero desconocemos la presencia de parásitos en especímenes de venta. Se estudiaron para helmintología a 9 peces en el día uno y 9 en el día 15 de un punto de venta de tilapia viva. Registramos 5 especies de monogéneos, cuatro especies parásitos de branquias: Scutogyrus longicornis, Cichlidogyrus dossoni, C. sclerosus, C. tilapiae y una especie de monogéneo intestinal Enterogyrus malmbergi. No se recuperaron especies de otros grupos de parásitos. La mayor prevalencia e intensidad promedio fue para C. sclerosus en ambos grupos de hospederos y no hay riesgo zoonótico.

Palabras clave: Oreochromis; Cichlidogyrus; Enterogyrus; cultivo

Tilapia farming, Oreocromis spp., It is one of the most widespread production activities in the world and refers to species of African origin grow and China produces 46% of such production. Outside their place of origin is indicated as introduced and as all species species has its own parasitic helminths and different cultivation sites, have registered the presence of these, in conditions of confinement and free life (Jimenez-Garcia et al., 2001; Zanolo et al, 2009; Le Roux and Avenant-Oldewage, 2010; Aguirre-Fey et al., 2015). The presence of helminths in culture organisms, has been identified as a nonlethal parasitoids, but these monogeneans are among the most problematic helminths in fish production in production ponds, by viral and microbial infections that develop in the binding sites parasites (Gonzalez-Fernandez, 2012). This study analyzes the prevalence of monogeneans Oreochromis spp., culture for point of sale.

As part of the pilot project for outlets live tilapia (PVTV), in november 2012 they were grown on the premises of Aquaculture Research Laboratory Graduate Applied- ITBOCA, 120 tilapia from aquaculture farm Medellin, Veracruz. They were kept under controlled conditions of temperature 28-30 °C and oxygen saturation (5 mg/l) and fed with food of choice (Purina fattening) in a vat of 10,000 liters in closed system and constant filtration, and by siphoning unused food and debris were removed tilapia.

They were examined to study helminthological 18 tilapias divided into two groups, nine fish were examined on day 1 of the culture and 9 more than 15 days, maximum time of sale of live tilapia in retail outlets. Morphometric data length in cm and weight in grams were taken, and helminthological test was applied to all tissues in the light of the stereomicroscope. Helminths recovered were fixed with 4% formaldehyde warm and preserved in 70% alcohol. Total subsequently stained preparations Mayer carmine or Gomori Trichrome were prepared, and mounted with Canada balsam (Lamothe-Argumedo, 1997). For some preparations monogeneans semipermanent with Malmberg technique to observe sclerotic pieces were prepared (Vidal-Martinez et al., 2001). The parasitic parameters prevalence (percentage of infected fish) and average intensity (average helminth infected for each species of helminth fish) and interval following criteria Bush et al. (1997) were calculated and behavior noted between two groups of sampling.

The 9 for the host examined one day, showed total length of 25.5±0.99 (24 to 27) and 353.6±48.8 weight g (290- 442), while for the 9 day fifteen fish presented total length of 21.8±7.6 (16-39) with weight of 273.4±344.6 (87-1118). Among both groups, worms 1158 located in 5 species of monogeneans were collected, four gill parasites species: Scutogyrus longicornis, Cichlidogyrus dossoni, Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and a kind of intestinal monogenean Enterogyrus malmbergi. No species of other groups of parasites were recovered.

The highest prevalence and mean intensity was for C. sclerosus host both groups (Table 1), the prevalence for S. longicornis and C. dossoni increased significantly between the first and second sample and E. malmbergi only average increase in intensity. The observed changes are associated with favorable conditions for the development of tilapia farming, as also favorable for parasites. However, these infections do not cause fatal injures themselves, but under conditions of confinement increases the abundance recruitment. In addition monogeneans are a risk factor for the development of infections on which should be carried out preventive actions (Gonzalez-Fernandez, 2012). The difficulties of handling these monogeneans infections are common in cultured tilapia Veracruz (Aguirre-Fey et al., 2015) and around the world (Boungou et al., 2008).

Table 1 Prevalence and mean intensity of helminth parasites Oreocromis spp., in point of sale. 


The highest prevalence and mean intensity was for C. sclerosus in both groups of hosts, the prevalence for S. longicornis and C. dossoni increased significantly between the first and second sample and E. malmbergi only average increase in intensity.

Literatura citada

Aguirre-Fey, D.; Benítez-Villa, G. E.; Pérez-Ponce de León, G. and Rubio-Godoy, M. 2015. Population dynamics of Cichlidogyrus spp. and Scutogyrus sp. (Monogenea) infecting farmed tilapia in Veracruz, México. Aquac. 443:11-15. [ Links ]

Boungou, M.; Kabre, G. B.; Marques, A. and Sawadogo, L. 2008. Dynamics of population of five parasitic Monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linné, 1757 in the dam of Loumbila and possible interest in intensive pisciculture. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 11(10):1317-23. [ Links ]

Bush, A. O.; Lafferty, K. D.; Lotz, J. M. and Shostak, A. W. 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J. Parasitol. 83(4):575-583. [ Links ]

Gonzalez-Fernández, J. G. 2012. Parasitofauna en tilapia causante de mortalidad en alevinos en dos centros de cultivos, Lima, Perú. Neotrop. Helminthol. 6(2):219-229. [ Links ]

Jiménez-García, M. I.; Vidal-Martínez, V. M. and López-Jiménez, S. 2001. Monogeneans in introduced and native cichlids in México: evidence for transfer. J. Parasitol. 87(4):907-909. [ Links ]

Lamothe-Argumedo, R. 1997. Manual de técnicas para preparar y estudiar los parásitos de animales silvestres. AGT. D. F., México. 43 p. [ Links ]

Le Roux, L. and Avenant-Oldewage, A. 2010. Check list of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea), including its cosmopolitan distribution and host species. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 35(1):21-36. [ Links ]

Vidal-Martínez, V. M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Scholz, T.; González- Solís, D. and Mendoza-Franco, E F. 2001. Atlas of the helminth parasites of cichlid fish of Mexico. Academia, Praha, Czech Republic. 165 p. [ Links ]

Zanolo, R.; Leonhardt, J. H.; Souza, A. T. S and Yamamura, M. H. 2009. Infuência do parasitismo por monogeas no desenvolvimento de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) (Linnaeus, 1757) criadas em sistemas de tanques-rede na represa de Capivara, PR. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. 18(1):47-52. [ Links ]

Received: March 2016; Accepted: June 2016

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