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Nova scientia

versión On-line ISSN 2007-0705

Nova scientia vol.11 no.22 León may. 2019 

Ciencias humanas y sociales

Bibliometric analysis of Organizational culture in Business economics of Web of Science, 1980-2018

Análisis bibliométrico sobre Cultura organizacional en Economía de negocios de Web of Science, 1980-2018

José Efrén Leyva Duarte1  * 

José de Jesús Chávez Martínez1 

Francisco Javier Pinedo de Anda1 

Juan Cayetano Niebla Zatarain1 

1 Universidad Autónoma de Occidente



This article aims to provide an analysis of the information on scientific research publications of Organizational culture available in the Web of Science. For this, a bibliometric analysis of the publications of the Web of Science Core Collection database on Organizational culture in the category of Management in the research area of Business economics was done.


The data obtained from a search of the Web of Science Core Collection database were subjected to a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software. The period analyzed was from 1980 to October 18, 2018, the date on which the bibliographic data was downloaded.


In this section is showed the analysis of the data of the publications on Organizational Culture. Tables and network maps, top 25 most productive and cited authors, journals that more articles published, 40 publications most cited and main references most co-cited, is some information obtained in the analysis.

Discussion or Conclusion:

Our results of the bibliometric analysis showed that Organizational culture is maintained as an interest research subject and it provides a synthesis about of organizational culture research for new researchers.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis; organizational culture; management; Web of Science; VOSviewer



Este artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar un análisis de la información de las publicaciones de investigación científica relacionadas con Cultura organizacional disponibles en la Web of Science. Para ello, se realizó un análisis bibliométrico de las publicaciones de la base de datos de Web of Science Core Collection sobre Cultura organizacional en la categoría de Administración en el área de investigación de Economía de negocios.


Los datos obtenidos en una búsqueda en la base de datos de Web of Science Core Collection se sometieron a un análisis bibliométrico utilizando el software VOSviewer. El período analizado fue desde 1980 hasta el 18 de octubre de 2018, fecha en que se descargaron los datos bibliográficos.


En esta sección se muestra el análisis de los datos de las publicaciones sobre Cultura organizacional. Las tablas y los mapas de red, los 25 autores más productivos y citados, las revistas que publicaron más artículos, las 40 publicaciones más citadas y las referencias más citadas, son algunos datos obtenidos en el análisis.

Discusión o Conclusión:

Nuestros resultados del análisis bibliométrico mostraron que la Cultura organizacional se mantiene como un tema de investigación de interés y proporciona una síntesis sobre la investigación de la cultura organizacional para los nuevos investigadores.

Palabras clave: análisis bibliométrico; cultura organizacional; administración; Web of Science; VOSviewer


Organizational Culture (OC) has been subject of different research since the early 20th century (Nukic & Huemann, 2016). For decades researchers and business professionals have been interested in this subject, especially within American businesses (de-la-Garza-Carranza, Guzman-Soria, & Mueller, 2011; Pietersen, 2017). Of 1980 to date, more than six thousand scientific research publications on OC in the Web of Science (WoS) database have been published. Currently, OC research presents an increase in the production of publications, in the last three years, the number of publications has increased, as shown by the WoS data.

Web of Science identify publications on Organizational Culture, and it classifies on different research areas (Business economics, Psychology, Social Sciences Other Topics, Health Care Sciences Services, Education Educational Research, Engineering and other). Business economics is the most crucial area of research of OC; it concentrates about forty percent of these publications.

Despite full of publications of Organizational culture topic, Chatman & O'Reilly (2016) believe that everything related to research in OC is not yet solved and that new researchers have the mission to continue with the research in several aspects that remain unclear.

The aim of this article, through of bibliometric analysis, is to provide useful information on scientific research publications of Organizational culture in the category of Management in the research area of Business economics available in the Web of Science, for researchers interested in the subject.

Organizational Culture (OC). Is defined in different ways (Ertosun & Adiguzel, 2018). For example: how a group of persons learns over a period of time to solves its problems of survival in an external environment and its problems of internal integration (Schein, 1990). For Schneider, Ehrhart, & Macey (2013) is defined as basic assumptions about the world and values that guide life in organizations.

Analysis of the recent research works and publications proves the multiplication of some scientific works dedicated to the problem of OC (Shymko, 2018). The research of the OC has been profoundly explored based on different definitions of the construct using different types of measurements and from different theories (Chatman & O'Reilly, 2016).

Organizational culture is a crucial aspect of any successful business or organization (Kasemsap, Styron, & Styron, 2017). The OC affects the employees and organizational processes and plays a significant role in companies and, it can bring a competitive advantage to the organization (Ertosun & Adiguzel, 2018). OC can influence the performance and effectiveness of a company and it can be a factor in the success of an organization. (Warrick, 2017). OC is indicative of the typical way of orienting organization members towards common goals (Calciolari, Prenestini, & Lega, 2018).

To increase the effectiveness of the organization, the OC can be used as a critical element to promote long-term effectiveness and that the change efforts of the global culture can manifest not only in results such as the return on investment, assets, or sales, but also in customer satisfaction (Gillespie, Denison, Haaland, Smerek, & Neale, 2008). The personality of the CEO affects the culture of the organization; this culture subsequently affects a broad set of organizational results, such as financial performance, reputation recommendations of reputation analysts and employee attitudes (O'Reilly, Doerr, & Chatman, 2018).

Although researchers have studied for some time the relationship between OC and financial performance, it is not yet clear how this relationship is (Chatman, Caldwell, O'Reilly, & Doerr, 2014). OC can be a powerful force that clearly shows what is essential and coordinates the efforts of members without the cost of the inefficiencies of close supervision within an organization (Chatman & Cha, 2003). Culture can be studied as a part of the process of adaptation of organizations, and that the specific cultural feature can be useful to predict effectiveness and performance (Denison & Mishra, 1995). To determine whether the culture or performance has a causal priority, or, if there is a reciprocal relationship, a longitudinal study was conducted concluding that the culture "comes first" (Boyce, Nieminen, Gillespie, Ryan, & Denison, 2015).

Nowadays, publications on OC is increasing, the consensus on the concept of the construct is diverse, and the impact it causes on the results of the companies remains in discussion.

Bibliometric analysis. Is the quantitative study of bibliographic material, and it can show a general picture of a research field (Merigo & Yang, 2017). Bibliometric analysis is a valuable research tool that can systematically represent the nature of specific scientific disciplines by highlighting critical research points and identifying research trends (Zhang et al., 2016).

Some research has used Bibliometric analysis as a method to indicate trends in different areas, for example: Lopez-Fernandez, Serrano-Bedia, & Perez-Perez (2016) applied bibliometric indicators in an in-depth and systematic review of the theme of entrepreneurship in family businesses, identifying the most productive authors; through their co-citations and through co-word analysis, identified research trends in the subject. Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Bachrach (2008) used bibliometric techniques to examine 30 research journals in the field of administration, using the number of citations as a basis to determine the impact of research in a defined period of years.

Bibliometrics methods and visualization networks to analyze the publications of the Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems in the period 1993-2016 was presented by Wang et al. (2018) including a general overview of publications, authors, institutions and countries, which were the most relevant function of the number of citations. They also used the VOSviewer software for visualization of different connections between authors, journals and countries.

Ozkose & Gencer (2017) used the bibliometric mapping to analyze in depth Management Information Systems field. The expert opinion defined a sample of 24 journals, this journals of the sample were most important in the area, the bibliometric technique of co-occurrence analysis allowed to establish the most cited terms and keywords through the VOSviewer software that were represented in density maps for natural interpretation.

Mascarenhas, Marques, Galvao, & Santos (2017) based on a bibliometric study using the VOS viewer software to analyze the topic of the Entrepreneurial University based on research published in the WoS from 1900 to the present, they determined the research opportunities for the area. Pecha & Vanecek (2015) conducted a bibliometric analysis of the research publications on the physiology field in the Czech Republic and Hungary. For this, they used the VOS viewer software and compared the directions of the research and topics of internal research in the area to the world trends.

A bibliometric study of publications in different databases in the last 70 years by Olczyk (2016) explained the state of the art of the international competitiveness in the discipline of economics. He used in its analysis, bibliometric indicators such as network citation analysis, key-routes main path, and term co-occurrence analysis.

Through of bibliometric citation and co-citation analysis, as well as content analysis of the literature, this article exposes the current situation of the publications on OC research and provide answers to the following question: What are the leading publications, authors and journals in the OC research in Business economics? How publications, authors and journal are a relationship in the OC research in Business economics?


The bibliographic search was conducted in the Web of Science Core Collection database. This database has been widely used in academic research (Caputo, Marzi, Pellegrini, & Rialti, 2018; Castillo-Vergara, Alvarez-Marin, & Placencio-Hidalgo, 2018; Caya & Neto, 2018; Mascarenhas et al., 2017; Merigo & Yang, 2017; Wang et al., 2018). Web of Science Core Collection database includes the Citation Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A & HCI), Book Citation Index-Science (BKCIS), Book Citation Index- Social Sciences & Humanities (BKCI-SSH), Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI).

First, the term “Organizational Culture” was used in a type of search by topic in WoS. The type of search by topic include the following fields to search for a record of the database: title, abstract, keywords of author and keywords plus. The search refined by research area (Business and Economics) and category of WoS (Management). The search was realized on October 18, 2018, and the range of time from 1980 to October 2018.

The second step was made from the data obtained in the search. A detailed analysis of the information provided by the WoS was made. The publications by year, publications and citations of the principal authors and journals, as well as the most cited articles over the years, were included in tables to facilitate the understanding of the topic.

For the analysis of the data obtained of the search was used the VOSviewer software. VOSviewer is a program that was developed for constructing and viewing bibliometric maps. VOSviewer can, for example, be used to construct maps of authors or journals based on co-citation data or to construct maps of keywords based on co-occurrence data (van Eck & Waltman, 2010). VOSviewer software has been used to construct networks of scientific publications, scientific journals, researchers, research organizations, countries, keywords, or terms. Items in these networks can be connected by co-authorship, co-occurrence, citation, bibliographic coupling, or co-citation links (Caputo et al., 2018; Mascarenhas et al., 2017; Merigo & Yang, 2017; Ortiz-de-Urbina-Criado, Najera-Sanchez, & Mora-Valentin, 2018). For this work, the indicators of citation and co-citation were used to show the relationship between authors, journals and references of the publications obtunded from WoS.

Analysis of Results

Of the search in the WoS, 1936 scientific research publications were obtained, Table 1 shows the distribution of the publications by type of document. Articles are the most important type of document within of the publications; it represents 89.5% of the total of publications of the database in OC in the category of Management in Business Economic research area.

Table 1 Publications of WoS on OC Management Category of Business economics Research area, (1980-2018) 

Document Type TP Document Type TP
Article 1734 Book 14
Book Chapter 147 Correction 3
Review 113 Correction Addition 1
Proceedings Paper 45 Meeting Abstract 1
Book Review 38 Note 1
Editorial Material 31 Reprint 1

TP: Total Publications

In the other hand, the amount of publications on OC in the WoS from 1994 to the present day is shown in Table 2. In this table, a column specifies the number of total of publications on OC by year in WoS, another column indicates the number of publications on OC in the Management category of Business Economic research area. Although publications of OC is extensive: Over the years, the publications on OC in Management category of Business economics have obtained, in certain years (1995, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2011), more than 40% of the total of publications of the WoS. In annual average, the publications in OC, in the mentioned category and research area, are approximately 33% of the total of publications of the WoS on the subject. The distribution of publications generated over time shows the growing trend of publications on OC. Evolution of the research in the area of OC is shown in Figure 1.

Table 2 Total publications on OC in Web of Science (1980-2018) 

Year T/P WoS T/P Category
%   Year T/P WoS T/P Category
1995 47 19 40.43 2007 177 44 24.86
1996 63 26 41.27 2008 234 78 33.33
1997 58 21 36.21 2009 272 97 35.66
1998 69 26 37.68 2010 326 111 34.05
1999 76 32 42.11 2011 340 147 43.24
2000 105 35 33.33 2012 355 125 35.21
2001 75 28 37.33 2013 350 86 24.57
2002 104 36 34.62 2014 316 94 29.75
2003 134 57 42.54 2015 567 150 26.46
2004 128 29 22.66 2016 623 171 27.45
2005 133 38 28.57 2017 688 201 29.22
2006 173 54 31.21   2018 497 134 26.96

Figure 1 Evolution of Scientific Research in the Field of Organizational culture (1980-2018) 

The total of publications of the WoS on OC increased steadily from 1994 to 2001, it relapses and then in 2002, it recovered and continued with a growth trend until 2012. In 2013, there was a decrease in the number of publications that continued in 2014. In the last three years (2015, 2016 and 2017) there was a significant increase in publications (more than 50%) compared to 2012, which was the year most productive in publications.

The term “Organizational Culture” was used in a type of search by topic in WoS. Here, 6338 scientific research publications were identified. Next, for a refined search in the area of research Business economics in the Management category, 1936 publications were obtained of WoS database. For these publications, 3819 authors were obtained and, 407 journals were identified. Finally, the number total of cited references in these publications is equivalent to 82597 references.

Bibliometric analysis indicated the most productive authors on OC in the Management category of Business Economics research area. Ogbona, Harris, and Denison are the authors with most publications in this category. In another hand, if productivity is based on the measurement of citations of authors have in WoS, Chatman, Cadwell, and Oreily would take the places 1, 2, 3, in the area of research (Table 3).

Table 3 Top 30 authors, number of publications and citations in the WoS on OC in Management category of Business 

R Autor TP TC R Autor TP TC
1 Ogbonna, E 13 515 1 Chatman, J 5 2353
2 Harris, L 10 553 2 Caldwell, D 2 1475
3 Denison, D 7 1188 3 Oreilly, C 1 1445
4 Schultz, M 7 886 4 Denison, D 7 1188
5 Chatman, J 5 2353 5 Barney, J 1 1121
6 Hatch, M 5 891 6 Hatch, M 5 891
7 Schroeder, R 5 517 7 Schultz, M 7 886
8 Hofstede, G 5 427 8 Shenkar, O 4 863
9 Shenkar, O 4 863 9 Kunda, G 3 854
10 Cable, D 4 598 10 Mcsweeney, B 2 852
11 Weber, Y 4 445 11 Schein, E 3 788
12 Kunda, G 3 854 12 Lado, A 1 758
13 Schein, E 3 788 13 Wilson, M 1 758
14 Lubatkin, M 3 516 14 Barkema, H 2 686
15 Gordon, G 3 419 15 Vermeulen, F 2 686
16 Ravasi, D 3 404 16 De Long, D 1 622
17 Caldwell, D 2 1475 17 Fahey, L 1 622
18 Mcsweeney, B 2 852 18 Burnett, D 1 619
19 Barkema, H 2 686 19 Tett, R 1 619
20 Vermeulen, F 2 686 20 Cable, D 4 598
21 Kayworth, T 2 579 21 Kayworth, T 2 579
22 Leidner, D 2 579 22 Leidner, D 2 579
23 Barsade, S 2 562 23 Barsade, S 2 562
24 Jehn, K 2 536 24 Barley, S 1 555
25 Jarvenpaa, S 2 459 25 Harris, L 10 553
26 Fombrun, C 2 417 26 Mishra, A 1 548
27 Neale, M 2 407 27 Jehn, K 2 536
28 Oreilly, C 1 1445 28 Schroeder, R 5 517
29 Barney, J 1 1121 29 Lubatkin, M 3 516
30 Lado, A 1 758 30 Ogbonna, E 13 515

R: Ranking, TP: Total Publications, TC: Total Citation

Figure 2 shows the map network of citation between the authors based on the number of publications for the author in the database; where we can easily interpret the existing relationship in the publications of the authors. The type of color and the distance between the bubbles in the graph indicate the relationship among the authors. The bubbles of the same color reflect greater strength among the authors then they represent and the lines indicate that exist a relationship between the citations of the authors. The relatedness of the authors is determined based on the number of times they cite each other.

Figure 2 Network map, authors whit more publications in WoS in Organizational culture in Management category of Business economics research area 

The network map of the citations between the authors is shown in Figure 3. Network map is based on the number of citations of the authors in the WoS in OC in the Management category in the Business economics research area. The lines show the connections that exist between the authors, as in the previous figure, the bubbles of the same color represent greater strength between the author's citations and the lines indicate that there is a citation between the authors that connects.

Figure 3 Network map of authors more cited in Web of Science in OC Research in the Management category of Business economics (1980-2018) 

The analysis of the publications selected on OC in the Management category of Business economics research areas provided information for the elaboration of Table 4. These tables contain the 40 most cited publications in the WoS on the subject. Also in the table, we can find the ranking in which the publication is, its authors, the name and the date of the scientific journal where it was published. The number of citations that have the publications in the WoS and the number of average citations per year is critical information is easy to obtain from the tables.

Table 4 Most cited publications in the WoS on OC in Management Category of Business economics research area (1980-2018) 

R Title Autor Source Y TC TC/Y
1 People and organizational culture - a profile comparison approach to
assessing person-organization fit
Oreilly, CA; Chatman, J; Caldwell, DF Academy of Management J. 1991 1445 51.6
2 Organizational culture - can it be a source of sustained
competitive advantage
Barney, JB Academy of Management R. 1986 1121 34
3 Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their
consequences: A triumph of faith - a failure of analysis
McSweeney, B Human Relations 2002 779 45.8
4 Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous
conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences
Shenkar, O Journal of International B. 2001 775 43.1
5 Human-resource systems and sustained competitive
advantage - a competence-based perspective
Lado, AA; Wilson, MC Academy of Management Review 1994 758 30.3
6 Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management De Long, DW; Fahey, L Academy of Management E. 2000 622 32.7
7 A personality trait-based interactionist model
of job performance
Tett, RP; Burnett, DD Journal of Applied Psychology 2003 619 38.7
8 The antecedents of deinstitutionalization Oliver, C Organization Studies 1992 610 22.6
9 What is the difference between organizational culture and
organizational climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars
Denison, DR Academy of Management R. 1996 578 25.1
10 Design and devotion - surges of rational and normative
ideologies of control in managerial discourse
Barley, SR; Kunda, G Administrative Science Q. 1992 555 20.6
11 Toward a theory of organizational culture and
Denison, DR; Mishra, AK Organization Science 1995 548 22.8
12 Toward a theory of spiritual leadership Fry, LW Leadership Quarterly 2003 473 29.6
13 Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture Schein, EH Sloan Management Review 1984 453 12.9
14 Organizational culture as a source of high-reliability Weick, KE California Management R. 1987 444 13.9
15 Review: A review of culture in information systems research:
Toward a theory of information technology culture conflict
Leidner, DE; Kayworth, T Mis Quarterly 2006 427 32.9
16 Learning through acquisitions Vermeulen, F; Barkema, H Academy of Management Journal 2001 425 23.6
17 Corporate responsibility and financial performance: the role of
intangible resources
Surroca, Jordi; Tribo, Josep A.; Waddock, Sandra Strategic Management Journal 2010 412 45.8
18 Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and
work outcomes: a meta-analytic review
Parker, CP; Baltes, BB; Young, SA; Huff, JW; Altmann, RA; Lacost, HA; Roberts, JE Journal of Organizational B. 2003 404 25.3
19 Culture and congruence: The fit between management
practices and national culture
Newman, KL; Nollen, SD Journal of International Business Studies 1996 404 17.6
20 The dynamics of organizational culture Hatch, MJ Academy of Management Review 1993 377 14.5
21 Responding to organizational identity threats:
Exploring the role of organizational culture
Ravasi, Davide; Schultz, Majken Academy of Management Journal 2006 365 28.1
22 Innovation management measurement: A review Adams, R; Bessant, J; Phelps, R International Journal of Man. Rs 2006 357 27.5
23 The cross-level effects of culture and climate
in human service teams
Glisson, C; James, LR Journal of Organizational B. 2002 344 20.2
24 Climate strength: A new direction for climate research Schneider, B; Salvaggio, AN; Subirats, M Journal of Applied Psychology 2002 340 20
25 Being different yet feeling similar: The influence of
demographic composition and organizational culture on work processes and outcomes
Chatman, JA; Polzer, JT; Barsade, SG; Neale, MA Administrative Science Quarterly 1998 340 16.2
26 The role of the founder in creating organizational culture Schein, EH Organizational Dynamics 1983 325 9.03
27 Superman or the fantastic four? Knowledge combination
and experience in innovative teams
Taylor, Alva; Greve, Henrich R. Academy of Management Journal 2006 314 24.2
28 Cultural-differences and shareholder value in related
mergers - linking equity and human-capital
Chatterjee, S; Lubatkin, MH; Schweiger, DM; Weber, Y Strategic Management Journal 1992 310 11.5
29 Applicant personality, organizational culture,
and organization attraction
Judge, TA; Cable, DM Personnel Psychology 1997 306 13.9
30 The dynamics of organizational identity Hatch, MJ; Schultz, M Human Relations 2002 296 17.4
31 Real feelings - emotional expression and organizational culture Vanmaanen, J; Kunda, G Research in Organizational B. 1989 295 9.83
32 A framework for linking culture and
improvement initiatives in organizations
Detert, JR; Schroeder, RG; Mauriel, JJ Academy of Management R. 2000 288 15.2
33 Accounting for the contradictory organizational consequences of
information technology: Theoretical directions
and methodological implications
Robey, D; Boudreau, MC Information Systems Research 1999 283 14.2
34 Motivation to lead, motivation to follow: The role of the self-regulatory focus
in leadership processes
Kark, Ronit; Van Dijk, Dina Academy of Management R. 2007 272 22.7
35 An empirical investigation of the process of knowledge transfer in international
strategic alliances
Simonin, BL Journal of International Business Studies 2004 271 18.1
36 Assessing the relationship between industry characteristics and organizational
culture - how difference can you be
Chatman, JA; Jehn, KA Academy of Management Journal 1994 271 10.8
37 Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for
international business research
Welch, C; Piekkari, R; Plakoyiannaki, E; Paavilainen-Mantymaki, Journal of International Business Studies 2011 270 33.8
38 Managing the post-acquisition integration process:
How the human integration and task integration processes
interact to foster value creation
Birkinshaw, J; Bresman, H; Hakanson, L Journal of Management Studies 2000 270 14.2
39 To agree or not to agree: The effects of value congruence,
individual demographic dissimilarity,
and conflict on workgroup outcomes
Jehn, KA; Chadwick, C; Thatcher, SMB International Journal of Conflict Management 1997 265 12.1
40 Behavioral norms and expectations - a quantitative approach
to the assessment of organizational culture
Cooke, RA; Rousseau, DM Group & Organization Studies 1988 265 8.55

R: Ranking, Y: Year, T/C: Total Citations, C/Y: Citation/Year

The network map of most cited publication in WoS on OC in Management category in Business economics research area is shown in Figure 4. The network map presents the connection between the 40 most cited publications. Oreilly (1991) and Barney (1986) are the authors of the publications with the highest number of citations. Eight groups of different colors were formed; these groups have a significant relationship with each other.

Figure 4 Network map of the publications most cited, Management category, Business economics, Organizational Culture, Web of Science 

A brief analysis of the most productive sources in the research of the OC in the category of Management in Business economics of the WoS is shown in Table 5. In this table, the ranking of the primary 25 sources is shown based on the number of citations that accumulates in the WoS. Also based on the number of publications they have in the database above, another ranking is presented in the same table. The comparison between the two rankings allows establishing that despite having 16 publications in the database identified by the search, Academy of Management Review presents the highest number of citations (4488 citations), in contrast, Journal of Organizational Change Management with 68 publications only has 1015 citations. Academy of Management Review regarding publications in WoS is ranked 13th and Journal of Organizational Change Management ranked 15th regarding citations. The above shows the contrast between publications and citations of the sources.

Table 5 Sources more important in OC of WoS in Management category of Business economics (1980-2018)  

R Source TP TC R Source TP TC
1 Academy of Management Review 16 4488 1 Journal of Organizational Change Management 68 1016
2 Human Relations 64 3561 2 Human Relations 64 3561
3 Academy of Management Journal 12 3430 3 International Journal of Human Resource Management 56 1185
4 Journal of International Business Studies 18 2950 4 Organization Studies 45 2463
5 Organization Studies 45 2463 5 Journal of Knowledge Management 33 764
6 Administrative Science Quarterly 21 2336 6 Management Decision 33 592
7 Organization Science 27 2277 7 Journal of Management Studies 31 1866
8 Strategic Management Journal 12 2156 8 International Journal of Operations & Production Management 28 913
9 Journal of Management Studies 31 1866 9 Organization Science 27 2277
10 Journal of Applied Psychology 12 1785 10 Industrial Marketing Management 26 726
11 Journal of Organizational Behavior 15 1358 11 Administrative Science Quarterly 21 2336
12 Leadership Quarterly 13 1300 12 Journal of International Business Studies 18 2950
13 International Journal of Human Resource Management 56 1185 13 Academy of Management Review 16 4488
14 Sloan Management Review 6 1059 14 Journal of Organizational Behavior 15 1358
15 Journal of Organizational Change Management 68 1016 15 Leadership Quarterly 13 1300
16 Decision Sciences 11 918 16 Academy of Management Journal 12 3430
17 International Journal of Operations & Production Management 28 913 17 Strategic Management Journal 12 2156
18 Academy of Management Executive 7 843 18 Journal of Applied Psychology 12 1785
19 Mis Quarterly 6 810 19 Decision Sciences 11 918
20 Journal of Knowledge Management 33 764 20 Technovation 10 739
21 Technovation 10 739 21 Academy of Management Executive 7 843
22 Industrial Marketing Management 26 726 22 Journal of Operations Management 7 718
23 Journal of Operations Management 7 718 23 Sloan Management Review 6 1059
24 International Journal of Management Reviews 5 635 24 Mis Quarterly 6 810
25 Management Decision 33 592 25 International Journal of Management Reviews 5 635

R: Ranking, TP: Total Publications, TC: Total

Network map between the sources based on the number o publications in OC research in Management category in Bussines Economics is presented in Figure 5.. Network map of sources, but, based on the number of citations that are present in the WoS on the subject of the analysis is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 5 Network map of the more productive sources of publications on OC research in Management category of Business economics (1980-2018) 

Figure 6 Network map of the more productive sources of publications on OC Management category of Business economics (1980-2018) 

The co-citation analysis of cited references indicates the number of times that two references are cited at the same time in a publication. In this case, Schein (1985), Schein (1992), Hofstede (1980), Oreilly (1991) and Smircich (1983) present the highest number of citations in the total of publications analyzed. The Table 6 showing the main cited references of OC in Management category in Business economics. The column of the table "total link strength" shows the strength of the relationship exists in the co-citation of the references, that is, among the 25 references that the table contains, as is the co-citation between them in the publications analyzed.

Table 6 Main cited references of OC in Management category in Business economics 

Label T/O TLS
1 Schein E. H., 1985, Org Culture Leadersh 246 642
2 Hofstede G, 1990, Admin Sci Quart, V35, P286. 170 623
3 Oreilly Ca, 1991, Acad Manage J, V34, P487. 190 613
4 Smircich L, 1983, Admin Sci Quart, V28, P339. 173 598
5 Schein E., 1992, Org Culture Leadersh 194 558
6 Barney Jb, 1986, Acad Manage Rev, V11, P656. 156 554
7 Kotter Jp, 1992, Corporate Culture Pe 133 538
8 Denison Dr, 1995, Organ Sci, V6, P204. 119 532
9 Hofstede G. H., 1980, Cultures Consequence 194 532
10 Pettigrew Am, 1979, Admin Sci Quart, V24, P570. 118 518
11 Schein Eh, 1990, Am Psychol, V45, P109. 157 452
12 Denison Dr, 1990, Corporate Culture Or 95 434
13 Deal T., 1982, Corporate Cultures R 89 404
14 Hatch Mj, 1993, Acad Manage Rev, V18, P657. 107 378
15 Hofstede G., 2001, Cultures Consequence 142 351
16 Martin J., 1992, Cultures Org 3 Persp 92 349
17 Denison Dr, 1996, Acad Manage Rev, V21, P619. 88 341
18 Quinn Re, 1983, Manage Sci, V29, P363. 101 320
19 Podsakoff Pm, 2003, J Appl Psychol, V88, P879. 134 314
20 Peters T.J., 1982, Search Of Excellence 95 301
21 Barney J, 1991, J Manage, V17, P99. 123 290
22 Fornell C, 1981, J Marketing Res, V18, P39 125 269
23 Baron Rm, 1986, J Pers Soc Psychol, V51, P1173 92 251
24 Schein E, 2004, Org Culture Leadersh 101 245
25 Nonaka I., 1995, Knowledge Creating C 88 119

T/O: Total Occurrences, TLS: Total Link Strength

Figure 7 presents the network map formed by the co-citations of the references of the publications of the WoS database on OC in Management category. Each color of bubbles represents different strength of co-citation between the references that make up the group of bubbles of the same color. Three groups were formed in which, Schein. (1985), Schein, (1992), Barney (1986) represent the references with the greatest strength of link in the groups of colored bubbles (green, blue and red respectively). The above indicates that these references with the most active link, are the most co-cited references about the rest of the other references in the database analyzed.

Figure 7 Network map of most co-cited references in Organizational culture of WoS in Management category of Business economics (1980-2018) 

Discussion and Conclusion

Analyzing information derived of all research considered in this article allowed to answer questions presented in reference to knowing who are most cited publications, authors, and sources that had generated knowledge on the subject. Additionally, the co-citation analysis provides an overview useful for researchers interested in the area, offering valuable information for their work.

The bibliometric analysis showed that the Organizational Culture (OC) is maintained as a wealthy research area. The analysis of the 40 most cited publications in WoS on OC in Management of Business economics research area, allows recognizing that new researchers have emerged in the area, generating publications and citations that demonstrate the growth of the research area.

Ogbonna, Harris, and Denison, are the authors with the mayor number of publications of OC in Management in Business economics research area, but they are not the most cited. The authors most cited are Chatman, Caldwell, and Oreilly. The results of the present research concur with Lopez-Fernandez, Serrano-Bedia, & Perez-Perez (2016) who express: "the most productive authors and journals do not necessarily coincide with those most cited.”

The analysis of co-citations of the references and their VOSviewer map allows us to observe that the oldest and most important reference for their number of citations is Pettigrew (1979). Schein is the author of cited references with the highest number of occurrences, he presents three important base publications distributed in time (1985, 1992 and 2004).

Schein, Hofstede, and Denison present three publications within the 25 most co-cited references each; they are the principal founding authors of OC in the Management of Business economics research area.

It is important to point out that the network maps made by VOSviewer allow observing the interaction that all the selected authors have in the database, showing a great connection of the researchers, promoting the advance on research.

One of the limitations of our research is to consider only the publications in the database of the Web of Science; there are probably publications in other databases that could enrich this study. On the other hand, the research is limited to a category in a research area, a bibliometric analysis that includes all the research areas of OC would provide a broader point of view.


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Received: January 19, 2019; Accepted: March 15, 2019

* Autor para correspondencia: José Efrén Leyva Duarte, E-mail:

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