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Agricultura, sociedad y desarrollo

versión impresa ISSN 1870-5472

agric. soc. desarro vol.15 no.2 Texcoco abr./jun. 2018



Contribution of International Instruments and Voluntary Regulations: University Training in Environmental Education in Engineering Branches in Argentina

Clara M. Minaverry1  * 

Teresa Gally2 

1Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales Ambrosio Lucas Gioja, Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Argentina. (

2Departamento de Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Luján. Ingeniera Agrónoma (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Especialista en ingeniería en calidad (Universidad Tecnológica Nacional). Argentina (


The objective of this study is to expose the central aspects described by a selection of international instruments, whose contents justify the incorporation of “environmental education” in programs of different university careers, especially in those linked to the productive scope, as is the case of engineering branches. Our working hypothesis is based on the fact that all the concepts that derive from such instruments (about sustainability, clean production and environmental education) are fundamental to achieve an integral training of professionals. In this sense, those that graduate from university careers and graduate studies that are linked to these areas are habitually in charge of implementing a series of productive processes, whose execution involves different decisions in relation to the application of sustainable or non-sustainable practices. This is a study of an exploratory nature; its structure is biological-documental and descriptive, and the methodology used is qualitative. The hermeneutics of normative texts and public documents is used as analysis technique. As conclusion, it is considered to be fundamental to understand the voluntary norms on social responsibility, since these can cover some legal lapses, or else, complement the current regulations.

Key words: international law; production; social responsibility; sustainability; university


El objetivo de este trabajo es exponer los aspectos centrales descriptos por una selección de instrumentos internacionales, cuyos contenidos justifican la incorporación de la “educación ambiental” en los programas de las diferentes carreras universitarias, en especial en las vinculadas con el ámbito productivo, como es el caso de las ingenierías. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo se basa en que todos los conceptos que se derivan de dichos instrumentos (sobre sostenibilidad, producción limpia y educación ambiental) son fundamentales para lograr una formación integral de los profesionales. En este sentido, los egresados de carreras universitarias y de posgrado que se vinculan con estas áreas habitualmente se encuentran a cargo de implementar una serie de procesos productivos, cuya ejecución involucra diversas decisiones en relación con la aplicación de prácticas sostenibles o no sostenibles. Se trata de una investigación de carácter exploratorio; su estructura es de tipo bibliográfico-documental y descriptiva, y la metodología utilizada es cualitativa. Como técnica de análisis se utiliza a la hermenéutica de textos normativos y de documentos públicos. A modo de conclusión se considera fundamental conocer las normas voluntarias sobre reponsabilidad social, ya que estas pueden cubrir algunas lagunas jurídicas, o bien, complementar las normativas vigentes.

Palabras clave: derecho internacional; producción; responsabilidad social; sostenibilidad; universidad


Since the decade of the 1970s, we have observed that treatment of the environmental problematic was installed in the international agenda, although it was addressed by focusing in virtue of two processes that are intimately linked: the growing deterioration and exhaustion of natural resources, and the expansion of socio-environmental conflicts.

Within this context, at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment celebrated in Stockholm in 1972, it was observed that the environmental issue took on importance and became institutionalized in global political spheres. The undeniable and unavoidable phenomenon of globalization favored for there to be a greater understanding of environmental conflicts, as is the case with climate change, while the Kyoto Protocol established the principle of “common responsibilities, although differentiated” for the different countries of the world. For this reason, it was fostered for leaders of all countries of the world to meet, to set conditions, and among all to improve the global economic, environmental and social situation, tending to balance all countries in the world relatively (Minaverry, 2013).

At the end of the 20th century, and at the beginning of the 21st century, the “environmental issue” gave place to the development of the following United Nations conferences: Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) agreed upon the Rio Declaration; the Johannesburg Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, where the Action Plan and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development were signed; and, more recently, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development “Rio+20” celebrated in 2012, where Resolution 66/288 was signed, The future we want. In this way, these international agreements have committed efforts from the signing States that tend to protect the environment, mitigate the impacts and/or remedy the damage caused through the sanction of legal norms.

Along with the events mentioned, environmental law has been shaped and consolidated in Argentina as an autonomous discipline, independent of other legal branches, and which “has the aim of studying the relationships of man with nature, insofar as it allows establishing this relationship clearly in the action of man on the environment, in terms of his anthropic activities of modification of his environment in the interest of satisfying his own needs for food, housing and development” (Pigretti, 2000). This definition clearly poses an anthropocentric approach while a good is worth insomuch as it serves man, without recognizing a value of “non-use” (Laterra et al., 2011). This conception has already been surpassed by others that visualize ecosystems as a whole and not just with the aim of providing benefits to human beings through the mere use of their natural resources. Currently, there is a tendency to implement a systemic and integral environmental legal protection, as is the case of the recognition of the existence of environmental services in the national law of minimal budgets for the protection of native forests N° 26.331 of Argentina.

At the local level, the constitutional recognition of the environmental paradigm in 1994 consolidated “sustainable development” as one of its basic principles and agreed upon the obligation of passing the necessary laws for the protection of natural resources. The first paragraph of Article 41 of Argentina’s National Constitution establishes the following:

“All inhabitants have the right to a healthy, balanced environment, apt for human development and for productive activities to satisfy the needs present without compromising those of future generations, and have the duty to preserve it. Environmental damage will generate principally the obligation of repairing, according to law.”

In turn, Environmental Education can be defined as the redirection and articulation of various educational disciplines and experiences that ease the integrated perception of the environment, making a more rational action possible and capable of responding to social needs. It has the main objective of transmitting knowledge, forming values, and developing competencies and behaviors that can favor the understanding and solution of environmental problems (Giuffré, 2004).

Environmental education has already been recognized and integrated into various local legal regulations, as is the case of article 2003 of the Constitution of the Province of Buenos Aires, in articles 14 and 15 of the general environmental law N° 25.6764, and in article 5 of the integral law of the environment in the Province of Buenos Aires N° 11.7235.

Likewise, the contribution of Social Responsibility implies the continuous commitment of an organization to behave in an ethical manner, and to collaborate with economic development and with the improvement of the community’s quality of life. Also, it attempts to ensure that all organizations comply fully with their values (which must be established and exposed publicly), so that they can be applied in relation to all the social actors.

However, all of this must be articulated within the context of an agricultural country that depends on the extraction of its natural resources (as is the case of Argentina), where the agrifood and industrial sectors play a fundamental role in the economic scenario, the same as in projections regarding demographic growth, sustainability of cities, and in relation to poverty reduction.

The Strategic Agrifood and Agroindustrial Participative and Federal Plan 2010-2020 (Plan Estratégico Agroalimentario y Agroindustrial Participativo y Federal 2010-2020), (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, s/f6) has the objective of increasing production and adding value at origin to ensure dietary sovereignty and increase the external sales, committing all the relevant actors of the agrifood or agroindustrial sector (Minaverry and Gally, 2014). To fulfill this plan, products with added value should be obtained, which ought to be obtained through the application of an approach derived from the implementation of interdisciplinary work.

In turn, the National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Technology (Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria) establishes that agricultural and livestock, forestry, and agroindustrial enterprises are inserted in a geographic territory, characterized by a base of specific natural resources, local identity (history and culture) where social, institutional and organizational relationships make up a socio-institutional fabric or framework (Consejo Profesional Ingeniería Agronómica, 2014). In this context, it can be observed clearly that social problems have been incorporated into the scope of Argentinian agricultural and livestock production.

Analyzing these postures linked to the productive approach, it is possible to surmise that currently there is reference not only to the management of technical issues, but that the social problematic has also been included within the scope of the work of professionals in charge of decision making. Likewise, some authors have established that graduate studies in environmental matters are focused on four lines: environmental and ecological monitoring and analysis, planning. Graduate studies, engineering and bachelor’s degrees are focused primarily on earth sciences, complemented with some courses in administration or environmental policy, and a few approach economics, sociology or anthropology (Carrizosa, 2007).

The objective of this study is to expose the central aspects described by a selection of international instruments, whose contents justify the incorporation of “environmental education” into the programs of university careers, especially those linked to the productive area, as is the case of engineering branches.

Our working hypothesis is based on the idea that all concepts that are derived from such instruments (about sustainability, clean production and environmental education) are fundamental to achieve an integral training of professionals. In this sense, graduates from university careers and graduate studies who are linked with these areas are habitually in charge of implementing a series of productive processes, whose execution involves various decisions in relation to the application of sustainable or unsustainable practices.

Methodology and Justification of the Study

This is research of an exploratory nature; its structure is bibliographic-documental and descriptive, and the methodology used is qualitative. Various sources and data collection techniques have been used and academic studies, statistical information, legal sources, official and public materials were consulted. The hermeneutics of normative texts and public documents has been used as analysis technique.

The temporal scope selected for the analysis of international instruments and voluntary and mandatory regulations covers from 1972 until today, since in that year the Stockholm Declaration was made within the sphere of the United Nations Conference for the Human Environment, establishing the direct responsibility of man in relation to the state in which the environment is found.

The main justification for the elaboration of this study lies in that a lack of training and environmental education has been detected in local communities and, especially, in students of degree careers (university levels and linked to the productive area). This has been one of the greatest weaknesses detected at the national level and it has been seen in the teaching sphere for degree and graduate studies of public and private universities in Argentina during the period of ten years (2007-2017).

This reality makes the comprehension of global aspects of the courses taught in the careers of Agronomic Engineering (Integrated management of pests) difficult, as well as in master’s programs in quality engineering and specializations about hygiene, safety and environmental protection regarding which information will be provided directly from the authors.

The students that attend these careers present different academic training, since they are interdisciplinary groups, mostly engineers, who ignore relevant aspects connected to environmental education and law, and to Social Responsibility. This situation, along with the low budget allotted to environmental education by public authorities, has maximized the problematic to the point where students ignore the central guidelines and existence of relevant and current regulations (as is the case of the national law for dangerous wastes N° 24.051, which has a legal penalizing regime), and which could gravely affect them personally.

Results and Discussion

Considerations about legal regulations on environmental education in the Argentinian scope

The former Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development of the Nation advanced with the elaboration of a National Strategy of Environmental Education starting in the year 2006. It was defined as the process that makes possible building in a participative manner the guidelines of the national policy on environmental education and which allows developing programs in a joint and coordinate manner with the official national, provincial and municipal shares, as well as with the NGOs linked to this subject.

This non-binding tool (since it is not a mandatory legal regulation) has an initial impact on the process that is being described as having as one of its objectives to elaborate, communicate and keep updated and available for their use a diagnostic study about the problematic of the environmental impact evaluation that contemplates the different realities in Argentina. In addition, there was the purpose of identifying needs, interests and priorities of the country referring to the key actors and groups through community participation and ensuring the right of access to the information related with environmental education for all the social sectors.

One of the fundamental aims of environmental education is to achieve the understanding by both individuals and communities of the complex nature of the environment (which results from the interaction of its different aspects: physical, biological, social, cultural, economic, among others), and to acquire the knowledge, values and practical abilities to participate responsibly and efficiently in the prevention and solution of environmental problems and in the management of the environment’s quality (Martínez Huerta, s/f).

All of this had been incorporated into the National Strategy for Environmental Education, which was not replicated in a mandatory legal regulation, since the law projects that were negotiated before the Congress of the Nation systematically lost the parliamentary status (that is, they were not approved within the lapse of two years).

In turn, at the initial educational level the subject “Environmental Education” has not yet been incorporated as mandatory within the official curriculum, which is why there are also not many records of material production linked to it. At the same time, when there is reference to higher levels of education or research in this area, the trend observed in most of the cases is the scarce transference of knowledge from the scientific community towards society.

In their turn, the trend observed by Argentinian Environmental Law is to legally protect the water resources and the forests separately (Minaverry, 2011), except for the isolated and recent normative and jurisprudence exceptions. That is, normative mechanisms have been set up that regulate in a sectorial way the uses, protection and remediation, on the one hand, in terms of water resources, and on the other hand forests, as it happens with other natural resources. This is observed not only in the normative aspect but rather in the organizational management mechanism that sustains and fixes what is stipulated in the current regulations, characterized by a set of ministries, secretariats, organizations and public entities, which is replicated in the programs that are developed and implemented.

It is known that the public sector, NGOs, educational institutions, communication media, as well as the population at large have a very important role with regards to the diffusion and education in this area. All of these collectively must impose pressure to tend to achieve the objective (Nelliyat and Ambujan, 2011). Another point to consider is Professional Councils, which should also be involved within the sphere of the responsibility of the exercise of professions that they represent.

The contribution of voluntary regulations: Social Responsibility

The regulations and ISO guides describe a methodology that tends to the continuous improvement of processes to increase the performance of the organization and to benefit the parts interested. These are voluntary and certifiable regulations (except in the case of the ISO 26,000 guide), which ensure a real control by a recognized third part and serve to clearly identify the processes, problems and to provide the opportunities for improvement when detecting non-conformities and to lead in the way of acting.

Figure 1 will try to explain, only informatively, how sustainable productions are related to quality management (Gally and Giachino, 2014).

Source: Gally T., Giachino, M. V., 2014.

Figure 1 Aspects of sustainable production. 

In Argentina there are scarce mandatory regulations that center their attention in the respect of ethical matters and there are also legal lapses in the regulation of control mechanisms for public actions (Minaverry y Gally, 2013). Then, in relation to the current and mandatory regulations for our country and which are linked to Social Responsibility, we can state that these have not incorporated yet all the fundamental concepts of voluntary regulations highlighted in the study. In this sense, at the national level the following laws can be mentioned: N° 24,127 (National Quality Award), N° 25,855 (Social Voluntary Work), and article 25 of Law N° 25,877 (Social Balance), which partially regulate some aspects linked to social responsibility. Likewise, in the sphere of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires there are regulations with similar concepts.

In turn, it should be highlighted that Argentina has ratified various international instruments and which, according to our legal system, these have been incorporated as internal regulations through the dictates of national laws. This is the case of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Pact of Civil and Political Rights, the International Pact of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, among others. Through the analysis of the current ISO 26,000 guide various contact points can be detected with the foundations and principles of these international instruments.

For the case of Social Responsibility, the points and refer to the sustainable use of natural resources, the actions and the expectations linked directly to the theme of this study. This norm was published in the month of November 2010 and covers in its totality the three areas on which “Sustainable Development” focuses (Minaverry, López and Gally, 2012).

Point 6.8.4., called issue 2, about active participation and community development: education and culture, suggests that education and culture constitute the basis of social and economic development, and are part of the community identity. The preservation and promotion of a culture and of education taking into account the fulfillment of human rights can have a positive impact promoting social cohesion and development. In addition, an organization should promote and support education at all levels and become involved in actions that improve the quality and access to it, and in turn, promote local knowledge.

Point 6.8.5., called issue 3, about active participation and community development: creation of employment and development of abilities, establishes that with the creation of employment all the organizations can make a contribution to poverty reduction and to the promotion of economic and social development. The development of abilities is an essential component of the promotion of employment and of support to people to ensure decent and productive jobs.

Point 6.8.6., called issue 4, about active participation and community development: development and access to technology, states that “organizations can contribute to the development of the communities in which they operate applying knowledge, abilities and specialized technologies, in a manner that promotes the development of human resources and the diffusion of technology.” Access to information is something key to overcome the disparities present between countries, regions, generations, genders, among others.

Point 6.8.9., called issue 7, about active participation and community development, establishes that “social investment appears when organizations invest in initiatives and programs directed at improving social aspects of life in the community. The types of social investments could include projects related to education, training, culture, health care, income generation, among other issues.

Then, point establishes that environmental responsibility turns out to be prior to the survival and prosperity of human beings. It refers specifically to “environmental education” and to the fact that creating capacity is fundamental to promote the development of societies and sustainable lifestyles. This is based on the fact that there are currently various environmental challenges (such as climate change), which will need to be faced by trained citizens with an approach directed at integral environmental protection.

In this sense, organizations should also promote the active participation of the community in the design and the implementation of projects, since this entails potentiating synergies in structural terms and also those that can tend to the interrelation between productive and non-productive activities (links between agriculture, industry and services).

It is important to highlight that in previous studies it has been determined, through the analysis of current environmental legal texts and the same guide ISO 26,000, that the latter adopted various principles included in the Argentinian mandatory environmental laws that had already been dictated before (Minaverry, Gally and Pantuso, 2016).

Analysis of a selection of international environmental and social instruments

a) The Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015)

At the United Nations headquarters in New Yok, in September 2000, the Millennium Summit was celebrated, where 147 Heads of State and of Government participated and 189 State Members of the United Nations. The world leaders united there agreed to respond to some of the most important challenges of the 21st century through the declaration of measurable objectives and goals to be fulfilled by the year 2015.

Its goal was to commit the countries to take new measures and combine efforts in the fight against poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, inequality between genders, child and maternal mortality, disease and degradation of the environment. Likewise, the last goal urges the rich countries to adopt measures to relieve external debt, increase economic assistance, and allow the poorest countries access to markets and technology (Giuffré, 2004).

Within these goals, the ones that provide an important contribution to the theme of analysis should be highlighted:

Goal 2: Achieving universal primary education

Although it does not refer specifically to environmental education, it proposes ensuring that in 2015 boys and girls throughout the world can finish a complete cycle of primary education.

Goal 7: Ensuring the sustainability of the environment

The specific goals were those of incorporating the principles of sustainable development into national policies in order to decrease the loss of resources from the environment. However, the policies to fulfill the seventh goal regarding sustainability cannot omit an adequate environmental management of natural resources and a greater effort in the strengthening of education at all levels.

These goals ended in 2015, giving place to a final report of compliance, which in the face of scarce advance in the attainment of the objectives resulted in the elaboration of 17 new sustainable development goals which will be discussed next.

b) Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030)

One of the main advances implemented since the United Nations Rio Summit + 20 for Sustainable Development and in the document called “Transforming our world: Agenda 2030 for sustainable development” was that a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were included, and 169 goals proposed, to end poverty and hunger throughout the world by 2030, fighting inequalities inside countries and between them, and build peaceful societies, among other fundamental issues to improve the humanity’s quality of life (Minaverry y Martínez, 2016). In particular, it is relevant to highlight the following objectives that are linked directly to the guidelines presented in this study:

Objective 4: Ensuring an inclusive, equitable and quality education, and promoting learning opportunities throughout life for everyone:

One of the goals of this objective turns out to be very important, since by 2030 there is “the proposal to guarantee that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote “sustainable development”, among other tools, through education and adoption of sustainable lifestyles, respecting human rights, gender equality, promotion of a peace and non-violence culture, global citizenship, and valuation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development, among other media”.

Objective 9: Building resilient infrastructures, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and fostering innovation.

Its goals are focused on promoting an inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and by 2030 at the latest, increasing significantly the industry’s contribution to employment and to the gross domestic product, according to the national circumstances, and duplicating this contribution in the least developed countries.

Likewise, improving the infrastructure by 2030 is proposed and readjusting industries for them to be sustainable, using resources with higher efficacy and promoting the adoption of technologies and of clean and environmentally rational industrial processes, and attaining for all countries to adopt measures of agreement with their respective capacities.

Objective 12: Ensuring sustainable modalities of consumption and production.

The fundamental goals that are linked to this objective are the following: applying the Ten-year Framework of Programs on Modalities of Sustainable Consumption and Production, with the participation of all countries and under the leadership of developed countries, taking into account the degree of development and the capacities of developing countries.

By 2030, attaining sustainable management and the efficient use of natural resources, and by 2020 achieving the ecologically rational management of chemical products and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in compliance with the international frameworks agreed upon, and reducing significantly their liberation to the atmosphere, the water and the soil, with the aim of reducing to the minimum their adverse effects on human health and the environment.

c) Global Pact

The initiative of the Global Pact was presented by the General Secretary of the United Nations in the World Economic Forum in January 1999. The Global Pact is a voluntary initiative that attempts to promote social responsibility, that is, it is a voluntary declaration that covers different themes, in which an organization decides to adhere to ten principles and commits publicly to expose its results. In this sense, we will highlight the aspects that are linked to the thematic analyzed in this study:

Environmental sphere:

  • -To support the preventive approach in face of environmental challenges.

  • -To promote greater environmental responsibility.

  • -To foster the development and diffusion of technologies that are respectful of the environment.

The Global Pact can be seen as an instrument whose aim is to attain awareness and to act in the community linked to business (consumers, workers, competitors, providers, among others). In Argentina, it had broad acceptance7 and the following principles stand out within the environmental sphere, which in turn are expressed in other international instruments:

Principle 7: Support the preventive approach in face of environmental challenges

The Rio Declaration proposes an extremely important idea, which is maintaining a preventive approach in favor of environmental protection, which implies taking into account the risks that future generations will have to face if ecosystems are in danger.

Principle 8: Promote greater environmental responsibility

It refers to encouraging a higher responsibility with regards to the environment within the scope of influence of the organization.

Principle 9: Encourage the development and the diffusion of technologies respectful of the environment:

“The Agenda 21 mentions healthy environmental technologies such as those that protect the environment, contaminate less, use resources in a sustainable manner, recycle more their spills and products, and manage the residues in a more acceptable way than the technologies which they substitute. It is not about merely individual technologies, but rather integral systems that include know-how, procedures, products and services, and equipment, as well as processes that improve the environmental organization and management.”


Throughout this study, the basic guidelines linked to sustainability have been analyzed and extracted, as well as those to achieve a cleaner production, and with the promotion of environmental education, which appeared in a series of international instruments, in a voluntary guide on Social Responsibility, and in current mandatory regulations in Argentina. In this sense, we can establish that in order to favor an education that incorporates these concepts it would be convenient to modify some curricular structures and to highlight the socio-environmental dimension, the interdisciplinary approach, and the strengthening of inter-institutional relations to be able to transmit the concepts correctly.

This is based on the fact that environmental education is the only one capable of building collective awareness about the value of the environment and the need to take care of it and recover it (Mathus Escorihuela, 2011). This refers to a qualitative jump with regards to training, since it is centers on the moral dimension of the human being, that is , it implies implementation (behavior) of what is conceptually appreciated and considered valuable according to the global idea of life there is (García, 2010).

The generation of interdisciplinary knowledge turns out to be a fundamental approach and provides a solid support for the development of sustainable policies, frameworks applicable to Social and Environmental Responsibility, and for the social awareness directed at sustainability (Capaldo, 2014). For this purpose, it is necessary to recreate conditions of the environment with adequate incentives, public policies in the long term, and to generate effective alliances between the different social actors. This implies radical changes in governance structures, economic frameworks, business models, and in behavior patterns of the consumers and society at large.

A more prosperous future depends on the new paradigm of linking commercial activities and development, promoting social, environmental and economic stability. With the aim of addressing this problematic, taking into account the growing interdependence pointed out, it is recognized as equally important to strengthen the national and international policies and international cooperation as an adaptation tool to the new global circumstances (Romano, 2014).

Likewise, it is considered fundamental to understand the voluntary regulations on Social Responsibility, since these can cover some legal lapses, or else, complement the regulations. All of this could be the result of the scarce valuation of ecosystems as a whole and the lack of incorporation of the precautionary principle in the current legal system.

Finally, and as had been highlighted, Social Responsibility is linked to the Law and shares the same principles that international instruments have on human rights and environmental protection. It is suggested to comply with the mandatory regulations, although socially responsible development implies becoming actively involved with the community at large surpassing the legal demands. However, for this to be possible there should be people trained in the socio-environmental problematic and who have been educated in this, preferably since the initial levels.


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3Offering the educational service will be done through the provincial educational system, constituted by the functional units created for this purpose and which will cover the different levels and modalities of education. The basic legislation of the provincial educational system will be adjusted to the following principles: 1. Public education of official management is free at all levels. 2. Education is mandatory at the basic general level. 3. The educational system will guarantee an equitable quality in education that emphasizes the cultural heritage and the protection and preservation of the environment, reaffirming the Buenos Aires identity. 4. The educational service can be offered by other subjects, private or non-state public, within the provincial educational system and under state control.

4“Environmental education constitutes the basic instrument to generate values, behaviors and attitudes in citizens that are in accordance with a balanced environment, tend to the preservation of natural resources, and their sustainable use, and improve the life quality of the population. Environmental education will constitute a continuous and permanent process, subject to constant updating that, as a result of the orientation and articulation of various disciplines and educational experiences ought to facilitate the integral perception of the environment and the development of an environmental consciousness. The competent authorities should coordinate with the federal Environment, Culture and Education Councils (COFEMA), the implementation of plans and programs in the formal and informal education systems. The jurisdictions, in function of the basic contents determined, will implement the respective programs or curricula through the pertinent regulations”.

5The Provincial Executive Power and the municipalities will guarantee, in the execution of government policies the observance of rights recognized in article 2, as well as those of environmental policy that are listed next: Topic e): The Provincial State will promote the training of individuals who are responsible and solidary with the environment. For this purpose, environmental education must be included at all levels the educational system, under standards directed towards the definition and search of a better quality of life.

6Since 2015, this public organization has been replaced by the Agroindustry Ministry; for more information it is possible to consult the following webpage:

7For further information it is possible to consult the following link:

Received: December 01, 2015; Accepted: April 01, 2017

*Author for correspondence.

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