SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.87 número3Primer registro de Ambidexter symmetricus (Decapoda: Caridea: Processidae) en la península de YucatánExtensión de ámbito de Sanopus reticulatus (Teleostei: Batrachoididae) en la península de Yucatán índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Revista mexicana de biodiversidad

versão On-line ISSN 2007-8706versão impressa ISSN 1870-3453

Rev. Mex. Biodiv. vol.87 no.3 México Set. 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2016.06.013 

Notas científicas

New eastern Pacific Ocean record of the rare deep-water fish, Psychrolutes phrictus (Scorpaeniformes: Psychrolutidae)

Registro nuevo en el océano Pacífico oriental de un pez raro de profundidad, Psychrolutes phrictus (Scorpaeniformes: Psychrolutidae)

Hugo Aguirre-Villaseñora  * 

Edgar Cruz-Acevedob 

Carolina Salas-Singhc 

a Centro Regional de Investigación Pesquera-Mazatlán, Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Calzada Sábalo-Cerritos s/n, Apartado postal 1177, 82112 Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico

b Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Avenida Sábalo-Cerritos, s/n, 82100 Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico

c Posgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Unidad Académica Mazatlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Joel Montes Camarena s/n, Apartado postal 811, 82040 Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico

Abstract:

Psychrolutes phrictus is a benthic deep sea fish known from the eastern North Pacific. On 30 March 2008, a specimen of the blob sculpin P. phrictus (297 mm LT) was caught off the Guerrero coast, Mexico (17°45′24″N, 101°59′04″W). The blob sculpin was taken at a depth of 1,100 m within a temperature range of 3.88-4.25 °C, where hypoxic (0.57-0.39 mg/l) conditions prevailed; the specimen was captured over a muddy bottom using a benthic sledge. Representatives of this species had never been reported off the Mexican Pacific coast; our new record extends the known southernmost range by 1,733 km, from 33°19′N to 17°45′N for the American coast. Although high variations in morphometric and meristic values are known for the 4 species of the genus Psychrolutes (P. paradoxus, P. phrictus, P. sigalutes, and P. sio) from the eastern Pacific Ocean, a combination of traits and species distribution allow us to identity this specimen as P. phrictus.

Keywords: Blob sculpin; Benthic; Mexican Pacific coast; Hypoxic conditions; Morphometrics; Meristics

Resumen:

Psychrolutes phrictus es un pez bentónico de profundidad, que se distribuye en el Pacífico Norte. El 30 de marzo de 2008 se capturó un espécimen del pez gota P. phrictus (297 mm LT) frente a las costas de Guerrero (17°45’24” N, 101°59’04” W), a una profundidad de 1,100 m, temperatura de 3.88 a 4.25 °C, donde las condiciones de hipoxia prevalecen (0.57-0.39 mg/l); el arrastre se realizó con un patín béntico sobre un fondo fangoso. A la fecha no se había documentado ningún ejemplar de esta especie en las costas de México, por lo que este nuevo registro extiende el intervalo más sureño de distribución 1,733 km de 33°19’ N a 17°45’ N para la costa americana. Aun cuando las variaciones merísticas y morfológicas son grandes en las 4 especies del género Psychrolutes (P. paradoxus, P. phrictus, P. sigalutes y P. sio) en el océano Pacífico oriental, una combinación de caracteres y de su distribución permiten determinar el espécimen en cuestión como P. phrictus.

Palabras clave: Pez gota; Bentónico; Costa pacífica mexicana; Hipoxia; Morfometría; Merística

The family Psychrolutidae Günther, 1861 is characterised by having large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails, a spinous dorsal fin buried in loose skin and flesh (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), a suborbital stay, pseudobranchiae, pelvic fins of thoracic position, 3 and a half gill arches, naked skin (Günther, 1861), and 7 branchiostegal rays (Yabe, 1984). In the eastern Pacific Ocean, 4 species of the genus Psychrolutes have been reported: Psychrolutes paradoxus Günther, 1861 occurs from the North Pacific to northern Bering Sea (Eschmeyer & Fong, 2015). Psychrolutes phrictus Stein and Bond, 1978 occurs between California and the northern Bering Sea (Stein & Bond, 1978); Psychrolutes sigalutes (Jordan & Starks, 1895) from the Bering Sea to eastern North Pacific (Eschmeyer & Fong, 2015); and Psychrolutes sio Nelson, 1980 from northernmost Peru to central Chile (Nelson, Chirichigno, & Balbontin, 1985). Confirmation of the taxonomic identity of this specimen was made by comparison of the meristic and morphometric characters reported for the 4 species from the eastern Pacific Ocean (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1 Counts and measurements of Psychrolutes phrictus from the Mexican Pacific coast, ICMYL.D.882, compared with published data (Matarese & Stein, 1980; Stein & Bond, 1978; Yabe, Maruyama, & Amaoka, 1983). Quality (Q) indicates if the corresponding measurement of the ICMYL.D.882 is above, below, or inside the range reported in the literature. Morphometric measurements as a percentage of standard length (% SL) and head length (% HL). 

Counts ICMYL.D.882 Literature Q
    Min Max  
Dorsal fin spines VIII VII VIII Inside
Anal fin rays 13 12 14 Inside
Pectoral fin rays 21 22 26 Below
Pelvic fin rays I,3 I,3 I,3 Inside
Caudal fin rays 13 13 13 Inside
Gill rakers first arch 7 + 2 9 13 Inside
Vertebrae 33 33 36 Inside
Abdominal 12 12 13 Inside
Caudal 21 21 24 Inside

Character mm (%SL) (%HL) (%SL) Q (%HL) Q
Total length 297            
Standard length 222            
Measurements              
Predorsal length 108.3 49 98        
Snout-anus length 144 65 131     93.8-132.2 Inside
Prepectoral length 73 33 66        
Prepelvic length 87 39 79        
Pectoral fin length 59 27 54     44.9-62.3 Inside
Pectoral fin spine length 29 13 26        
Pelvic fin length 27 12 25        
Pelvic fin spine length              
Pectoral base 48 22 44        
Dorsal fin length 120 54 109        
Caudal fin length 75 34 68        
Caudal peduncle length 17 8 15        
Caudal peduncle depth 19 9 17 6.7-8.3 Above    
Head height (Body depth) 80 36 73 23.3-34.5 Above    
Head length 110 50 100 41-60.6 Inside    
Heath width 126 57 115        
Snout length 34 15 31 13.3-14.3 Above 30.3-35.7 Inside
Eye diameter (horizontal) 11 5 10     7.9-13 Inside
Eye diameter (vertical) 8 4 7        
Interorbital space 52 23 47     33.2-47.6 Inside
Internostril space 37 17 34        
Superior jaw length 27 12 25        
Inferior jaw length 21 9 19        

Table 2 Morphological, meristic, shape, and distribution of Psychrolutes phrictus from the Mexican Pacific Coast, ICMYL.D.882 compared with published data for the 4 species reported in the eastern Pacific Ocean: P. phrictus, P. sigalutes, P. paradoxus, and P. sio. Sources Eschmeyer, Herald, and Hammann (1983); Eschmeyer and Fong (2015), Fricke (1990), Günther (1861), Jackson and Nelson (1998), Jordan and Starks (1895), Matarese and Stein (1980), Nelson (1980, 1982), Nelson et al. (1985), Stein and Bond (1978), Yabe et al. (1983)

Attribute ICMYL.D.882 P. phrictus P. sigalutes P. paradoxus P. sio
Head length %SL 50 41.1-60.6 33 40.2-44.4 40.8-45.9
Jaws Upper jaw protruding Upper jaw protruding Lower jaw protruding Jaws nearly equal Jaws nearly equal
Dorsal fin rays VIII, 17 VII-IX, 19-20 VII-VIII, 16-19 IX-XII, 12-17 VII-VIII, 16-18
Pectoral fin rays 21 22-26 14-18 19-23 21-22
Anal fin rays 13 13 12-15 10-14 13-14
Anus Between anal fin and pelvic fin Between anal fin and pelvic fin Immediately in front of anal fin Between anal fin and pelvic fin Between anal fin and pelvic fin
Gill rakers 7 + 2 9-13 7    
Vertebrae 33 33-35 33-35 34-37 32-34
Pectoral fin length %HL 54 44.9-62.3 120 92.6 56.5-65.2
Pectoral fin extending To first third of anal fin To first third of anal fin To half of anal fin To half of anal fin To first third of anal fin
Maximum SL 222 mm 560 mm 83 mm 58 mm 345 mm
Depth range (m) 1,100 660-2,800 0-225 0-220 700-1,200
Distribution in the eastern Pacific Ocean Central Mexican Pacific From Alaska to California From Alaska to Washington From Alaska to Washington From Peru to Chile
Peritoneum Pale Pale Blackish Blackish Blackish
Colour Relatively uniform, grey-brown, mottling sometimes present (especially on ventral area) Relatively uniform, greyish or blackish, mottling sometimes present (especially on head), ventral surface often white Relatively uniform Brownish-grey, with large deep-brown blotches; caudal and pectoral fins dotted and spotted with black Relatively uniform (no distinct banding or spotted pattern

Representatives of P. phrictus have never been reported off the Mexican Pacific coast; thus our new record extends the known southernmost range 1,733 km from 33°19′N (LACM, 2015) to 17°45′N off the western American coast (Fig. 1). The blob sculpin was collected on 30 March 2008 using a benthic sledge at a depth range of 1,100-1,199 m and a water temperature range of 3.88-4.25 °C, where hypoxic (0.57-0.39 mg/l) conditions prevailed, during the oceanographic cruise Talud XII, Sta. 13 south-east of Petacalco, Guerrero, México (17°45′24″N, 101°59′04″W). The specimen was collected by the R.V. El Puma of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Because of the uniqueness of this specimen, it was fixed in 10% formalin and later preserved in 70% ethanol. The specimen was deposited in the reference collection (fishes) of the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Unidad Académica Mazatlán, with the catalogue number ICMYL.D.882.

Sources: Eschmeyer and Fong (2015), LACM (2015), Matarese and Stein (1980), Nelson et al. (1985), Stein and Bond (1978).

Figure 1 Distribution map of Psychrolutes species reported in the eastern Pacific Ocean: P. paradoxus (open star), P. phrictus (black circle), P. sigalutes (open square), P. sio (open circle) and new P. phrictus record ICMYL.D.882 (black square). 

Measurements and counts follow Nelson (1982). Electron tomography was taken to enable the count of vertebrae and facilitate the examination of branchiostegal rays, using a Toshiba Multislice CT. Axial, sagittal, and coronal reformatting and 3D reconstructions (slice interval: 0.6 mm) were performed on Osirix 6.5. All measurements were performed 2 months after the preservation of the specimen. Lateral line pores were counted using a dissecting microscope. A distribution map was created using QGIS 2.10, and the figure was prepared with Inkscape 0.48.

The colour of the specimen before preservation was greyish brown above and below, with mottling sometimes present, especially on the ventral area; fins darker than body, margin of rays lighter than fins. The peritoneum was pale (Fig. 2). After preservation, the body colouration was uniformly brownish, paler on the ventral face, mottling not as evident as before preservation; fins darker than body, margin of rays lighter than fins. The lateral-line pore count was incomplete because portions of skin were lost in some areas of the body, although 4 pores were observed. The diameters of the anteriormost lateral line pores were smaller than those of posteriormost position; diameter increased gradually towards the caudal area.

Figure 2 Left side of Psychrolutes phrictus before preservation ICMYL.D.882, bar=50mm. 

The morphological characters of the specimen examined here are concordant with those described for P. phrictus and data available in the literature (Table 1). However, our specimen has a deeper head (38% SL vs. 23.3-34.5% SL) and a higher caudal peduncle depth (9% SL vs. 6.7-8.3% SL). These differences are minimal and could be associated with the allometry by age, size, or sex of the specimens, even a limited sample size for description of the variation of these characters; also, morphometric variations among the members of the family Psychrolutidae are great, probably because of the easily distortable nature of their bodies during or subsequent to capture (Jackson & Nelson, 2006; Stein & Bond, 1978).

Meristically, differences were found in the count of dorsal fin rays in our specimen when compared with that reported in literature (17 vs. 19-20) and pectoral fin rays (21 vs. 22-26) (Table 1). For the 4 species of Psychrolutes reported in the Eastern Pacific, variations were observed in the count of dorsal fin rays: P. paradoxus (12-17), P. sigalutes (16-19), P. sio (16-18), and P. phrictus (19-20); in the case of the number of pectoral fin rays, it was lower in P. sio (21-22), P. paradoxus (19-23), and P. sigalutes (14-18) than in P. phrictus (22-26) (Table 2).

Within the family Psychrolutidae, Byrkjedal, Hadler-Jacobsen, Rees, and Orlov (2014) evaluated the variation in descriptive taxonomic characters of 3 species of the genus Cottunculus and found 5 diagnostic characters to vary geographically (east-west). Three showed a significant correlation with the depth of capture.

The specimen of P. phrictus reported here is distinguished from other members of the genus (P. paradoxus, P. sigalutes, and P. sio) by differences in the head length as a proportion of SL and relative pectoral fin length as a proportion of HL; from P. paradoxus by pectoral fin rays extending to half of the anal fin, jaws nearly equal anteriorly, maximum SL 58 mm, distribution northeastern Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Washington, depth range 0-220 m, and colour pattern; also P. phrictus differs from P. sigalutes by its pectoral fin rays extending to half of the anal fin, lower jaw protruding slightly beyond upper jaw, maximum SL 83 mm, anus immediately in front of anal fin, with a distribution range in the northeastern Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Washington, depth range 0-225 m, and colour pattern; finally, P. phrictus is discriminated from P. sio by having jaws nearly equal anteriorly, a distribution range in the southeastern Pacific from Peru to Chile, a depth range 700-1,200 m, colour pattern, and dark peritoneum (Table 2).

The authors thank Cynthia Klepadlo for comments on an early draft of the manuscript, Michel Hendrickx director of the Talud project, Felipe Amezcua curator of fishes at the collection of the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Unidad Académica Mazatlán, Francisco Gavito and Pedro Gavito for their help with the tomographic reconstruction of 3D images, and the academic staff, students, and crew of the R.V. El Puma, who participated in the Talud cruises. Ship time was provided by the Coordinación de la Investigación Científica, UNAM. Tomography was supported by the Conacyt project 179467. Two anonymous reviewers made useful comments on the manuscript that improved the content and clarity of the information.

References

Byrkjedal et al., 2014 Byrkjedal I, Hadler-Jacobsen S, Rees D, Orlov A. Molecular and morphological variation in saddled fathead sculpins (Psychrolutidae: Cottunculus) of the north-east Atlantic Ocean, with a synonymy of three species. Journal of Fish Biology. 2014; 85:821-37 [ Links ]

Eschmeyer and Fong, 2015 Eschmeyer W.N, Fong J.D. Catalog of fishes. California Academy of Sciences. 2015; Retrieved on October 4th, 2015 from: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp. [ Links ]

Eschmeyer et al., 1983 Eschmeyer W.N, Herald E.S, Hammann H. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1983. [ Links ]

Fricke, 1990 Fricke R. A new species of psychrolutid fish from Western Australia. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. 1990; 36:404-9 [ Links ]

Günther, 1861 Günther A. Catalogue of the acanthopterygian fishes in the collection of the British Museum (Vol. 3) London: Taylor and Francis; 1861. [ Links ]

Jackson and Nelson, 1998 Jackson K.L, Nelson J.S. Ambophthalmos, a new genus for “Neophrynichthysangustus and “Neophrynichthysmagnicirrus, and the systematic interrelationships of the fathead sculpins (Cottoidei, Psychrolutidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1998; 76:1344-57 [ Links ]

Jackson and Nelson, 2006 Jackson K.L, Nelson J.S. Ebinania australiae, a new species of fathead sculpin from southern Australia (Scorpaeniformes: Psychrolutidae). Records of the Australian Museum. 2006; 58:37-42 [ Links ]

Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 Jordan D.S, Gilbert C.H. Synopsis of the fishes of North America. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1882. [ Links ]

Jordan and Starks, 1895 Jordan D.S, Starks E.C. The fishes of Puget Sound. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Ser. 2). 1895; 5:785-855 [ Links ]

LACM, 2015 LACM. Fish collection at Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 2015. Retrieved on October 4th, 2015 from: http://portal.vertnet.org/o/lacm/fish?id=38675-001. [ Links ]

Matarese and Stein, 1980 Matarese A.C, Stein D.L. Additional records of the sculpin Psychrolutes phrictus in the eastern Bering Sea and off Oregon. Fishery Bulletin. 1980; 78:169-71 [ Links ]

Nelson, 1980 Nelson J.S. Psychrolutes sio, a new psychrolutid fish (Scorpaeniformes) from the southeastern Pacific. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1980; 58:443-9 [ Links ]

Nelson, 1982 Nelson J.S. Two new South Pacific fishes of the genus Ebinania and contributions to the systematics of Psychrolutidae (Scorpaeniformes). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1982; 60:1470-504 [ Links ]

Nelson et al., 1985 Nelson J.S, Chirichigno N, Balbontin F. New material of Psychrolutes sio (Scorpaeniformes, Psychrolutidae) from the eastern Pacific of South America and comments on the taxonomy of Psychrolutes intermis and Psychrolutes macrocephalus from the eastern Atlantic of Africa. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1985; 63:444-51 [ Links ]

Stein and Bond, 1978 Stein D.L, Bond C.E. A new deep-sea fish from the eastern North Pacific Psychrolutes phrictus (Pisces: Cottidae [Psychrolutinae]). Contributions in Science (Los Angeles County Museum). 1978; 296:1-9 [ Links ]

Yabe, 1984 Yabe M. Comparative osteology and myology of the superfamily Cottoidea (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes) and its phylogenetic classification. Ph. D. Thesis. Japan: Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University; 1984. [ Links ]

Yabe et al., 1983 Yabe M, Maruyama S, Amaoka K. First record of 5 cottid fishes and a psychrolutid fish from Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. 1983; 29:456-64 [ Links ]

** Peer Review under the responsibility of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at

doi:10.1016/j.rmb.2016.06.013.

Received: October 26, 2015; Accepted: March 14, 2016

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: hugo.aguirre@inapesca.gob.mx (H. Aguirre-Villaseñor).

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License