SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.85 número2Variación geográfica en Incilius occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae), un sapo endémico de México, con una redescripción de la especie y delimitación de la localidad tipoLas cactáceas del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México: estimación de la calidad del muestreo índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Revista

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO

Compartir


Revista mexicana de biodiversidad

versión On-line ISSN 2007-8706versión impresa ISSN 1870-3453

Rev. Mex. Biodiv. vol.85 no.2 México jun. 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.7550/rmb.35496 

Anatomía

 

Inflammatory response caused by larvae and adults of Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in vertebrates of Mexico, including humans

 

Respuesta inflamatoria ocasionada por larvas y adultos de Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) en vertebrados de México, incluyendo al hombre

 

Luis Jorge García-Márquez1*, Virginia León-Règagnon2, Rafael Lamothe-Argumedo3, David Osorio-Sarabia3 and Luis García-Prieto3

 

1 Centro Universitario de Investigación y Desarrollo Agropecuario (CUIDA), Universidad de Colima. Av. Universidad #333, Col. de las Víboras, 28040 Colima, Colima, México. ljgm_cmv@hotmail.com

2 Estación de Biología Chamela, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Apartado postal 21, 48980 San Patricio, Jalisco, México.

3 Laboratorio de Helmintología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Apartado postal 70-153, 04510 México, D. F., México.

 

Recibido: 28 enero 2013
Aceptado: 01 diciembre 2013

 

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe and compare the inflammatory reaction caused by Gnathostoma spp., in various tissues of wild vertebrates and humans in Mexico. Parasitized tissues were collected from 10 species of vertebrates from 8 states. Samples were fixed in 10% formalin, pH 7.2 and processed with standard histological techniques. The lesions were classified into 4 categories. The advanced third stage larvae in fish, amphibians, and reptiles were associated with inflammatory reaction categories I and II (no injury, discrete or minimum); birds presented lesions classified in categories II, III, and IV (injuries minimal to discrete, moderate to severe; granulomatous); 1 human sample had lesions classified in categories III and IV (injuries moderate to severe; granulomatous). Adult parasites in mammals generated responses in categories III and IV. Inflammatory reactions observed in the different studied vertebrates suggest a complex host response to the presence of the parasite, causing variable tissue changes. The tissue reactions provide basic knowledge on the general principles of the pathogenesis and pathology of gnathostomiasis.

Key words: gnathostomiasis, histopathology, zoonoses.

 

Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar la reacción inflamatoria que causa Gnathostoma spp., en los tejidos de diversos vertebrados silvestres y el humano en México. Se recolectaron tejidos parasitados de 10 especies de vertebrados, de 8 estados de la República Mexicana. Las muestras se fijaron en formalina al 10%, pH 7.2 y se procesaron con la técnica histológica de rutina. Las lesiones se clasificaron en 4 categorías; las larvas de tercer estadio avanzado en los peces, anfibios y reptiles causaron una reacción inflamatoria de las categorías I y II (sin lesión, o lesión mínima a discreta); en las aves, se registraron las categorías II, III y IV (lesión mínima a discreta, moderada a intensa y granulomatosa) y en el humano, categorías III y IV (lesión moderada a intensa y granulomatosa). Los parásitos adultos en los mamíferos generaron respuestas de las categorías III y IV. Las reacciones inflamatorias que causan a los diferentes vertebrados estudiados sugieren una respuesta compleja debido a la presencia del parásito y a la respuesta de los hospederos, causando alteraciones tisulares muy variables. Las reacciones tisulares proporcionan conocimientos básicos sobre los principios generales de la patogenia y patología de la gnatostomiasis.

Palabras clave: gnatostomiasis, histopatología, zoonosis.

 

Introduction

Gnathostoma is represented in Mexico by 3 species: Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991, Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio-Sarabia and León-Règagnon, 2005, and Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902; its geographic distribution comprises 15 of the 32 states of the Mexican territory, and it parasitizes 80 host species (Pérez-Álvarez et al., 2008; García-Márquez et al., 2009). Additionally, more than 8 000 cutaneous and 11 ocular human cases have been recorded in this country (Lamothe-Argumedo, 2003, 2006), with G. binucleatum being the only species confirmed as an ethiological agent in Mexican human infections (León-Règagnon et al., 2002).

Histopathology caused by adult worms of this genus has been described in several regions of the world for several host species including dogs (Nayar et al., 1978), cats (Beveridge et al., 1998), weasels (Ashizawa et al., 1979), and pigs and boars (Mei et al., 2001), among others. In contrast, pathogenic changes by advanced third stage larvae (A3L) of Gnathostoma have only been studied in fish-eating birds (García-Márquez et al., 2001). In humans, histological lesions have been described in skin (Ollague and Ollague, 1987), brain (Schmutzhard et al., 1988), eyes (Barua et al., 2007), and intestine (Seguchi et al., 1995). The main objective of this study is to describe and compare the histological lesions caused by A3L and adults of Gnathostoma sp., in several vertebrate host species including humans.

 

Materials and methods

Nine species of wild vertebrates (2 fish, 1 amphibian, 1 reptile, 3 birds, and 2 mammals, all in adult stage) were obtained from 9 localities from Mexico between June 2004 and September 2005 (Table 1). One larva was obtained from a skin biopsy conducted on a human adult patient in the General Hospital from Tepic (Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Nayarit) in 2000. Fish were collected with a seine net, amphibians were collected manually, and reptiles, birds, and mammals were shot by local hunters. All organisms were collected under the scientific collection permit FAUT-0056 issued to VLR. Skeletal muscles of all vertebrates except the mammals were ground individually, compressed between 2 glass plates, and examined with the aid of a magnifying glass to search for A3L of Gnathostoma. The digestive tract and liver of mammals were dissected within 4 hr after capture, and reviewed under the microscope. Histologic lesions were evaluated based on 1 larva (alive or degenerating) or 1 live adult in host tissue. The positive tissues were fixed in 10% formaldehyde buffered solution (pH= 7.2) during 24 hr, and processed following conventional histologic techniques (Prophet et al., 1992). Five cross sections 6 µm thick were made for each host species, and 10 microscopic fields were analyzed for each section following Vivar-Díaz (2010). Observations were made with a Carl Zeiss Primo star 07745 microscope (10x and 40x). Classification of the lesions follows the criteria proposed by Vázquez-Núñez et al. (2004) (Table 2). Voucher specimens of representative histological sections were deposited at the Colección Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE), Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico City (CNHE 8739-8743).

 

Results

The presence of live larvae encysted in skeletal muscle of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles caused histological lesions ranging from mild hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue around the parasite (lesions category I) to moderate hyperplasia of this tissue with infiltration of macrophages and heterophils in the interstitial zone, at levels below 50% (category II) (Fig. 1). In birds, inflammatory response in muscle tissue included moderate to severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue around the parasite, as well as infiltration of macrophages, heterophils (eosinophils), lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, at levels above 50% causing degeneration and necrosis of muscle fibers with vasculitis (categories II, III) (Fig. 2). In the most severe cases, granulomatous lesions were recorded, with degeneration of the parasite, severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue, and infiltration of epithelioid cells, giant cells, fibroblasts, and occasionally heterophils (eosinophils) (category IV). Inflammatory reaction in human skin was characterized by a moderate to severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue surrounding the parasite, infiltration of macrophages, heterophils (eosinophils), lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, at levels above 50%, as well as degeneration and necrosis of muscle fibers with vasculitis. At the epidermic level, necrosis, acanthosis and hyperkeratosis were present, while in the dermis, infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, and plasmatic cells was recorded, producing an eosinophilic migratory panniculits (categories III and IV), without encysting of the A3L of Gnathostoma spp. (Fig. 3).

Adults collected in the stomachs of opossums and raccoons caused lesions of categories III and IV; these specimens also exhibited congestion, hemorrhages, and mineralization (Figs. 4, 5).

 

Discussion

In this study, we analyzed and compared the inflammatory reaction caused by larvae and adults of the 3 species of Gnathostoma distributed in Mexico, i.e., G. binucleatum (adult in Leopardus pardalis), G. lamothei (adult in Procyon lotor hernandezi), and G. turgidum (adults in Didelphis spp., and Philander opossum). The specific identity of larvae found in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds could not be determined due to lack of morphometric traits in histological cross sections.

The inflammatory reaction and lesions caused by A3L and adults of Gnathostoma spp., in all of the 10 vertebrate host species studied, including 1 human, are a complex response to the presence of the parasite, resulting in very different tissue alterations (categories I-IV, see Table 2). The A3L of Gnathostoma sp. found in fish, amphibians, and reptiles causes a minimal response in these 3 hosts groups, because of the encystment of the A3L in the skeletal muscle; this suggests an acute infection without tissue reaction by the host, allowing parasite survival and thus, continuation of its life cycle (Lamothe-Argumedo, 1997). In the bird species studied, the more frequent lesion categories correspond to II, III and IV, which agree with the findings of García-Márquez et al. (2001) in the same group of hosts. This inflammatory reaction is due to the number of larvae involved in the infection and to the role of birds as paratenic hosts of Gnathostoma larvae, accumulating a large number of nematodes through time (León-Règagnon et al., 2005).

The initial inflammatory and immunological response caused by the parasite is acute; it is characterized by cellular infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils (heterophils in birds, fishes, and reptiles) with phagocytic action and release of cytosine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, etc. The release of chemical substances activates the cellular and humoral (IgE antibodies) immunological response. Finally, the chronic condition of the infection is distinguished by a granulomatous lesion (Mitchell et al., 2006).

The human inflammatory reaction to the presence of A3L of G. binucleatum in the skin is an eosinophilic granulomatose panniculitis; this is caused by the erratic migration of the larvae through the dermis; similar results have been reported in human biopsies in Mexico (Magaña et al., 2004) and Ecuador (Ollague and Ollague, 1987), and by other Gnathostoma species in several Asian countries (e.g., Grobusch et al., 2000). In some cases, larvae can migrate to other organs such as brain, eyes, and liver, causing meningitis (Schmutzhard et al., 1988), retinopathies (Rao et al., 1999), and eosinophilic hepatitis (Seguchi et al., 1995), respectively.

The presence of adults of G. turgidum and G. lamothei infecting the stomach of opossum and raccoon, respectively, led to a granulomatous eosinophilic gastritis, (Categories III-IV); this condition was caused by the parasite migration to the stomach fundic region, to form an intraluminal nodule on the mucosa. This pathology has been observed in several definitive hosts such as domestic and feral cats (Mei et al., 2001; Beveridge et al., 1998), domestic dogs (Álvarez-Guerrero et al., 2012), raccoons (Almeyda-Artigas et al., 1994), Asiatic lions (Patel et al., 2000), domestic swine (Mei et al., 2001), wild boar (Ishiwata et al., 1998), raccoons (Bertoni-Ruiz et al., 2005), and opossums (García-Márquez, 2005).

The histological damage produced by these nematodes is the result of 2 main parasitic mechanisms: 1) migration through tissues of A3L; 2) enzymatic release which causes tissue degeneration, necrosis, and granulomas. The parasitized host reacts with a cellular immune response with production of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-type IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, as well as the colony stimulating granulocyte and monocyte factor (GM-CSF), which activate and stimulate the proliferation of cells, such as eosinophils, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, plasmatic cells, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and fibroblasts (Cox and Liew, 1992). This condition promotes a tissue response and granuloma formation, originating a chronic infection due to the host immune response against the parasite or their secretions or excretions (Cox and Liew, 1992; Díaz-Camacho et al., 1998).

Host-parasite interaction determines the type of inflammatory reaction; the characterization of the different levels (categories) of this response, proposed by Vázquez-Núñez et al. (2004), is a useful guide to analyze microscopic features of the lesions caused by parasites as Gnathostoma spp. and provides a basic understanding of the general principles of the pathogenesis and pathology of gnathostomiasis.

 

Acknowledgements

This study was partially funded by Trust fund Ramón Álvarez Bullya Aldana, University of Colima to LJGM, and proj. PAPIIT-UNAM 221307 to VLR and RLA. Special thanks to Luis Antonio Morales Arreola for technical assistance and Dr. Messina-Robles, from the Departmento de Dermatología, Hospital General de Tepic, Secretaría de Salud de Nayarit, for the donation of parasitized human tissue.

 

Literature cited

Almeyda-Artigas, R. J, V. A Acosta-Hernández, L. Alonso-Díaz, M. Castañeda-Sánchez and V. R. Zárate-Ramírez. 1994. First record of Gnathostoma procyonis, Chandler, 1942 in Mexico and note on larval G. binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991. Research and Reviews in Parasitology 54:93-98.         [ Links ]

Álvarez-Guerrero, C., M. A. Muñoz-Guzmán and F. Alba-Hurtado. 2012. Aspectos clínicos y de diagnóstico de la gnatostomosis experimental canina. Veterinaria México 43:17-28.         [ Links ]

Ashizawa, H., G. Kugi, M. Usui, D. Nosaka, S. Tatemaya and K. Owada. 1979. Gnathostoma nipponicum infection in weasels captured in Oita Prefecture, Japan. Result of a survey in the 1978 shooting seasons. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Miyasaki University 26:291-297.         [ Links ]

Barua, P., N. Hazarika, N. Barua, C. Barua and B. Choudhur. 2007. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 25:276-278.         [ Links ]

Bertoni-Ruiz, F., L. García-Prieto, D. Osorio-Sarabia and V. León-Règagnon. 2005. A new species of Gnathostoma (Nematoda:Gnathostomidae) in Procyon lotor hernandezii from Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 91:143-1149.         [ Links ]

Beveridge, I., P. Presidente and J. Arundel. 1998. Gnathostoma spinigerum infection in a feral cat from New South Wales. Australian Veterinary Journal 54:46-48.         [ Links ]

Cox, F. and E. Liew. 1992. T cell subsets and cytokines in parasitic infections. Parasitology Today 8:371-378.         [ Links ]

Díaz-Camacho, S. P., M. Zazueta-Ramos, E. P. Torrecillas, I. O. Ramirez , R. C. Velázquez, A. F. Gaxiola, J. B. Heredia, K. Willms, H. Akahane, K. Ogata and Y. Nawa. 1998. Clinical manifestations and immunodiagnosis of gnathostomiasis in Culiacán, México. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59:908-915.         [ Links ]

García-Márquez, L. J. 2005. Estudio de la Gnatostomiasis en el Estado de Colima, México. Tesis, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Colima. Colima. 101 p.         [ Links ]

García-Márquez, L. J., S. P. Díaz-Camacho and D. Osorio-Sarabia. 2001. Reacción inflamatoria causada por larvas de Gnathostoma spp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) en músculos de aves ictiófagas de México. Veterinaria México 32:265-270.         [ Links ]

García-Márquez, L. J., R. Lamothe-Argumedo, D. Osorio-Sarabia, L. García-Prieto and V. León-Règagnon.2009. Morphological and molecular identification of Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) advanced third stage larvae (A3L) in the state of Colima, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 80:867- 870.         [ Links ]

Grobusch, M. P., F. Bergmann, D. Teichmann and E. Klein. 2000. Cutaneous gnathostomiasis in a woman from Bangladesh. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 4:51-54.         [ Links ]

Ishiwata, K., S. P. Díaz-Camacho, Y. Horii, N. Nawa and Y. Nawa. 1998. Gnathostomiasis in wild boars from Japan. Journal Wildlife Diseases 34:155-157.         [ Links ]

Lamothe-Argumedo, R. 1997. Hospederos definitivos, intermediarios y paraténicos de Gnathostoma en Veracruz y Oaxaca. Cuadernos Mexicanos de Zoología 3:22-28.         [ Links ]

Lamothe-Argumedo, R. 2003. La gnatostomiasis en México: un problema de salud pública. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 74:99-103.         [ Links ]

Lamothe-Argumedo, R. 2006. Gnatostomiasis ocular humana. Casos registrados en todo el mundo entre 1937 y 2005. Revista Mexicana de Oftalmología 80:185-190.         [ Links ]

León- Règagnon, V., D. Osorio-Sarabia, L. García-Prieto, R. Lamothe-Argumedo, F. Bertoni-Ruíz and A. Oceguera-Figueroa.2005. New host records of the nematode Gnathostoma sp. in Mexico. Parasitology International 54:51-53.         [ Links ]

León-Règagnon, V., D. Osorio-Sarabia, L. García-Prieto, H. Akahane, R. Lamothe-Argumedo, M. Koga, M. Messina-Robles and C. Álvarez-Guerrero. 2002. Study of the ethiological agent of gnathostomosis in Nayarit, Mexico. Parasitology International 51:201-204.         [ Links ]

Magaña, M., M. Messina-Robles, F. Bustamante and J. Cazarín. 2004. Gnathostomiasis: Clinicopathologic Study. American Journal of Dermatopathology 26:91-95.         [ Links ]

Mei, C., C. Qingquan,Y. Xiangqun and L. Xiumin. 2001. The pathogenicity of Gnathostoma hispidum to swine. Chinese Journal of Zoonoses 17:94-95.         [ Links ]

Mitchell, R., V. Kumar, A. Abbas, and N. Fausto. 2006. Pocket companion to Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Elsevier-Saunders, Massachusetts. 801 p.         [ Links ]

Nayar, K. N. M., P. T. Georgekutty, A. M. Jalaluddin and P. J. Philip. 1978. Gnathostomiasis in a dog: a case report. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 9:35-37.         [ Links ]

Ollague, W. and J. Ollague. 1987. Histologic chronology of eosinophilic migratory nodular panniculitis (gnathostomiosis). Medicina Cutánea Ibero-latino-americana 15:85-88.         [ Links ]

Patel, P. V., A. I. Patel, R. H. Sabapara, J. J. Hasnani and S. K. Singh. 2000. Gnathostomosis in an Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica): a case report. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 14:179-180.         [ Links ]

Pérez-Álvarez, Y., L. García-Prieto, D. Osorio-Sarabia, R. Lamothe-Argumedo and V. León- Règagnon. 2008. Present distribution of the genus Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in Mexico. Zootaxa 1930:39-55.         [ Links ]

Prophet, E. B., B. Mills, J. B. Arrington and L. H. Sobin (Eds). 1992. AIFP Laboratory methods in histotechnology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, American Registry of Pathology, Washington, D. C. 247 p.         [ Links ]

Rao, V. A., T. Pravin and S. C. Parija. 1999. Intracameral gnathostomiasis: a first case report from Pondicherry. Journal of Communicable Diseases 31:197-198.         [ Links ]

Schmutzhard, E., P. Boongird and A. Vejjajiva. 1988. Eosinophilic meningitis and radiculomyelitis in Thailand, caused by CNS invasion of Gnathostoma spinigerum and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 51:80-87.         [ Links ]

Seguchi, K., M. Matsuno, H. Kataoka, T. Kobayashi, H. Maruyama, H. Itoh, M. Koono and Y. Nawa. 1995. A case report of colonic ileus due to eosinophilic nodular lesions caused by Gnathostoma doloresi infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53:263-266.         [ Links ]

Vázquez-Núñez, R., J. Ramírez-Lezama, D. Osorio Sarabia, L. A. Chávez-Soriano and F. Constantino-Casas. 2004. Lesiones causadas por helmintos del aparato digestivo en peces estuarinos de la Laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México. Veterinaria México 35:369-378.         [ Links ]

Vivar-Díaz, N.2010. Manual de procedimientos en anatomía patológica. Roche, Quito, Ecuador. 92 p.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons