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Revista mexicana de biodiversidad

versão On-line ISSN 2007-8706versão impressa ISSN 1870-3453

Rev. Mex. Biodiv. vol.85 no.1 México Mar. 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.7550/rmb.36324 

Research note

 

New records of Pteris (Pteridaceae) from the Neotropics

 

Nuevos registros de Pteris (Pteridaceae) para el neotrópico

 

Alexander Francisco Rojas-Alvarado1* and José Miguel Chaves-Fallas2

 

1 Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica, * alfrojasa@yahoo.com.

2 Herbario Luis Diego Gómez, Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Organización para Estudios Tropicales. Apartado 73-8257, San Vito de Coto Brus, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.

 

Recibido: 11 marzo 2013
Aceptado: 17 octubre 2013

 

Abstract

As a result of studies on neotropical Pteris L., we report new records of Pteris albertiae and P. longifolia from Costa Rica; P. longipetiolulata from Costa Rica, Panama, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela; and P. muricatopedata from Mexico and Guatemala. The expanded distribution range and addition of species to biodiversity lists provide relevant information about the ecology and taxonomy of the species.

Key words: distribution, ferns, Mesoamérica, Mexico, South America.

 

Resumen

Como resultado de los estudios en Pteris L. para el neotrópico, presentamos nuevos registros de Pteris albertiae y P. longifolia para Costa Rica, P. longipetiolulata para Costa Rica, Panamá, Perú, Bolivia y Venezuela, y P. muricatopedata para México y Guatemala. La ampliación de áreas de distribución y adición de especies a las listas de biodiversidad proporciona información relevante sobre la ecología y taxonomía de las especies.

Palabras clave: distribución, helechos, Mesoamérica, México, Sudamérica.

 

Pteris L. contains more than 300 species of pantropical distribution. In America, Pteris is represented by approximately 60 species and lacks a modern taxonomic revision (Arbeláez, 1996). As currently circumscribed, it is morphologically heterogeneous and probably polyphyletic; for this reason it is difficult to give characteristics that define the genus (Moran, 2012).

The genus Pteris is characterized by petioles with a single omega-shaped vascular bundle (the open end of the omega oriented adaxially) and linear sori on a submarginal connecting vein covered by the reflexed margin of the lamina (false indusium) (Moran, 2012).

Pteris is ubiquitous; most species occur in mature forest, but others can be found in secondary forest, clearings, or along rocky stream banks. In tropical America, species grow in wet forests, cloud forests, gallery forests, thickets, at the edge of clearings, and occasionally on cliffs (Tryon and Tryon, 1982).

New records of Pteris from Mexico, Central America, and other Neotropical countries contribute to the knowledge of American biodiversity, therefore, the species list of each country is increased.

The examined specimens are deposited in the herbaria of Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, Herbario Nacional (CR); Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Herbario Luis Diego Gómez (HLDG); Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Herbario (INB); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Herbario Nacional de México (MEXU); Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (MO); Smithsonian Institution, United States National Herbarium (US); and Universidad de Costa Rica, Herbario Luis A. Fournier (USJ).

Pteris albertiae Arbeláez, Brittonia 47 (2): 178. 1995. Type: Colombia, Norte de Santander, Mun. de Ocaña, Páramos de San Pedro, 3 076-3 385 m, ca. 1 851, Schlim 330 (holotype: K; isotypes: B, BM, P!).

Distribution. Costa Rica and Colombia at 2 700-3 385 m. Probably also in Panama at Cordillera de Talamanca. In montane forest and subpáramo in the departments of Boyacá and Norte de Santander (Arbeláez, 1995). Here we provide a new record at the same altitude from Villa Mills, Costa Rica.

Material of new distribution. Costa Rica. San José: Pérez Zeledón, Villa Mills, cerro de la Muerte, hotel La Georgina, sendero turístico, 2 900 m, 2003, J. Kluge 1237 (USJ).

Arbeláez (1995) mentioned in the key of species that Pteris albertiae differs from P. muricata in having a completely smooth petiole (vs. petiole spinescent toward the base in P. muricata). Additionally, Arbeláez (1996) mentioned in the key of species that P. albertiae lacks scandent fronds (vs. scandent fronds in P. muricata and P. longipetiolulata).

Pteris longifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1074. 1753. Lectotype: Plumier, Descr. Pl. Amér. t. 18. 1693; Lectotype designated by Proctor, Fl. Lesser Antill. 2: 141. 1977.

Distribution. Southern United States (Florida to Texas) to Honduras, Costa Rica, Bahamas, Granada, Lesser Antilles, Venezuela, Trinidad, and Brazil (Prado and Windisch 2000, Mickel and Smith 2004), at 50-1 900 m. In Costa Rica known only from the population growing on limestone walls in road cut of Fila de Cal at 400-600 m.

Material of new distribution. Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Corredores, dist. Corredor, Fila de Cal, 08°40'44" N, 82°56'14" W, 583 m, 8 Jul 2011, J. Chaves y F. Oviedo 165 (HLDG, CR); Corredores, Corredor, Fila de Cal, 08°40'44" N, 82°56'13" W, 576 m, 4 Nov 2012, J. Chaves et al. 312 (HLDG, CR); Fila Cruces (Fila de Cal), carretera de Agua Buena a Ciudad Neily, orillas de la carretera, 08°41'35" N, 82°56'30" W, 600 m, 10 Nov 2007, A. Rojas y W. Alvarado 8148 (CR, MO, USJ).

This species could be confused with the Asian Pteris vittata L., but differs from it by articulate pinnae (vs. non-articulate), pinnae base conspicuously auriculate on both sides (vs. slightly auriculate), 32-70 pinnae pairs (vs. 11-22), erose indusia (vs. entire), terminal pinna similar in length to lateral pinnae (vs. longer than lateral pinnae) (Moran, 1995; Mickel and Smith, 2004).

Pteris longipetiolulata Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 89: 703. 1977. Type: Colombia, Chocó, 2 km E of San José del Palmar, 1 550-1 650 m, 26 Mar 1971, D. Lellinger y E. de la Sota 739 (Holotype: US!; Isotype: COL, CR!, HUA, LP).

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela at (1 150-) 1 700-2 400 (-3 200) m. In montane humid forest.

Material of new distribution. Costa Rica. Cartago: Paraíso, Valle del Reventazón, mirador ecológico Monte Sky, 9°44'40" N, 83°50" W, 1 700-2 000 m, 23 Sep 1995, A. Rojas et al. 2519 (CR, INB). San José: Escazú, San Antonio, zona protectora Cerros de Escazú, Pico Blanco, 9°53'45" N, 84°08'45" W, 2 100 m, 11 Nov 2004, A. Rojas et al. 6253 (CR, MO). Panama. Chiriquí: 0.8 km up the main road from the center of the town of Cerro Punta, then 1.2 km SW along side road, on the ridge beyond end of the road, ca. 2 100-2 300 m, 29 Jun 1975, D. Lellinger et al. 1958 (CR, US).

In the Tropicos database there are also specimens recorded from Peru (L. Mellado 3022, HUT, MO, USM, det.: A. R. Smith (UC, 2008), Bolivia (A. Fay y L. Fay 2901, MO, det.: J. Prado, 2006; A. Fuentes et al. 10611, BOLV, LPB, MO, UC, USZ, det.: A. R. Smith (UC, 2007); I. Jiménez 1135, LPB, det.: J. Prado, 2003; I. Jiménez et al. 2822, LPB, MO, UC, det.: A. R. Smith (UC, 2007); J. Krach 8701, MO, det.: J. Prado, 2006), and Venezuela (A. Alston 5263, MO, det.: R. C. Moran, 1989) (Tropicos, 2013a).

Arbeláez (1995) segregated 2 new species in the P. muricata complex and restricted the distribution of P. longipetiolulata to Colombia and Ecuador. Here it is recorded from other countries in the Neotropics.

Pteris muricatopedata Arbeláez, Brittonia 47 (2): 175. 1995. Type: Colombia, Antioquia, Mun. de Sonsón, Carretera Sonsón-Los Medios, 5°41' N, 75°21' W, 2 420 m, 8 Jul 1987, A. Arbeláez et al. 120 (Holotype: HUA, not seen; Isotypes: COL, NY!).

Distribution. Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at 1 300-3 500 m.

Material of new distribution. Mexico. Chiapas: volcán Tacaná, 15°06'00" N, 92°05'24" W, 1 600-2 400 m, 19 Jun 1985, E. Martínez 13221 (MEXU, MO); Mun. Unión de Juárez, en el volcán Tacaná, por el camino de Talquián a la cima del volcán, por la línea divisoria con Guatemala, 1 700-2 200 m, 4 Feb 1987, E. Martínez et al. 19435 (MEXU). Oaxaca: municipio San Jerónimo Coatlán, distrito Miahuatlán, La Neblina, 17 km al SW de San Jerónimo Coatlán, brecha a Piedra Larga, 16°11' N, 96°56' W, 2020 m, 19 Mar 1988, A. Campos y R. Torres 1577 (MEXU).

Moran (1995) mentioned that in Pteris muricata recorded from Chiapas, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, the spine length in the axis is markedly reduced in comparison with that of plants from South America. The author also mentioned that P. muricata presents variations in the degree of blade dissection. The information provided by Moran (1995) is interpreted as an indication that the taxon is in reality a species complex, later segregated by Arbeláez (1995, 1996) in the species previously mentioned.

In the Tropicos database there are also specimens identified as P. muricata from Mexico (D. Breedlove 34687, MO, det.: R. C. Moran, 1995) and Guatemala (P. Standley 83723, F, det.: R. C. Moran, 1995) (Tropicos, 2013b).

Mickel and Smith (2004) recorded Pteris muricata Hook. from Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, but apparently the material from this distributional area corresponds to P. muricatopedata, because Mickel and Beitel (1988), Mickel and Smith (2004), and Gómez and Arbeláez (2009) described P. muricata as having a pedate-pinnate blade and Moran (1995) mentioned that P. muricata has a tripartite blade (= pedate-pinnate), a character absent in P. muricata as defined by Arbeláez (1995, 1996). Also, the specimen E. Martínez 13221 (MEXU, MO) was examined and its collection corresponds to the second species. Additionally, all of the specimens of P. muricata previously recorded from Costa Rica and Panama are either P. muricatopedata or P. longipetiolulata. For this reason, P. muricata is probably present only in South America. As indicated by Arbeláez (1995), P. muricata has scandent leaves with pinnate blade architecture, the abaxial side of the costa is slightly muricate with very short projections, and the petioles are spinescent (e.g., M. Grant 10832, CR); furthermore, P. muricatopedata has no scandent blade with pedate-pinnate architecture and muricate stipe and rachis (e.g., E. Martínez 13221 (MEXU, MO).

We thank Armando Estrada, Curator of Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica (CR), Federico Oviedo Brenes, curator of Herbario Luis Diego Gómez (HLDG), Mario Sousa, former curator of Herbario Nacional de México (MEXU) and Curator Emeritus of Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), and James Solomon, Curator of Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), for allowing us to examine specimens under their care. J. Leighton Reid and two anonymous reviewers provided helpful suggestions.

 

Literature cited

Arbeláez, A. L. 1995. Two new species and new records for Pteris (Pteridaceae) from Colombia. Brittonia 47:175-181.         [ Links ]

Arbeláez, A. L. 1996. Monografía N°18. La Tribu Pteridaceae. In Flora de Colombia, P. Pinto (ed.).Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá. p. 10-105.         [ Links ]

Gómez, L. D. and A. L. Arbeláez. 2009. Flora de Nicaragua. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Saint Louis. p. 134-137.         [ Links ]

Mickel, J. T. and J. M. Beitel. 1988. Pteridophyte Flora of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 46:320-327.         [ Links ]

Mickel, J. T. and A. R. Smith. 2004. The Pteridophytes of Mexico. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 88:533-544.         [ Links ]

Moran, R. C. 1995. Pteris L. In Flora Mesoamericana, R. C. Moran and R. Riba (eds.). Volumen 1. Psilotaceae a Salviniaceae. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México D. F. p. 140-144.         [ Links ]

Moran, R. C. 2012. Neotropical Genera of Ferns and Lycophytes. Organization for Tropical Studies. San José, Costa Rica. Photocopied and bound manual. 407 p.         [ Links ]

Prado, J. and P. G. Windisch. 2000. The genus Pteris L. (Pteridaceae) in Brazil. Boletim do Instituto de Botánica 13:103-199.         [ Links ]

Tropicos.org. 2013a. Pteris longipetiolulata Lellinger. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26625817; last access: 12.II.2013.         [ Links ]

Tropicos.org. 2013b. Pteris muricata Hook. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/26606840; last access: 12.II.2013.         [ Links ]

Tryon, R. M. and A. F. Tryon. 1982. Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to Tropical America. Springer-Verlag. New York. 857 p.         [ Links ]

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