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Rev. Mex. Biodiv. vol.83 no.2 México Jun. 2012
Taxonomía y sistemática
Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae), a new species from Jalisco, Mexico
Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae), una nueva especie de Jalisco, México
Jesús Guadalupe GonzálezGallegos1*, José Guadalupe MoralesArias2 and José Luis RodríguezHernández2
1 Herbario Luz María Villarreal de Puga (IBUG), Instituto de Botánica, Departamento de Botánica y Zoología, Universidad de GuadalajaraCUCBA, km 15.5 carretera GuadalajaraNogales, Las Agujas, Nextipac, Zapopan, 45110, Jalisco, México.*email@example.com.
2 Instituto Manantlán de Ecología y Conservación de la Biodiversidad, Universidad de GuadalajaraCUCSUR, Av. Independencia Nacional 151, 48900 Autlán de Navarro, Jalisco, México.
Recibido: 14 junio 2011
Aceptado: 28 noviembre 2011
A new species from a botanically little known region of Jalisco, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The morphology of Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez is related to that of the species of sections Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling) Epling of subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. The new taxon is distinguished by the combination of its essentially glabrous surface, the 2flowered verticillasters, the pink to magenta corollas, and the particular dimensions of the floral bract, the calyx and the corolla.
Key words: endemic, Jalisco, Salvia section Briquetia, S. section Tubiflorae.
Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de una región botánicamente poco conocida de Jalisco, México. La morfología de Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez está relacionada con aquella de las especies de las secciones Briquetia Epling y Tubiflorae (Epling) Epling del subgénero Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. El nuevo taxón se distingue por la combinación de su superficie esencialmente glabra, sus verticilastros bifloros, el color rosa o magenta de sus corolas y las dimensiones particulares de la bráctea floral, el cáliz y la corola.
Palabras clave: endémica, Jalisco, Salvia sección Briquetia, S. sección Tubiflorae.
Salvia L. includes at least 900 species worldwide, with main centers of diversity in SW Asia, Southern North, Central and South America (Harley et al., 2004); it is 1 of the 3 richest genera of vascular plants in Mexico with approximately 292 species in the country (Villaseñor, 2004), and at the same time one of the most poorly understood. In the last 3 decades, a new impulse in the study of Mexican sages has resulted in the description of several new taxa (Ramamoorthy, 1983, 1984a, 1984b, 1984c; Ramamoorthy and Lorence, 1987; Levin and Moran, 1989; Espejo and Ramamoorthy, 1993; Turner, 1995, 1996, Klitgaard, 2007; Turner, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2009a, 2009b, 2010; Bedolla et al., 2011; MartínezGordillo and LoazadaPérez, 2011; Turner, 2011). However these efforts have been insufficient, because there are still new taxa to be described and some species that need to be reevaluated.
While conducting floristic research, Morales and Rodríguez discovered an interesting population of Salvia at Villas de Cacoma, Jalisco, Mexico, one of the least botanically explored areas of Western Mexico. We tried to identify the specimens using the publications of Epling and coworkers (1939, 1940, 1941, 1944, 1947, 1951; Epling and Mathias, 1957; Epling and Játiva, 1966), and those papers highlighted in the last paragraph, where new taxa were recently described. We have examined, since September 2008 to September 2011, Salvia collections from large and relatively small Mexican herbaria, according to the number of specimens that they harbor. In small herbaria (CIIDIR, CHAPA, CREG, GUADA, HEM, HUMO, OAX, SERO, USON, UAGC, ZEA, XALU), we examined the entire collections of Salvia including those specimens not yet identified. In large herbaria (ENCB, IEB, MEXU, XAL), we restricted the revision to specimens collected in Jalisco, those belonging to the sections related to the Salvia found at Cacoma (Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling) Epling), and nonidentified specimens. In both cases the specimens examined were photographed. All Salvia specimens from IBUG herbarium were also examined. We analyzed the type specimens of the species in sections Briquetia and Tubiflorae through a collection of digital photographs obtained from the web pages of the following herbaria: K, LD, LL, MA, MICH, MO, NY, UC, US, WU. As a result of the revision of literature and examination of herbarium specimens and photographs, the finding of Morales and Rodríguez could not be referred to any known species of Salvia. Here, we describe it as a new taxon related to the sections Briquetia and Tubiflorae of subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth.
Type: Mexico, Jalisco: munincipio de Villa de Purificación, Villas de Cacoma, 19°49'53" N, 104°31'57" O, 1 360 m alt., 26 Aug. 2010 (fl, fr), J. L. Rodríguez, J. G. Morales and M. G. Gama 340 (holotype: ZEA; isotypes: IBUG, MEXU).
S. venulosae similis sed petiolibus (0.9)1.21.9(2.2) mm longis, floribus 2 in verticilastris, bracteis floralibus 7.59 × 3.54 mm, pedicellis 45 mm longis, calycibus sine pilis glandularibus et 5 venis in labio superiore calycum.
Perennial suffrutex up to 2 m tall, erect, stems essentially glabrous. Petioles (9)1.21.9(2.2) cm long, diffusely covered by simple multicellular hairs with darkred septa; blades ellipticlanceolate to lanceolate, 5.58.5 cm long, (2)2.53.5 cm wide, cuneate to short cuneate and sometimes oblique at the base, acuminate to longacuminate at the apex, margin serrate and sparsely bordered by simple multicellular hairs with darkred septa, green and glabrous above, glaucous and glabrous beneath, only with the main vein covered with simple multicellular hairs. Inflorescence (8)1118 cm long, nodes 0.51 cm apart toward the base, 9 to 19 verticillasters at each floral axis, the verticillasters 2flowered, floral axis purplish red, glabrous. Floral bracts narrow ovate to oblanceolate, 7.59 × 3.54 mm, purplish red, caudate at the apex, attenuate and truncate at the base, the margin entire and bordered with hairs similar to those of the blade margin, the rest glabrous, foliose, veins not visible, deciduous. Pedicels 1.52.5(3) mm long, moderately covered with simple multicellular hairs with darkred septa. Calyces 713 mm long, 2.53 mm wide at the throat, upper lip 3veined, margin of the throat covered with tiny conical hairs and with some simple hairs at the apex of the upper lip, the rest glabrous, purplish red throughout its surface, the lobes acute, the upper one entire. Corolla pink to magenta, covered with long flexible, simple hairs with darkred septa, these concentrated mainly on the lips; tube 1517 mm long, (3)45 mm wide at its widest portion, ventricose, not invaginated at the base, internally naked (epapillate); upper lip 66.5 mm long, lower one 56(6.5) mm long, 1.41.6(1.8) mm wide. Stamens included; filaments 1.51.6(2.3) mm long; connective 11.1 cm long, with an acute little tooth just after the insertion with the filament; theca 0.61 mm long; a pair of staminodes present above and behind the insertion point of the filament to the corolla tube. Gynobasic horn 0.30.4 mm long; style 22.1 cm long, pilose at the apex, branches slightly exserted, the upper one longer and arcuate. Nutlets ovate, 0.81.2 mm long, 0.50.7 mm wide, light brown, and dark brown marbled, surface smooth and sparsely covered with whitish flexible hairs at the base on immature nutlets.
Distribution, habitat and phenology. Salvia cacomensis is, to our knowledge, an endemic species restricted to 1 locality on the Pacific slope of the Sierra de Cacoma, Jalisco, Mexico. It is locally scarce. It inhabits montane cloud forest with Quercus L., Sebastiana Spreng., Ficus L., Clusia L. and Fuchsia L., at 1 3001 400 m. It flowers and fructifies in August ( September).
Etymology. The specific epithet of this taxon refers to the area that embraces its distribution, the Sierra de Cacoma, Jalisco, Mexico.
Remarks. There are 2 Salvia subgenus Calosphace sections with species morphologically similar to the new taxon: Tubiflorae and Briquetia. S. cacomensis fits well with every character of the species in Tubiflorae: shrubs or subshrubs, blades ovate, acuminate at the apex, rounded to attenuated at the base, (2)6 to 12flowered verticillasters, bracts deciduous, 3veined upper lips of the calyces or sometimes 5veined, pink to magenta corollas, epapillate corolla tubes, upper corolla lips longer than the lower ones, connectives entire or toothed and styles pilose. Among the species of Tubiflorae, S. tubifera Cav. and S. venulosa Epling are the morphologically closest relatives. The first one differs in having ovate, rounded at the base blades, (0.5)13.3(7) cm long petioles, lower blade surface slightly white pubescent, 6 to 8flowered verticillasters, 3.55(8) mm long pedicels, short glandularcapitate hairs on the calyces, 2425 mm long corolla tubes, (1.8)22.6 cm long connectives, 1.81.9 mm long nutlets (table 1). The second one can be distinguished by its 510 mm long petioles, lower blade surface with purplish reticulate prominent veins, 26flowered verticillasters, 23 × 22.5 mm floral bracts, 45 mm long pedicels, 5veined upper lip of the calyces and those covered with capitate glandular hairs (table 1). All characters in the species of Briquetia also matches with the characters in the new taxon: thick herbs, blades acuminate at the apex and rounded to attenuate at the base (sometimes truncate or cordate), 3veined upper lips of the calyces, dark blue corollas, corolla tubes ventricose, invaginated at the base, and internally epapillate, connectives entire or toothed, and styles pilose; excluding the color of the corolla (purple vs. magenta or pink magenta in S. cacomensis) and the invagination at the base of the corolla tube. However, there is a member of Briquetia which does not present invaginated corollas at the base, S. ecuadorensis Briq; and other one, which very rarely can exhibit magenta corollas, S. mexicana L. S. cacomensis differs from the rest of the species of section Briquetia because of its 2flowered verticillasters (vs. 312flowered), magenta or magentapink corollas (vs. purple ones), the length of the calyx (713 mm vs. (7)1215 m) and corolla tube (1517 mm vs. (11)1525 mm).
Salvia cacomensis can be distinguished by the combination of its 0.51 cm long petioles, ellipticlanceolate to lanceolate blades with short to short cuneate, sometimes oblique bases and acuminate to longacuminate apices, 2flowered verticillasters, 7.59 mm long floral bracts, calyces without glandular capitate hairs, 3veined upper lips of the calyces, pink to magenta corollas, with the lower lip as long as the upper one and straight.
In the region where S. cacomensis inhabits (Jalisco), only 2 members of section Tubiflorae (S. pringlei B. L. Rob. and Greenm. and S. tubifera), and only 1 of section Briquetia (S. mexicana) are found. None of them share habitat with S. cacomensis. Salvia pringlei inhabits tropical lowlands, from 400920 m altitude. It can be found near the coast of Jalisco, Nayarit and Sinaloa, and in an area of the Barranca del Río Santiago in Jalisco and Nayarit. Salvia tubifera has an affinity for a colder and wetter habitat. It grows in high montane cloud forests mainly from 2 4002 800 m altitude (Table 1). In Jalisco, this species is only known from Cerro Viejo, North of Lago de Chapala. In contrast, S. mexicana can occupy oak, pineoak, montane cloud and even tropical deciduous forests, from 8502 900 m altitude in a wide area of Jalisco. Salvia venulosa, which is the morphologically most similar species to S. cacomensis inhabits also cloud forests and exhibits a narrow geographical range; however, this species grows in Colombia at a distance of 3 500 km from Cacoma, Jalisco (Table 1).
As we can conclude from the above mentioned, the affinity between S. cacomensis with either of the 2 sections alluded is not clear. Therefore, we prefer not to assign it to either of them, and wait for new evidence and a new more natural classification than that proposed by Epling and coworkers (1939, 1940, 1941, 1944, 1947, 1951; Epling and Mathias, 1957; Epling and Játiva, 1966).
We thank the curators and colleagues from the following herbaria, who kindly gave permission and helped us with the examination of herbarium specimens: CHAPA, CIIDIR, CREG, ENCB, GUADA, HUMO, IBUG, IEB, HEM, MEXU, OAX, SERO, UAGC, USON, XAL, XALU, and ZEA. We also thank the authorities of K, LD, LL, MA, MICH, MO, NY, UC, US, and WU, who provided online photographs of type specimens harbored in their collections through their herbaria web pages. Robin Middleton reviewed and helped to improve the writing and spelling of the document. The latin specialist, Juan Acosta Aguilar, improved our diagnoses. Economic support was provided by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) and the Universidad de Guadalajara.
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