versión On-line ISSN 2007-8706
versión impresa ISSN 1870-3453
Rev. Mex. Biodiv. vol.81 no.2 México ago. 2010
Taxonomía y sistemática
New Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Peru and Mexico, based on males with one clunial apophysis
Nuevas Lachesilla de Perú y de México (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae), basadas en machos con una apófisis clunial
Alfonso N. García Aldrete
Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70153, 04510 México, D. F. México.
Recibido: 26 agosto 2009
Aceptado: 26 octubre 2009
Three species of Lachesilla from Peru and Mexico are described and illustrated. They are based on male specimens, characterized by having a clunial apophysis over the area of the epiproct. The Mexican species constitutes a new species group, and the 2 Peruvian species belong in the pedicularia group. Types are deposited in the National Insect Collection (CNIN), housed in the Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Key words: cerorma and pedicularia species groups, taxonomy, CuzcoPeru, ChiapasMexico.
Se describen e ilustran 3 especies de Lachesilla de Perú y de México. Están basadas en ejemplares macho, caracterizados por tener una apófisis en el clunio, en el área cercana al epiprocto. La especie mexicana constituye un nuevo grupo de especies y las 2 especies peruanas pertenecen al grupo pedicularia. Los tipos están depositados en la Colección Nacional de Insectos (CNIN), alojada en el Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Palabras clave: grupos de especies cerorma y pedicularia, taxonomía, CuzcoPerú, ChiapasMéxico.
Three new species of Neotropical Lachesilla are described herein. One of these, from Chiapas, Mexico, is not assignable to any of the species groups recognized in the genus (García Aldrete, 1974, 1982), as the male presents a long, stout, setose mid clunial apophysis. Two closely related species from Cuzco, Peru, in which the males present a stout, glabrous, strongly sclerotized mid clunial apophysis, are assignable to the pedicularia species group. With 280 described species, at least 100 additional ones to be described preserved in my collection, and with 17 presently recognized species groups, Lachesilla may prove to be the most speciose and morphologically diverse genus of nonparasitic Psocodea ('Psocoptera').
Materials and methods
One male of each species was available for study. Color was recorded by placing the whole specimen in 80% ethyl alcohol, under the dissecting microscope, illuminated with white cold light, at 80X. Specimens were dissected in a mixture of equal parts of 80% ethyl alcohol and glycerol, and the head, right wings and legs, and genitalia were mounted on a slide in Canada Balsam. Standard measurements, given in μm, were taken with a filar micrometer, whose measuring unit is 136 μm for wings and 53 μm for other parts (see García Aldrete, 2008). Types are deposited in the National Insect Collection, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CNIN).
Lachesilla carpinteroi n. sp. () (Figs. 14) Diagnosis. Belongs to the pedicularia species group (García Aldrete, 1974; Mockford, 1993). Distal ends of claspers fused to form a strongly sclerotized, distally blunt median prong (Fig. 3). Clunium with a median, long, posteriorly directed, wide based, distally truncate, strongly sclerotized apophysis (Figs. 2, 4). Paraprocts (Fig. 2) of 2 pieces, proximal 1 elliptic, articulated to clunium as illustrated, elliptic sensory field bearing 10 trichobothria in basal rosettes and a marginal one without basal rosette; distal piece posteriorly rounded, with a short, blunt, strongly sclerotized prong. Epiproct divided in 2 halves, each with a field of setae on margin, and projected posteriorly into a long, acuminate extension (Fig. 2).
Color. Body reddish brown. Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, without pigmented centripetal crescents. Wings hyaline, with a slight reddish hue, veins brown. Abdomen with reddish brown subcuticular rings.
Morphology. As described in the diagnosis plus the following: forewing pterostigma wider and round posteriorly. Veins Rs and M fused in a point. Areola postica almost as tall as wide, apically rounded. Hindwing veins RsM fused for a distance. Claspers as in Fig. 3, inner edges strongly sclerotized. Phallosome apodeme (Fig. 3), long, slender, distally dilated and divided in 2 arms, each arm ending in a round, membranous body. Measurements. FW: 1619, HW: 1300, F: 339, T: 636, t1: 228, t2: 86, ctt1: 15, Mx4: 71, f1: 166, f2: 159, f3: 135, f4: 100, IO: 302, D: 170, d: 88, IO/D: 1.77, PO: 0.51.
Holotype . Peru. Cuzco. Nuevo Mundo. Base Pluspetrol, 78°08'30''W: 11°33'02"S. VII.2004, Light trap. J. Williams.
Etymology. This species is gratefully dedicated to Diego Carpintero (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires, Argentina), for the donation of numerous Lachesilla specimens from Cuzco, Peru, including the species herein described, and in recognition for his studies on the taxonomy of Anthocoridae, Miridae and Dipsocoromorpha (HemipteraHeteroptera).
Lachesilla williamsi n. sp. () (Figs. 58) Diagnosis. Belongs to the pedicularia species group (García Aldrete, 1974; Mockford, 1993). Distal ends of claspers fused to form an acuminate median prong (Fig. 6). Clunium with a median, short, posteriorly directed, strongly sclerotized, distally blunt apophysis, with parallel sides (Figs. 7, 8). Paraprocts (Fig. 7) of 2 pieces, proximal 1 elongate, strongly sclerotized, articulated to clunium as illustrated; sensory fields almost elliptic, with 10 trichobothria on basal rosettes and a marginal one without basal rosette; distal piece rounded, setose, with a mesal, stout, strongly sclerotized prong. Epiproct (Fig. 7) almost rectangular, with sides and posterolateral corners strongly sclerotized, bearing broad posterior projection, deeply concave distally to form 2 acuminate arms, bent outwards.
Color. Body reddish brown. Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, with ochre centripetal crescents. Legs pale brown. Wings hyaline, with a slight orange hue, veins brown; R1 deeply pigmented. Abdomen with reddish brown subcuticular rings.
Morphology. As described in the diagnosis, plus the following: forewing pterostigma almost rectangular, wider posteriorly; veins RsM fused for a distance. Areola postica tall, broadly triangular, apically rounded. Hindwing veins RsM fused for a distance (Fig. 5). Proximal halves of claspers almost elliptic, setose, strongly sclerotized as illustrated (Fig. 6). Phallosome apodeme long, slender, Tshaped distally (Fig. 6), bearing on each side an almost elliptic membranous extension.
Measurements. FW: 1585, HW: 1224, F: 291, T: 408, t1: 138, t2: 76, ctt1: 17, Mx4: 74, f1: 182: f2: 159, f3: 145, f4: 109, IO: 267, D: 159, d: 95, IO/D: 1.67, PO: 0.59.
Holotype . Peru. Cuzco. Nuevo Mundo. Base Pluspetrol. 78°08'30''W: 11°33'02''S. VII.2004. Light trap. J. Williams.
Etymology. This species is gratefully dedicated to its collector, J. Williams.
Lachesilla cerorma n. sp. () (Figs. 914) Diagnosis. Belongs to the cerorma species group (defined below). Clunium with stout apophysis in the middle, directed posteriorly, narrowing distally, bearing strong setae (Figs. 12, 13). Hypandrium broad, setose, with proximal halves of claspers fused to sides; claspers slender proximally, widening distally, blunt ended (Fig. 14). Phallosome Vshaped, arms long, slender, diverging from fused base; each arm with an acuminate apophysis on inner edge of distal half (Fig. 14). Distal fourth of each arm slender, curved, blunt ended.
Color. Body pale brown. Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, with ochre centripetal crescents. Antennae pale brown, with flagellomeres 311 more pigmented than scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 12. Maxillary palps brown, legs pale brown. Wings hyaline, veins pale brown. Abdomen with ochre subcuticular rings, less pigmented ventrally.
Morphology. As described in the diagnosis, plus the following: forewing veins Rs and M fused in a point. Pterostigma long, wider distally. Areola postica wide, tall, rounded apically (Fig. 9). Hindwing veins RsM fused for a distance. Paraprocts broad, setose, bearing mesally a short, curved prong; sensory fields almost circular, bearing 1618 trichobothria on basal rosettes, plus a marginal one, without basal rosette (Fig. 13). Epiproct (Fig. 13) rounded posteriorly; anteriorly with 1 small, sclerotized cone on each side of longitudinal midline, setae as illustrated.
Measurements. FW: 2511, F: 469, T: 1060, t1: 307, t2: 111, ctt1: 18, Mx4: 123, f1: 357, f2: 301, f3: 243, f4: 198, IO: 319, D: 265, d: 176, IO/ D: 1.20, PO: 0.66.
Holotype . Mexico. Chiapas. Km 10 AltamiranoComitán, 16°39'06"N: 93°03'06"W, 1615 m. 28.VI.2007. Disturbed vegetation in pine forest. L. Cervantes, G. Ortega and C. Mayorga.
Etymology. The specific name is a compound word, formed with the first syllable of the last name of the collectors of the holotype of this peculiar species (see above).
Definition of the cerorma species group ()
Wings clear. Clunium with a stout, setose apophysis over the area of the epiproct. Paraprocts with a mesal, curved prong. Epiproct with 2 anterior sclerotized cones. Proximal halves of claspers fused to sides of hypandrium, distal halves free. Phallosome Vshaped, each arm with an acuminate apophysis mesally on inner edge of distal half.
Nature and distribution of clunial apophyses in Lachesilla
The presence of 1 or 2 mid clunial apophyses over the area of the epiproct in males has only been observed in the Chinese Ceratolachesillus quinquecornus Li Fasheng (for spelling of species name, see Lienhard, 2003), and in the pedicularia species group (García Aldrete, 1974; Mockford, 1993) of the genus Lachesilla. The single apophysis in C. quinquecornus is totally different from those of the AfroEurasian species of Lachesilla; in these, the paired clunial apophyses are directed posteriorly, usually flanking a posteriorly directed hooklike prong on the epiproct. The following species in the pedicularia group have a pair of long clunial apophyses; these are mostly slender and smooth, but in some species they are rugose, bearing small tubercles, or may be serrate along the outer edge, and none bear setae: L. anómala Badonnel (Congo), L. aquilina Badonnel (Cameroon), L. bugiriana Smithers (Uganda), L. cameruna Badonnel (Cameroon), L. cornisterna Broadhead and Richards (Kenya), L. cornuta Badonnel (Congo), L. crutifurca Li Fasheng (China) (for spelling of species name, see Lienhard, 2003), L. gigantea Badonnel (Congo), L. meinanderi Lienhard (Canary Islands, not Italy, see Lienhard, 1998: 227), L. intrans Li Fasheng (China), L. kahuziana Badonnel (Congo), L. keniensis Broadhead and Richards (Kenya), L. loisae García Aldrete (Pakistan), L. mucronata Badonnel (Angola, Congo, Uganda), L. pedicularia (Linnaeus) (Cosmopolitan), L. rectigladia Broadhead and Richards (Kenya), L. septenaria Li Fasheng (China), and L. ximaensis Li Fasheng (China). The following species have one median short, stout, glabrous clunial apophysis: L. assymetriproctus García Aldrete (Peru), L. convexicornis García Aldrete (Peru), and L. macropudenda García Aldrete (Peru). See García Aldrete (2008), Lienhard and Smithers (2002) and Li Fasheng (2002) for more data on each of the above species. It appears then, that species with one clunial apophysis are predominantly American (Neotropical region), with 1 Chinese Palaearctic species, while species with 2 clunial apophyses (not considering the cosmopolitan L. pedicularia), occur in Africa, Europe and China (Aethiopian and Palearctic regions).
The literature on the Psocoptera (Lienhard and Smithers 2002) is overwhelmingly dominated by taxonomic papers. As a result, much is known about the morphology of the order, but very little is known about the biological significance of most of the characters that have been described. An example of the above is the presence of apophyses on the male clunium, a character very rare in the Psocoptera, and of unknown function. To my knowledge it only occurs in 2 genera (Lachesilla and Ceratolachesillus), of the 19 that presently constitute the Lachesillidae. In Lachesilla, male clunial apophyses are known to occur only in 2 species groups of the 17 species groups presently recognized in the genus, in which males are known (the Chinese Ceratolachesillus is monotypic).
The character state of the mid clunial apophysis in L. cerorma, as well as its distinct genitalic characters, makes it so different as to constitute a new species group in the genus Lachesilla. The hypandrium, claspers, and phallosome apodemes are reminiscent of those in most species in the rufa species group (see García Aldrete, 1990), although the paraproctal prongs are not conical, and the epiproct is not bellshaped and bears 2 anterior small sclerotized cones.
Relationships of the pedicularia species group
L. carpinteroi and L. williamsi, collected at the same locality, are close to each other, differing in genital details, as shown in Figs. 23 and 67. Within the pedicularia species group, they stand close to L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, L. convexicornis García Aldrete and L. macropudenda García Aldrete, also from Peru, all of them having a median glabrous clunial apophysis over the area of the epiproct (García Aldrete, 2008). Both L. carpinteroi and L. williamsi have the clasper tips fused, and share this character with L. asymmetriproctus and L. convexicornis, as well as with the North American species L. pacifica Chapman (a species with a median sclerotized plate on the clunium, at the base of the epiproct, representing the raised apodeme). The fused clasper tips are a synapomorphy for this set of species. All of them retain, as a plesiomorphy, a long pair of forwarddirected epiproctal processes. These are lost, constituting an apomorphy, in L. macropudenda, which has the clunial process, but its clasper tips are free, representing a plesiomorphous character. The clunial apophyses in these species present the same character state: "glabrous, strongly sclerotized", as opposed to the state "setose, not sclerotized" in L. cerorma; in the former 2 species they look similar to that of the Chinese Ceratolachesillus quinquecornus Li Fasheng.
I thank Diego Carpintero (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Luis Cervantes Peredo (Instituto de Ecología, A. C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México), Guillermina Ortega and Cristina Mayorga (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City) for the donation of the specimens here studied. Felipe Villegas (Instituto de Biología, UNAM) provided valuable support in preparing the illustrations. Charles Lienhard (Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève) read a previous draft of the manuscript and provided useful comments. I thank 2 anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the content and organization of the material presented in this paper. I also thank the Instituto de Biología, UNAM, for supporting my research over the years.
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