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Revista mexicana de ingeniería química

versión impresa ISSN 1665-2738

Rev. Mex. Ing. Quím vol.14 no.3 México sep./dic. 2015




Stability evaluation of β-Carotene nanoemulsions prepared by homogenization-emulsification process using stearic acid as oil phase


Evaluación de la estabilidad de nanoemulsiones de β -Caroteno preparadas por un método de homogeneización -Emulsificación empleando ácido esteárico como fase oleosa


G.A. Flores-Miranda, G. Valencia del Toro y J. Yáñez-Fernández*


Laboratorio de Biotecnología Alimentaria, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Acueducto de Guadalupe s/n, La Laguna Ticomán, Gustavo A. Madero, 07340, Ciudad de México, D.F. * Corresponding author. E-mail:, Phone: +52 57-29-60-00, Ext.56477.


Received November 21, 2014;
Accepted September 20, 2015.



The effect of processing parameters (homogenization time, stirring speed and oil:water ratio) of y β-carotene nanoemulsions (stearic acid as oil phase) was studied via a central composite design (CCD) by response surface methodology (RSM). Particle size and nanoemulsions stability (β-carotene concentration, color and antioxidant activity) stored for 21 days at 25 and 4 °C were selected as response variables. Maximum particle size obtained was 1689.0 nm and minimum particle size was 418.8 nm, which a second order model were adjusted with R2 values of 0.766 and 0.933 at 25 and 4 °C, respectively. The particle size was affected directly by the homogenization time and inversily proportional to stirring speed and oil:water ratio. Parameters as β-carotene concentration and antioxidant activity showed a gradual decrease during storage, showing a great stability those that were stored at 4 °C. The optimal conditions to produce β-carotene nanoemulsions with minimum particle size were found at 25 °C for homogenization time 5.99 min, 5287 rpm and an oil: water ratio of 0.8:99.2; at 4 °C homogenization time 5.99 min, 8002 rpm and 0.62:99 oil:water ratio.

Keywords: β-carotene, stearic acid, central composite design, emulsification-homogenization, nanoemulsion.



Se evaluó el efecto de los parámetros de procesamiento (tiempo de homogeneización, velocidad de agitación y relación aceite:agua) de nanoemulsión es de β-caroteno (ácido esteárico como fase oleosa) por medio de un diseño central compuesto (DCC), empleando la metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR). El tamaño de partícula y la estabilidad de las nanoemulsiones (concentración de β-caroteno, color y actividad antioxidante) almacenadas durante 21 días a 25 y 4 °C fueron seleccionadas como variables respuesta. El tamaño de partícula máximo obtenido fue de 1689.0 nm y mínimo de 418.8 nm, los cuales se ajustaron a un modelo de segundo orden con valores de R2 de 0.766 y 0.933 para 25 y 4 °C, respectivamente. El tamaño de partícula fue afectado directamente por el tiempo de homogeneización e inversamente proporcional a la velocidad de agitación y la relación aceite:agua, mientras que los parámetros de estabilidad como color y actividad antioxidante presentaron una disminución gradual durante el almacenamiento, mostrando una mayor estabilidad aquellas que fueron almacenadas a 4 °C. Las condiciones optimas estimadas para elaborar nanoemulsiones de β-caroteno minimizando el tamaño de partícula fueron para 25 °C tiempo homogeneización de 5.99 min, 5287 rpm y una relación aceite:agua de 0.8:99.2; para 4 °C el tiempo de homogeneización de 5.99 min, 8002 rpm y una relación aceite:agua de 0.62: 99.38.

Palabras clave: β-caroteno, ácido esteárico, diseño central compuesto, emulsificación-homogenización, nanoemulsión.





The author G.A. Flores-Miranda acknowledge the financial support by Instituto Politécnico Nacional-México (SIP-20150178) and CONACyT-México (296035) for the scholarship on PhD studies.



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