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Annals of Hepatology

versión impresa ISSN 1665-2681

Ann. Hepatol. vol.16 no.1 Ciudad de México ene./feb. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/16652681.1226813 

Concise review

Association Between Hepatitis B Virus and Chronic Kidney Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Fabrizio Fabrizi* 

Francesca M. Donato* 

Piergiorgio Messa* 

*Division of Nephrology, Division of Gastroenterology, Maggiore Hospital and IRCCS Foundation, Milano, Italy.

Abstract:

Background.

Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

Aim.

To evaluate the effect of infection with HBV on the risk of chronic kidney disease in the general population.

Material and methods.

We conducted a systematic review of the published medical literature to determine if hepatitis B infection is associated with increased likelihood of chronic kidney disease. We used the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to generate a summary estimate of the relative risk for chronic kidney disease (defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or detectable proteinuria) with hepatitis B virus across the published studies. Meta-regression and stratified analysis were also conducted.

Results.

We identified 16 studies (n = 394,664 patients) and separate meta-analyses were performed according to the outcome. The subset of longitudinal studies addressing ESRD (n = 2; n = 91,656) gave a pooled aHR 3.87 (95% CI, 1.48; 6.25, P < 0.0001) among HBV-infected patients and no heterogeneity was recorded. In meta-regression, we noted the impact of male (P = 0.006) and duration of follow-up (P = 0.007) upon the adjusted hazard ratio of incidence of chronic kidney disease (including end-stage renal disease). No relationship occurred between HBV positive status and prevalent chronic disease (n = 7, n = 109,889 unique patients); adjusted odds ratio, were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.89; 1.25) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76; 1.10), respectively.

Conclusions.

HBV infection is possibly associated with a risk of developing reduced glomerular filtration rate in the general population; no link between HBV sero-positive status and frequency of chronic kidney disease or proteinuria was noted in cross-sectional surveys.

Key words: Hepatitis B virus; Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Proteinuria; Meta-analysis

Introduction

Chronic kidney disease is a growing public health issue worldwide. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease, defined by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and/or increased urinary albumin excretion, exceeds 10% of the adult general population, according to some populationbased studies.1 Conventional risk factors for chronic kidney disease include demographics (aging, gender), lifestyles (smoking, alcohol intake, physical exercise), and co-morbidities (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, anaemia, overweight);2 also, chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been recently associated to the risk of chronic disease in the general population3 and among HIV-infected individuals.4 However, the mechanisms underlying the current frequency of chronic kidney disease in the general population of developed world remain unclear.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important cause of liver disease and cancer and infects about 400 million individuals worldwide. In addition to its effects in the liver, extra-hepatic manifestations may be observed in up to 20% of patients infected with HBV, in both acute and chronic infections. Manifestations related to HBV include mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, and renal disease.5 association between HBV infection and glomerular disease has been already explored by various authors; the most common type of HBV-related glomerulonephritis is membranous nephropathy, particularly in the Asian continent.6 Also, chronic hepatitis B serum promotes apoptotic damage in human renal tubular cells.7 Either insulin resistance8 and oxidative stress9 have been related to HBV infection; both conditions may contribute to renal injury. Whether HBV-infected individuals have increased risk for development and progression of chronic kidney disease has not been appropriately investigated. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the link between HBV infection and frequency of chronic kidney disease (low estimated glomerular filtration rate and/or detectable proteinuria) at population-based level by performing a systematic review of the literature with a metaanalysis of clinical observational studies.

Material and methods

This work is in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement10 (Supplementary file 1).

Search strategy and data extraction

Two authors (F.F., and F.M. D.) independently reviewed English-language citations from the national Library of Medicine’s Medline database from 1970 through July 1, 2015. Data on HBsAg status were not available before 1970, when the first assay for HBsAg was manufactured. We conducted our search by four Medline databases engines (Embase, Grateful Med, Ovid, and PubMed). Our Medline search was limited to human studies. We applied the following algorithm in medical subject heading and in free text words: (“HEPATITIS B” or “HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION” or “HBsAg POSITIVE STATUS” or “HBc ANTIBODY POSITIVE STATUS”) and (“CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE” or “CKD” or “ENDSTAGE RENAL DISEASE” or “ESRD” or “LOW GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE” or “RENAL IMPAIRMENT” or “RENAL INSUFFICIENCY” or “RENAL FAILURE” or “PROTEINURIA” or ‘’GLOMERULONEPHRITIS’’) and (“RELATIVE RISK” or “RISK RATIO” or “RR” or “ODDS RATIO” or “OR” or “HAZARD RATIO” or “HR” or “INCIDENCE”). An additional search was performed with electronic searches of the Cochrane Library; manual searches of selected specialty journals were done to identify all pertinent literature. Reference lists from qualitative topic reviews and published clinical studies were also searched. It was previously demonstrated that a Medline search alone might not be sensitive enough.11 Data on study design, study period, patient characteristics, HBV prevalence, and kidney disease outcomes were abstracted. Authors of selected papers were contacted to obtain missing data and only data from individuals with known HBV status were included in the meta-analysis. Consensus was achieved for all data. Studies were compared to eliminate duplicate reports for the same patients, which included contact with investigators when necessary. Eligibility and exclusion criteria were pre-specified. Our search was limited to human studies that were published in the English literature.

Inclusion criteria

Studies were included if they met the following inclusión criteria:

  • They presented original data from cohort and crosssectional studies.

  • The outcome of interest was clearly defined as incidence or prevalence of chronic kidney disease, i.e., reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or detectable proteinuria in the adult general population according to HBV serological status; and

  • They provided adjusted risk estimates and their confidence intervals.

We considered both case-control studies and cohort studies as eligible for inclusion in the analysis. We included studies where the diagnosis of HBV infection was done by testing for HBsAg in serum and/or HBc antibody. Information on HBV serological status was collected at the time of enrolment. If data on the same population were duplicated in more than one study, the most recent study was included in the analysis.

Ineligible studies

Studies were excluded if they reported inadequate data on the association between chronic kidney disease and HBV sero-positive status (e.g., incomplete information on HBV status or renal outcomes). Unpublished studies, studies that were only published in abstract form or as interim reports were excluded; letters and review articles were not considered for this systematic review.

Quality assessment

The quality of the 13 studies was appraised using a scale adapted from the ‘Newcastle/Ottawa Scale (NOS)’.12 The Newcastle-Ottawa scale is a scoring system that assesses every aspect of an observational epidemiologic study from a methodological point of view. When a study included relevant information that could be associated with the NOS, one point was added. Seven items in cross-sectional studies and eight items in cohort and case-control studies that could be related to the NOS were identified. There fore, cross-sectional studies assigned 8-10, 6-7, 4-5, or 0-3 points (stars) were evaluated as very good, good, satisfactory or unsatisfactory studies, respectively. Similarly, cohort/ case-control studies with 7-9, 5-6, 4 and 0-3 points (stars) were identified as very good, good, satisfactory or unsatisfactory, respectively. We carried out subgroup analyses based on those studies provided with very good quality. Data extraction and quality scoring were performed independently by two reviewers (F.F. and F.M. D.) and the results were merged by consensus. The complete protocol for quality scoring is available on-line (Supplementary file 2).

Outcomes measures

We performed separate meta-analyses according to the outcome. One meta-analysis included longitudinal studies addressing the incidence of chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease; and another regarded cohort studies assessing the prevalence of CKD. An additional meta-analysis was performed for prevalent proteinuria. Staging of chronic kidney disease was categorized according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) definition, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the 4-variable MDRD equation.13 The primary end point was to provide adjusted estimates of the risk (and 95% CIs) of incidence (or prevalence) of chronic kidney disease in the general population according to HBV serological status. Multivariate analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of HBV positive status on the frequency of chronic kidney disease after adjustment for potential confounders (covariates) (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, and others). Longitudinal studies adopted Cox regression analysis to assess the independent predictors of the incidence of chronic kidney disease; multiple logistic regression analyses were done in cross-sectional surveys. An additional end point was the adjusted estimate of the risk (and 95% CIs) of prevalence of proteinuria in the adult general population according to HBV serological status. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to assess the effect of HBV sero-positivity per se on the incidence of chronic kidney disease after adjustment for differential follow-up time and distribution of potential confounders.

Data synthesis and analysis

We weighted the study-specific log odds ratios for case control and cross-sectional studies, and log hazard ratios for longitudinal studies by the inverse of their variance to obtain a pooled effect estimate and its 95% confidence intervals. For each study, we used the estimate of the effect measure that was adjusted for the largest number of confounders. We present both fixed-effects and random-effects pooled estimates but use and report the latter when heterogeneity was present. We used the random-effects approach, as described by DerSimonian and Laird.14 Cochrane Q-test was used for quantifying the heterogeneity.15 The I2 statistic, which is the percentage of total variation across studies due to heterogeneity rather than chance, was also calculated.16 The null hypothesis of this test is the absence of heterogeneity. We explored the origin of heterogeneity by restricting the analysis to subgroups of studies defined by study characteristics such as country of origin, CKD stage, and others. Heterogeneity was also evaluated by meta-regression in order to look at the effect of potential and continuous covariates on the outcome of interest. Subgroup or stratified analyses and meta-regression were pre-specified. We performed random-effects meta-regression using the method of moments or maximum likelihood approaches where appropriate, a single predictor is allowed in each model (simple meta-regression). Publication bias was assessed by the Egger test for funnel-plot asymmetry. All analyses were done with the statistical package Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA), versión 2.0 (Biostat Inc., USA, 2005). The 5% significance level was adopted for á risk. Every estimate was given with its 95% CIs.

Results

Literature review

As shown in figure 1, we retrieved 424 articles and 98 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility. The list of the papers is reported in the supplementary file 3. Sixteen studies met our inclusion criteria, they were published in 11 papers19-30 (Figure 1) and carried out in 3 countries. Two longitudinal papers addressed various outcomes (the risk of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease) in the same population.20-21 Four papers23-25,28 gave information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and proteinuria in the same population. Thus, some studies contributed data on more than one kidney disease outcome, but each cohort was represented once in any meta-analysis. There was a 100% concordance between reviewers with respect to final inclusion and exclusion of studies reviewed based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of HBV infection was made by detecting the presence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum; in a few reports20,21 diagnosis of HBV infection was done by ICD-9 codes. One report addressed the rate of HBV infection by assessing HBcAb serologic status,22 another survey identified HBV infection by patient medical history.29

Figure 1 Flow diagram of study selection. 

Patient and study characteristics

Tables 1, 2, 3 reports some salient demographic, and clinical characteristics of subjects enrolled in the included studies. The mean age of patient cohorts ranged from 18.9 ± 0.5 to 60.8 ± 11.5 years. The gender distribution ranged from 31.2% to 67.6% male. Five reports were Taiwan, four from China, one from Japan and Hong Kong, respectively. The average follow-up ranged between 3.5 and 6.5 years, among longitudinal studies. The quality scores ranged between 7 and 8 points (cohort/case-control studies), and between 8 and 9 (cross-sectional studies) (Supplementary file 2).

  • Summary estimate of outcome: Incidence of CKD (reduced eGFR or end-stage renal disease). Four longitudinal studies (n = 184,937 patients; 36,192 HBV positive and 148,745 HBV negative patients) gave information on the incidence of CKD (or ESRD) among HBV positive patients19-22 (Table 1). The relationship between positive HBV serologic status and increased incidence of CKD neared the statistical significance, adjusted HR with HBV across the surveys, 2.22 (95% CI, 0.95; 3.50, NS). There was some heterogeneity (I2 = 64.7%, P = 0.04) across the four studies (Figure 2). Publication bias was not found (Egger test, P = 0.61) (Figure 3). The subset of longitudinal studies addressing ESRD gave a pooled aHR 3.87 (95%CI, 1.48; 6.25, P < 0.0001) among HBV-infected patients and no heterogeneity was recorded (Table 4).

  • Summary estimate of outcome: Prevalence of CKD (reduced eGFR). Seven studies (n = 109,889 unique patients; 8,023 HBV positive and 101,866 HBVnegative patients) with cross-sectional (or casecontrol) design addressed the prevalence of CKD (or reduced GFR) in HBV-infected patients.23-29 Table 2 shows some demographic, and clinical parameters of subjects enrolled in the included studies. We found no relationship between positive HBV serologic status and increased prevalence of CKD, adjusted OR with HBV across the studies, 1.069 (95% CI, 0.89; 1.248, P = NS). Tests for homogeneity of the aOR across the seven studies gave a Q-value (by χ2 test) of 11.3 (P = 0.007) (I2 = 47.13), that is, the homogeneity assumption was rejected (Table 4). No publication bias was found, according to the Egger test (P = 0.89).

* ESRD: need for dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine, or serum creatinine ≥ 500 μmol/L. ** ESRD: end-stage renal disease requiring long-term dialysis. *** CKD = decreased eGFR (< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or proteinuria (urine protein > 1+). **** CKD: chronic kidney disease stage 1-5.

Table 1 Longitudinal studies included in the meta-analysis (outcome: frequency of end-stage renal disease or chronic kidney disease) 

Low eGFR: eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. CKD: CKD stage 1-5 alternatively eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 with or without proteinuria.

Table 2 Cross-sectional studies included in the meta-analysis (outcome: frequency of chronic kidney disease, or low estimated glomerular filtration rate). 

Table 3 Studies included in the meta-analysis (outcome: frequency of proteinuria). 

Figure 2 Impact of HBV positive serologic status on the incidence of CKD (longitudinal studies). 

Figure 3 Funnel plot of precision: Impact of HBV seropositive status on the risk of chronic kidney disease (longitudinal studies). 

  • Summary estimate of outcome: prevalence of proteinuria. Five studies (n = 99,838 unique patients, 8,030 being HBV seropositive and 91,808 HBV negative) 23-25,28,30 evaluated the prevalence of proteinuria according to HBV positive serologic status. Two studies defined proteinuria by semiquantitative urine protein dispstick test24,30 and three measured albuminuria by spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio.23,25,28 The summary estimate for adjusted OR of proteinuria with HBV was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76;1.10, P = NS) across the identified studies (Table 4). The homogeneity assumption was not rejected (Q = 6.02, P = 0.19). Publication bias did not occur (Egger test, P = 0.42).

  • Stratified analysis and meta-regression. As shown in table 4, there was substantial difference in pooled effect estimates across designs (i.e., cross-sectional vs. Longitudinal studies) and the homogeneity assumption was rejected in many subsets. As listed in table 5, meta-regression demonstrated an inverse relationship between the frequency of males (P = 0.006) and the outcome of interest (adjusted HR of incidence of CKD among HBV positive patients). In addition, a direct relationship between follow-up duration (P = 0.007) and the outcome of interest (adjusted HR of incidence of CKD among HBV positive patients) was noted.

There was no significant difference in outcomes according to the diagnosis of HBV infection (data not shown).

Discussion

The association between HBV infection and chronic kidney disease in the general population is controversial even if the renal involvement of hepatitis B virus infection was first reported four decades ago.31 The relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and CKD occurs in several ways- some forms of renal disease are induced by HBV infection and patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for acquiring HBV. In the current review, we have summarized the scientific evidence and carried out a meta-analysis on the exposure to HBV infection and the risk of chronic kidney disease and proteinuria in the adult general population. This meta-analysis (16 studies, n = 394,664 patients) should suggest an association between positive serologic status for HBV and an increased risk of chronic kidney disease, aHR being 2.22 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.95; 3.50) in HBV infected individuals compared with HBV negative. The subset of longitudinal studies addressing ESRD gave a pooled aHR 3.87 (95%CI, 1.48; 6.25, P < 0.0001) among HBV-infected patients, without heterogeneity.

Cheng, et al.:19 HR adjusted for age, age of onset of diabetes mellitus, gender, smoking use, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, white cell count, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albumin:creatinine ratio. Chen, et al.:20 HR adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidaemia, cirrhosis, use of herbs containing aristolochic acid, geographic region, urbanization level, enrollee category, number of medical visits, propensity score, and Charlson comorbidity index score. Chen, et al.:21 HR adjusted for gender, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidaemia, glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, renal and urinary tract tumor, cirrhosis, use of herbs containing aristolochic acid, geographic region, urbanization level, enrollee category, number of medical visits in one year before study entry, Charlson comorbidity index score, propensity score, and interactions terms. Kong, et al.:22 HR adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol. Ishizaka, et al.:23 OR adjusted for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and anti-HCV seropositive status. Lee, et al.:24 OR adjusted for age, gender, educational status, body mass index, haemoglobin level, albumin level, cholesterol level, uric acid level, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Cai, et al.:25 OR adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol levels, total cholesterol levels, and nephrolithiasis. Lin, et al.:26 OR adjusted for age, gender, annual income, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, gout, liver disease, urinary tract disease, cancer, Chinese herbs use, oral analgesic use, analgesic injection, health supplements, cigarette smoking, betel-nut chewing, alcohol drinking, metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia, haemoglobin, and positivity for anti-HCV. Senghore, et al.:27 OR adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, urine occult blood, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, total cholesterol. Zeng, et al.:28 OR adjusted for age, gender, anti-HCV seropositive status, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, albumin, HDL colesterol levels, LDL cholesterol levels, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and uric acid. Su, et al.:29 OR adjusted for gender, age, obsesity, income, HCV, hyperuricaemia, anaemia, hyperlipidaemia, smoking status, alcohol abuse, betel nut, exercise habits, groundwater using. Huang, et al.:30 OR adjusted for diabetes, hypertension, HCV serologic status, age, triglycerides, body mass index, ALT level, total cholesterol.

Table 4 Summary measure for adjusted effect estimate according to HBV serologic status among various subgroups of interest. 

Table 5 Meta-regression: impact of continuous covariates on the outcome of interest (incidence of CKD). 

Several pieces of evidence are in keeping with a detrimental role of HBV on the development of chronic kidney disease.32-39 In the 2-year cross-sectional HARPE study,32 renal abnormalities were highly prevalent in chronic HBV infection and occurred before the initiation of any antiviral therapy towards HBV. Around 64% of the patients enrolled in the HARPE study (n = 260) were found to have kidney disease according to the KDOQI/KDIGO classification. In their observational and longitudinal study, Mallet, et al.33 observed 214 patients with chronic HBV infection who were treated with various nucleos(t)ide analogues, the eGFR remained stable or increased over time in patients with chronic HBV mono-infection with a baseline eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or higher and treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or entecavir. In the GLOBE study,34 a significant improvement in mean GFR was noted in patients treated with telbivudine for 2 years, but not in those on lamivudine. GLOBE extension studies demonstrated that the improvement was maintained throughout 4-6 years of continuous telbivudine therapy. The mean increase in eGFR was ± 14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 at week 208 (P < 0.0001). In 74% (165 of 223) of the telbivudine-treated patients with baseline eGFR of 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD stage 2), renal function improved to ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 after 4 years of treatment. A prospective survey from Germany reported recently that GFR (calculated with the CKD-EPI equation), declined by approximately -2 mL/min/year in HBsAg-positive (n = 60) untreated patients over a median follow-up of 24 months.35

Chronic kidney disease is an important public-health problem which significantly increases the likelihood of adverse outcomes and high health-care costs; in addition to the conventional risk factors for chronic kidney disease in the general population, HBV may be an additional agent. Various mechanisms have been implicated in the adverse impact of HBV sero-positive status on chronic kidney disease, including an accelerated endothelial dysfunction at renal level. An atherogenic activity of HBV has been suggested to explain a five-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events in a selected cohort of HBsAg positive patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy over a median follow-up of 24 months.17 Steatosis is a typical feature of chronic HBV infection and could induce lipid peroxidation and increase plasma inflammatory biomarkers.39 The pathogenesis of HBV-associated nephropathy is still under investigation; however, the small number of patients who develop glomerulonephritis suggests that concomitant factors are needed for development of nephropathy (i.e., genetic susceptibility, abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity, and/or environmental conditions).5 These pieces of evidence are in apparent conflict with other findings from the general population- chronic HCV is an important factor for developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.41 Such relationships in patients with chronic hepatitis B are not so straightforward.40, 42,43

The findings from our meta-analysis are subject to several limitations. First, many studies were cross-sectional, a design that does not allow for causal inference and can overestimate relative risks given its reliance on prevalence ratios. When restricted to cross-sectional studies, no significant relationship was found between hepatitis B serologic status and frequency of CKD and proteinuria. Therefore, there is some evidence that the findings may be impacted by study design. Second, we included in the current review only studies providing adjusted estimates of outcomes (risk of end-stage renal disease or chronic kidney disease, or proteinuria), but residual confounding (confounding remaining after adjustment) likely exists as full information has not been given on various covariates in all studies retrieved. As an example, information on HBV DNA or HBV genotypes, socioeconomic status, compliance with medical visits over follow-up, and substance abuse which are important potential confounders was incomplete. Finally, the occurrence of significant heterogeneity clearly precluded more definitive conclusions; our subgroup analysis with meta-regression was not able to capture all the sources of heterogeneity observed. As an example, all the studies enrolled in our systematic review came from Asia and we need studies from other continents.

In conclusion, this meta-analysis of observational studies should suggest a relationship between HBV infection and higher incidence of low eGFR and/or end-stage renal disease in the adult general population. We need additional studies with appropriate size and design (i.e., prospective longitudinal studies) to increase our knowledge on this issue and to explore potential mechanisms underlying such association. A heightened awareness of an increased chronic kidney disease risk should dictate more careful follow-up of renal defects among patients with hepatitis B virus infection.

Supporting information

  • Supplementary file 1. PRISMA 2009 check list. 146. PRISMA’s items and their application within the paper.

  • Supplementary file 2. Quality study. 148. Details on the quality study process (cohort and crosssectional studies).

  • Supplementary file 3. Excluded papers. 150. List of excluded papers sorted by publication year.

Disclosures

None.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by a ‘Project Glomerulonephritis’ grant, in memory of Pippo Neglia, by Associazione Amici del Croff-Onlus. The funders had no role in study design, data collection analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

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30. Huang J, Chuang W, Dai C, Ho C, Hwang S, Chen S, Lin Z, et al. Viral hepatitis and proteinuria in an area endemic for hepatitis B and C infections: another chain of link? J Int Med 2006; 260: 255-62. [ Links ]

31. Combes B, Shorey J, Barrera A, Stastny P, Eigenbrodt E, Hull A, Carter N. Glomerulonephritis with deposition of Australia antigen-antibody complexes in glomerular basement membrane. Lancet 1971; 2: 234-7. [ Links ]

32. Amet S, Bronowicki J, Thabut D, Zoulim F, Bourliere M, Math urin P, de Ledinghen V, et al. Prevalence of renal abnormalities in chronic HBV infection:the HARPE study. Liver Int 2015; 148-55. [ Links ]

33. Mallet V, Schwarzinger M, Vallet-Pichard A, Fontaine H, Corouge M, Sogni P, Pol S. Effect of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues on renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus mono-infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1181-8.e1. [ Links ]

34. Gane E, Deray G, Liaw Y, Lim S, Lai C, Rasenack J, Wang Y, et al. Telbivudine improves renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: 138-46. [ Links ]

35. Tsai M, Chen C, Tseng P, Hung C, Chiu K, Chang K, Yen Y, et al. Does nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment affect renal function in chronic hepatitis B patients who have already decreased eGFR? A longitudinal study. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0149761. [ Links ]

36. Mauss S, Berger F, Filmann N, Hueppe D, Henke J, Hegener P, Athmann C, et al. Effect of HBV polymerase inhibitors on renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 2011; 55: 1235-40. [ Links ]

37. Shin J, Kwon H, Jang H, Lee J, Gwak G, Huh W, Jung S, et al. Risk factors for renal functional decline in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving oral antiviral agents. Medicine 2016; 95: e2400. [ Links ]

38. Wong G, Tse Y, Wong W, Yip T, Tsoi K, Chan H. Long-term safety of oral nucleos(t)ide analogues for patients with chronic hepatitis B: A cohort study of 53,500 subjects. Hepatology 2015; 62: 689-93. [ Links ]

39. Turan I, Yapali S, Bademkiran F, Kose T, Duman S, Sozbilen M, Gunsar F, et al. Telbivudine in liver transplant recipients: renal protection does not overcome the risk of polyneuropathy and myopathy. Liver Int 2015; 21: 1066-75. [ Links ]

40. Shimizu I, Kohno N, Tamaki K, Shono M, Huang H, He J, Yao D. Female hepatology: favourable role of estrogen in chronic liver disease with hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 4295-305. [ Links ]

41. Adinolfi L, Zampino R, Restivo L, Lonardo A, Guerrera B, Marrone A, Nascimbeni F, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and atherosclerosis: clinical impact and mechanisms. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 3410-7. [ Links ]

42. Wang C, Chen C, Lee M, Yang H, Hsiao C. Chronic hepatitis B infection and risk of atherosclerosis-related mortality: a 17-year follow-up study based on 22,472 residents in Taiwan. Atherosclerosis 2010; 2111: 624-9. [ Links ]

43. Jacurska P, Drazilova S, Fedacko J, Pella D, Janicko M. Association between hepatitis B and metabolic syndrome: current state of art. World J Gastroenterol 2016; 22: 155-64. [ Links ]

Abbreviations:

• ACR:

albumin to creatinine ratio

• APR:

albumin to protein ratio

• CC:

case-control

• CKD:

chronic kidney disease

• CI:

confidence intervals

• Co:

cohort

• CS:

cross-sectional

• eGFR:

estimated glomerular filtration rate

• ESRD:

end-stage renal disease

• HBV:

hepatitis B virus

• HBcAb:

hepatitis B core antibody

• HBsAg:

hepatitis B surface antigen

• HCV:

hepatitis C virus

• HR:

hazard ratio

• MDRD:

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease

• NOS:

Newcastle/Ottawa Scale

• OR:

odds ratio

SUPPLEMENTARY FILE 1.

PRISMA 2009 check list.

PRISMA’s items and their application within the paper.

Section/topic No. Checklist item Reported on page No.
TITLE. Title 1 Identify the report as a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both. 1
ABSTRACT. Structured summary 2 Provide a structured summary including, as applicable: background; objectives; data sources; study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions; study appraisal and synthesis methods; results; limitations; conclusions and implications of key findings; systematic review registration number. 1
INTRODUCTION. Rationale 3 Describe the rationale for the review in the context of what is already known. 1-2
Objectives 4 Provide an explicit statement of questions being addressed with reference to participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (PICOS). 1-2
METHODS. Protocol and registration 5 Indicate if a review protocol exists, if and where it can be accessed (e.g., Web address), and, if available, provide registration information including registration number. Not available
Eligibility criteria 6 Specify study characteristics (e.g., PICOS, length of follow-up) and report characteristics (e.g., years considered, language, publication status) used as criteria for eligibility, giving rationale. 2
Information sources 7 Describe all information sources (e.g., databases with dates of coverage, contact with study authors to identify additional studies) in the search and date last searched. 2
Search 8 Present full electronic search strategy for at least one database, including any limits used, such that it could be repeated. 2
Study selection 9 State the process for selecting studies (i.e., screening, eligibility, included in systematic review, and, if applicable, included in the meta-analysis). 2
Data collection process 10 Describe method of data extraction from reports (e.g., piloted forms, independently, in duplicate) and any processes for obtaining and confirming data from investigators. 2
Data items 11 List and define all variables for which data were sought (e.g., PICOS, funding sources) and any assumptions and simplifications made. 2
Risk of bias in individual studies 12 Describe methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies (including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level), and how this information is to be used in any data synthesis. 2
Summary measures 13 State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means). 3
Synthesis of results 14 Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies, if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I2) for each meta-analysis. 3
Risk of bias across studies 15 Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies). 3-4
Additional analyses 16 Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were pre-specified. 3-4
RESULTS. Study selection 17 Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram. 3-6
Study characteristics 18 For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations. 3-6
Risk of bias within studies 19 Present data on risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome level assessment (see item 12). 3-6
Results of individual studies 20 For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot. 3-6
Synthesis of results 21 Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency. 3-6
Risk of bias across studies 22 Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies (see Item 15). 3-6
Additional analysis 23 Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see Item 16]). 3-6
DISCUSSION. Summary of evidence 24 Summarize the main findings including the strength of evidence for each main outcome; consider their relevance to key groups (e.g., healthcare providers, users, and policy makers). 6-8
Limitations 25 Discuss limitations at study and outcome level (e.g., risk of bias), and at review-level (e.g., incomplete retrieval of identified research, reporting bias). 6-8
Conclusions 26 Provide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence, and implications for future research. 6-8
FUNDING. Funding 27 Describe sources of funding for the systematic review and other support (e.g., supply of data); role of funders for the systematic review. 9

From: Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(6): e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097. For more information, visit: www.prisma-statement.org

SUPPLEMENTARY FILE 2.

Quality study.

Details on the quality study process (cohort and cross-sectional studies).

NEWCASTLE - OTTAWA QUALITY ASSESSMENT SCALE

(Cohort studies)

Note: A study can be awarded a maximum of one star for each numbered item within the Selection and Outcome categories. A maximum of two stars can be given for Comparability (maximum 8 items, 9 stars).

Selection (Maximum 4 stars).

  1. Representativeness of the exposed cohort.

    1. Truly representative of the average _______________ (describe) in the community.

    2. Somewhat representative of the average _______________ in the community.

    3. Selected group of users, e.g. nurses, volunteers.

    4. No description of the derivation of the cohort.

  2. Selection of the non-exposed cohort.

    1. Drawn from the same community as the exposed cohort.

    2. Drawn from a different source.

    3. No description of the derivation of the non exposed cohort.

  3. Ascertainment of exposure.

    1. Secure record (e.g. surgical records).

    2. Structured interview.

    3. Written self-report.

    4. No description.

  4. Demonstration that outcome of interest was not present at start of study.

    1. Yes.

    2. No.

Comparability (Maximum 2 stars).

  1. Comparability of cohorts on the basis of the design or analysis.

    1. Study controls for ______________ (select the most important factor).

    2. Study controls for any additional factor (this criteria could be modified to indicate specific control for a second important factor).

Outcome (Maximum 3 stars).

  1. Assessment of outcome.

    1. Independent blind assessment.

    2. Record linkage.

    3. Self report.

    4. No description.

  2. Was follow-up long enough for outcomes to occur.

    1. Yes (select an adequate follow up period for outcome of interest).

    2. No.

  3. Adequacy of follow up of cohorts.

    1. Complete follow up - all subjects accounted for.

    2. Subjects lost to follow up unlikely to introduce bias - small number lost - > ____ % (select an adequate %) follow up, or description provided of those lost).

    3. Follow up rate < ____% (select an adequate %) and no description of those lost.

    4. No statement.

NEWCASTLE-OTTAWA QUALITY ASSESSMENT SCALE

(Cohort studies)

Cheng A, et al. (Diabetologia, 2006).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1c no star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3a one star.

    • 4a one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3d no star.

    • N = 7 stars

Chen Y, et al. (Kidney Int, 2015).

Chen Y, et al. (BMC Nephrology, 2015).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1a one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3a one star.

    • 4a one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3d no star.

    • N = 8 stars

Kong X, et al. (Chronic Dis Transl Med, 2016).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3d one star.

    • 4a one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3d no star.

    • N = 7 stars

NEWCASTLE - OTTAWA QUALITY ASSESSMENT SCALE

(Adapted for cross-sectional studies) (Maximum 7 items, 10 stars).

Selection (Maximum 5 stars).

  1. Representativeness of the sample:

    1. Truly representative of the average in the target population* (all subjects or random sampling).

    2. Somewhat representative of the average in the target population* (non-random sampling).

    3. Selected group of users.

    4. No description of the sampling strategy.

  2. Sample size:

    1. Justified and satisfactory.*

    2. Not justified.

  3. Non-respondents:

    1. Comparability between respondents and non-respondents characteristics is established, and the response rate is satisfactory.*

    2. The response rate is unsatisfactory, or the comparability between respondents and non-respondents is unsatisfactory.

    3. No description of the response rate or the characteristics of the responders and the non-responders.

  4. Ascertainment of the exposure (risk factor):

    1. Validated measurement tool.**

    2. Non-validated measurement tool, but the tool is available or described.*

    3. No description of the measurement tool.

Comparability (Maximum 2 stars).

  1. The subjects in different outcome groups are comparable, based on the study design or analysis. Confounding factors are controlled.

    1. The study controls for the most important factor (select one). *

    2. The study control for any additional factor. *

Outcome: (Maximum 3 stars)

  1. Assessment of the outcome:

    1. Independent blind assessment.**

    2. Record linkage.**

    3. Self report.*

    4. No description.

  2. Statistical test:

    1. The statistical test used to analyze the data is clearly described and appropriate, and the measurement of the association is presented, including confidence intervals and the probability level (p value).*

    2. The statistical test is not appropriate, not described or incomplete.

This scale has been adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies to perform a quality assessment of cross-sectional studies for the systematic review.

NEWCASTLE - OTTAWA QUALITY ASSESSMENT SCALE

(Cross-sectional studies)

CAI J, et al. (Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2012).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1a one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3 not applicable (no star).

    • 4a two stars.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b two stars.

    • 2a one star.

    • N = 9 stars

ISHIZAKA N, et al. (Hepat Res, 2008).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1d no star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3 not applicable (no star).

    • 4a two stars.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b two stars.

    • 2a one star.

    • N = 8 stars

ZENG Q, et al. (J Int Med Res, 2014).

  • SELECTION

    • 1d no star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3 not applicable (no star).

    • 4a two stars.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b two stars.

    • 2a one star.

    • N = 8 stars

Lin M, et al. (Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2013).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1a one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3 not applicable (no star).

    • 4a two stars.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b two stars.

    • 1a one star.

    • N = 9 stars

Lee J, et al. (Am J Kidney Dis, 2010).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1d no star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3 one star.

    • 4a two stars.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b two stars.

    • 1a one star.

    • N = 9 stars

SENGHORE T, et al. (J Exp Clin Med, 2013).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1c one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3a one star.

    • 4a one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • N = 7 stars

HUANG J, et al. (J Intern Med, 2006).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3a one star.

    • 4c one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1b one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • N = 7 stars

NEWCASTLE - OTTAWA QUALITY ASSESSMENT SCALE

(Case-control studies)

Note: A study can be awarded a maximum of one star for each numbered item within the Selection and Exposure categories. A maximum of two stars can be given for Comparability.

Selection.

  1. Is the case definition adequate?

    1. Yes, with independent validation.

    2. Yes, e.g. record linkage or based on self-reports.

    3. No description.

  2. Representativeness of the cases.

    1. Consecutive or obviously representative series of cases.

    2. Potential for selection biases or not stated.

  3. Selection of controls.

    1. Community controls.

    2. Hospital controls.

    3. No description.

  4. Definition of controls.

    1. No history of disease (endpoint)

    2. No description of source

Comparability.

  1. Comparability of cases and controls on the basis of the design or analysis. 692.

    1. Study controls for _______________ (select the most important factor).

    2. Study controls for any additional factor (this criteria could be modified to indicate specific control for a second important factor.)

Exposure.

  1. Ascertainment of exposure.

    1. Secure record (e.g. surgical records).

    2. Structured interview where blind to case/control status.

    3. Interview not blinded to case/control status.

    4. Written self-report or medical record only.

    5. No description.

  2. Same method of ascertainment for cases and controls.

    1. Yes.

    2. No.

  3. Non-response rate.

    1. Same rate for both groups.

    2. Non respondents described.

    3. Rate different and no designation.

Su S, et al. (BMC Nephrol, 2015).

  • SELECTION.

    • 1a one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3a one star.

    • 4a one star.

  • COMPARABILITY.

    • 1a one star.

    • 1b one star.

  • OUTCOME.

    • 1a one star.

    • 2a one star.

    • 3c none.

    • N = 8 stars

SUPPLEMENTARY FILE 3.

Excluded papers.

List of excluded papers sorted by publication year.

STUDIES BASED ON UNADJUSTED ANALYSIS

  1. Lo M, Lee K, Chan N, Leung W, Ko G, Chan W, So W, et al. Effects of gender, Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis B virus serology status on cardiovascular and renal complications in Chinese type 2 diabetics with overt nephropathy. Diabetes Obesity Metabolism 2004; 6: 223-30.

STUDIES BASED ON SIMILAR DATABASE

  1. Lee J, Lin M, Chang J, Hung C, Chang J, Chen H, Yu M, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis. Plos One 2014; 9: e100790.

HBV AND CKD: NARRATIVE REVIEWS (AND METAANALYSES) (NATIVE KIDNEYS, ADULTS ONLY)

  1. Wang W, Wu M, Ma F, Sun T, Xu Z. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of nucleotide/nucleoside analog monotherapy for hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 2015; Dec 4 [Epub ahead of print].

  2. Naicker S, Ranmanian S, Kopp J. HIV and chronic kidney disease. Clin Nephrol 2015; 83(Suppl. 1): 32-8.

  3. Gluhovschi G, Petrica L, Sporea I, Timar R, Curescu M, Velciov S, Gluhovschi C. Chronic kidney disease-chronic liver disease. An Immunologic cross-talk. Rom J Intern Med 2015; 53: 3-12.

  4. Liang T, Block T, McMahon B, Ghany M, Urban S, Guo J, Locarnini S, et al. Present and future therapies of hepatitis B: from discovery to cure. Hepatology 2015 Aug 3. doi: 10.1002/hep.28025 [Epub ahead of print] Review.

  5. Mikolajczyk A, Aronsohn A. Current management of chronic hepatitis B and C in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2015; 22: 352-60.

  6. Cholongitas E, Tziomalos K, Pipili C. Management of patients with hepatitis B in special populations. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21(6): 1738-48. doi: 10.3748/ wjg.v21.i6.1738. Review.

  7. Gupta A, Quigg R. Glomerular diseases associated with hepatitis B and C. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2015; 22: 343-51

  8. Pipili C, Cholongitas E, Papatheodoridis G. Review article: nucleos(t)ide analogues in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014; 39: 35-46.

  9. Murakami C, Melda Urekli H, Atta MG. Antiviral medications for the treatment of hepatitis B and C infections and their effects on kidney function. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2014; 60(3): 177-89. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

  10. Yapali S, Lok A. Potential benefit of telbivudine on renal function does not outweigh its high rate of antiviral drug resistance and other adverse effects. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: 15-9.

  11. Vergani D, Mieli-Vergani D. Autoimmune manifestations in viral hepatitis. Semin Immunopathol 2013; 35: 73-85.

  12. Pipili C, Papatheodoridis G, Cholongitas E. Treatment of hepatitis B in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2013; 84: 880-5.

  13. Zheng X, Wei R, Tang L, Li P, Zheng X. Meta-analysis of combined therapy for adult hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18: 821-32.

  14. Urbanek P. Viral hepatitis infections in chronic kidney disease patients and renal transplant recipients. Kidney Blood Press Res 2012; 35: 454-67.

  15. Hrstic I, Ostojic R. Chronic liver diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease. Acta Med Croatica 2011; 65: 349-53.

  16. Papafragkakis H, Fabrizi F, Martin P. Viral hepatitis in renal transplantation. Clin Nephrol 2011; 76: 29-39.

  17. Yi Z, Jie Y, Nan Z. The efficacy of anti-viral therapy on hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Hepatol 2011; 10: 165-73.

  18. Kalia H, Fabrizi F, Martin P. Hepatitis B virus and renal transplantation. Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2011; 25: 102-9.

  19. Elewa U, Sandri A, Kim W, Fervenza F. Treatment of hepatitis B virus-associated nephropathy. Nephron Clin Pract 2011; 119: c41-c49.

  20. Huskey J, Wiseman A. Chronic viral hepatitis in kidney transplantation. Nat Rev Nephrol 2011; 7: 156-65.

  21. Terrier B, Cacoub P. Hepatitis B virus, extrahepatic immunologic manifestations ans risk of viral reactivation. Rev Med Interne 2011; 32(10): 622-7. doi: 10.1016/ j.revmed.2010.08.013. Epub 2010 Sep 25. Review. French.

  22. Roccatello D, Solfietti L, Salussolia I, Sorasio D, Manna E, Binello G, Strani G, et al. Hepatitis virus-related nephropathies. G Ital Nefrol 2012; 29(Suppl. 56): S62-S69.

  23. Xu G, Huang T. Hepatitis B virus-associated glomerular nephritis in East Asia: progress and challenges. Eur J Intern Med 2011; 22: 161-6.

  24. Fabrizi F, Martin P, Messa P. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus and chronic kidney disease. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2010; 73: 465-71.

  25. Pol S, Sogni P. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: adherence and safety. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2010; Suppl. 2: S142-S148.

  26. Tsai M, Chen Y, Chien Y, Chen T, Hu T. Hepatitis B virus infection and renal transplantation. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 3878-87.

  27. Fabrizi F, Messa P, Basile C, Martin P. Hepatic disorders in chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol 2010; 6: 395-403.

  28. Chan T. Hepatitis B and renal disease. Curr Hepat Rep 2010; 9: 99-105.

  29. Zhang Y, Zhou J, Yin X, Wang F. Treatment of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 770-7.

  30. Kes P, Slavicek J. Hepatitis B virus and chronic progressive kidney disease. Acta Med Croatica 2009; 63: 397-402.

  31. Cacoub P, Terrier B. Hepatitis B-related autoimmune manifestations. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2009; 35: 125-37.

  32. Rotman Y, Brown T, Hoofnagle J. Evaluation of the patient with hepatitis B. Hepatology 2009; 49: S22-S27.

  33. Cacoub P, Terrier B. Hepatitis B-related autoimmune manifestations. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2009; 35: 125-37.

  34. Liang T. Hepatitis B: the virus and disease. Hepatology 2009; 49: S13-S21.

  35. Peters M. Special populations with hepatitis B virus infections. Hepatology 2009; 49: S146-S155.

  36. Adeyi O. Vascular and glomerular manifestations of viral hepatitis B and C: a review. Semin Diagn Pathol 2009; 26: 116-21.

  37. Liang T. Hepatitis B: the virus and disease. Hepatology 2009; 49: S13-S21.

  38. Fabrizi F, Dixit V, Martin P. Meta-analysis: anti-viral therapy of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 781-8.

  39. Chabane N, Loghmanri H, Melki W, Hellara O, Safer L, Bdiou F, Saffar H. Chronic viral hepatitis and kidney failure. Presse Med 2008; 37: 665-78.

  40. Akagi S, Sugiyama H, Makino H. Infection and kidney disease. Nihon Rinsho 2008; 66: 1794-8.

  41. Lai A, Lai K. Viral nephropathy. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2006; 2: 254-62.

  42. Izzedine H, Massard J, Poynard T, Deray G. Lamivudine and HBV-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 828-9.

  43. Cacoub P, Saadoun D, Bourliere M, Khiri H, Martineau A, Benhamou Y, Varastet M, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and extrahepatic manifestations. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 764-70.

  44. Kanan N, Goffin E. Antiviral therapies for hepatitis-related glomerulonephritis. Lancet 2005; 366: 203.

  45. Seedat Y. Glomerular disease in the tropics. Semin Nephrol 2003; 23: 12-20.

  46. Wong F. Liver and kidney diseases. Clin Liver Dis 2002; 6: 981-1011.

  47. Han S. Extra-hepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Liver Dis 2004; 8: 403-18.

  48. Fabrizi F, Martin P, Bunnapradist S. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis in patients with renal disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2004; 33: 655-70.

  49. Fabrizi F, Bunnapradist S, Martin P. HBV infection in patients with end-stage renal disease. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 63-70.

  50. Bhimma R, Coovadia H. Hepatitis B virus-associated nephropathy. Am J Nephrol 2004; 24: 198-211.

  51. Dando T, Plosker G. Adefovir dipivoxil: a review of its use in chronic hepatitis B. Drugs 2003; 63: 2215-34.

  52. Wang N, Wu Z, Zhang Y, Guo M, Liao L. Role of hepatitis B virus infection in pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9: 2004-8.

  53. 53. di Belgiojoso G, Ferrario F, Landriani N. Virus-related glomerular diseases: histological and clinical aspects. J Nephrol 2002; 15: 469-79.

  54. Lhotta K. Beyond hepatorenal syndrome: glomerulonephritis in patients with liver disease. Semin Nephrol 2002; 22: 302-8.

  55. Trepo C, Guillevin L. Polyarteritis nodosa and extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection: the case against autoimmune intervention in pathogenesis. J Autoimmun 2001; 16: 269-74.

  56. Pyrsopoulos N, Reddy K. Extra-hepatic manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2001; 3: 71-8.

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REPORTS REGARDING ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY / HBV (INCLUDING TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS; ADULTS ONLY)

  1. Huang Z, Lin C, Fang J, Wang N, Zhou R, Pan C. Acute kidney injury in hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure without pre-existing liver cirrhosis. Hepatol Int 2015; 9: 416-23.

  2. Wan Z, Wang J, You S, Liu H, Zhu B, Zang H, Li C, et al. Cystatin C is a biomarker for predicting acute kidney injury in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19: 9432-8.

  3. Tajima K, Kohno K, Shiono Y, Suzuki I, Kato Y, Hiroshima Y, Yamamoto M, et al. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome in mixed genotype (A/E) hepatitis B virus co-infection in HIV associated lymphoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013; 6: 536-42.

  4. Donataccio M, Dalle Ore G, Donataccio D. Acute renal failure following administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulins in liver transplantation. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2009; 55: 501-4.

  5. Rais-Jalali G, Sagheb M, Daniali F, Behzadi S, Roozbeh J, Nikeghbalian S, Bahador A, et al. Acute renal failure in the first 100 orthotopic liver transplant patients in southern Iran. Exp Clin Transplant 2007; 5: 710-2.

REPORTS REGARDING CKD /HBV (NATIVE KIDNEYS; ADULTS ONLY)

  1. Wang C, Ye Z, Zeng D, Xie F, Qu L, Zheng Z. Clinicopathological features of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis associated with HBV infection: a retrospective analysis of 8 cases in China. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015; 8(9): 10475-81. eCollection 2015.

  2. Jiang W, Liu T, Dong H, Xu Y, Liu L, Guan G, Liu X. Relationship between serum DNA replication, clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis with severe proteinuria by lamivudine plus adefovor dipivoxil combination therapy. Bioned Environ Sci 2015; 28: 206-13.

  3. Xiong Q, Zhong Y, Hu Z, Yang Y. Successful treatment of occult hepatitis B virus infection related membranous nephropathy after entecavir therapy. Acta Clin Belg 2015; 70: 223-5.

  4. Li D, Gao G, Jiang H, Tang Z, Zang G. Hepatitis B virusassociated glomerulonephritis in HBsAg serological-negative patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 27(1): 65-9. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000236.

  5. Qi X, Wang J, Chen L, Huang Y, Qin Y, Mao R, Zhang J. Impact of nucleos(t)ide analogue combination therapy on the estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94: e646.

  6. Dogan Z, Sarikaya M, Ergul B, Filik L. Incidental kidney findings in ultrasonography: a hidden iceberg bottom for patients with chronic hepatitis B? Bratisl Lek Listy 2015; 116(2): 136.

  7. Li D, Gao G, Jiang H, Tang Z, Yu Y, Zang G. Hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis in HBsAg serological- negative patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 27(1): 65-9. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000236.

  8. Yoo J, Lee J, Yoon J, Lee M, Lee D, Cho Y, Jang E, et al. Hepatitis B virus-related glomerulonephritis: not a predominant cause of proteinuria in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015; 2015: doi: 10.1155/2015/126532. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

  9. Qi X, Wang J, Mao R, et al. Impact of nucleos(t)ide analogues on the estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a prospective cohort study in China. J Viral Hepat 2015; 22: 46-54.

  10. Das N, Bhattacharyya A, Paria B, Sarkar S. Study on assessment of renal function in chronic liver disease. J Clin Diagn Res 2015; 9: 0C09-12. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/ 2015/11423.5658. Epub 2015 Mar 1.

  11. Mallet V, Schwarzinger M, Vallet-Pichard A, Fontaine H, Corouge M, Sogni P, Pol S. Effect of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues on renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus mono-infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13(6): 1181-8.e1. doi: 10.1016/ j.cgh.2014.11.021. Epub 2014 Nov 21.

  12. Cholongitas E, Vasiliadis T, Goulis I, Fouzas I, Antoniadis N, Papanikolau V, Akriviadis E. Telbivudine is associated with improvement of renal function in patients transplanted for HBV liver disease. J Viral Hepat 2015; 22(7): 574-80. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12362. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

  13. Lin C, Chien RN, Yeh C, Hsu CW, Chang ML, Chen YC, Yeh CT. Significant reno-protective effect of telbivudine during pre-emptive antiviral therapy in advanced liver cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a case-control study. Scand J Gastroenterol 2014; 49(12): 1456-64. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2014.962604. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

  14. Mweemba A, Zanolini A, Mulenga L, Emge D, Chi BH,Wandeler G, Vinikoor MJ. Chronic hepatitis B virus co-infection is associated with renal impairment among Zambian HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59(12): 1757-60. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu734. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

  15. Fang J, Li W, Tan Z, Li D. Comparison of prednisolone and lamivudine combined therapy with prednisolone mono-therapy on carriers of hepatitis B virus with IgA nephropathy: a prospective cohort study. Int Urol Nephrol 2014; 46(1): 49-56. doi: 10.1007/s11255-013-0480-5. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

  16. Hui D, Yan X, Wei J, Ruixia M, Guangiu G. Significance of mutations in hepatitis B virus X gene for the pathogenesis of HB-associated glomerulonephritis. Acta Virol 2014; 58: 278-81.

  17. Liu Y, Fan R, Chen J, Zheng Z, Liao B, Liang X, Yin J, et al. Assessment of renal function and risk factors for renal impairment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2014; 34(4): 472-6. Chinese.

  18. Viganò M, Martin P, Cappelletti M, Fabrizi F. HBV-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: remission after antiviral therapy with entecavir. Kidney Blood Press Res 2014; 39: 65-73.

  19. Banerjee T, Scherzer R, Powe N, Steffick D, Shahinian V, Saran R, Pavkov M, et al, for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance Team. Race and other risk factors for incident proteinuria in a national cohort of HIV-infected veterans. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndromes 2014; 67(2): 145-52. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000285.

  20. Du W, Zheng Z, Han S, Ma S, Chen S. HBV reactivation in an occult HBV infection patient treated with prednisone for nephrotic syndrome: case report and literature review. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13: 394. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-394.

  21. Zhou Y, Zhu N, Wang X, Wang L, Gu L, Yuan W. The role of the toll-like receptor TLR4 in hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis. Arch Virol 2013; 158: 425-33.

  22. Shah H, Patel C, Jhaveri K. Complete remission of hepatitis B virus-associated nephrotic syndrome from IgA nephropathy following peginterferon therapy. Ren Fail 2013; 35: 295-8.

  23. Hsieh M, Lu P, Kuo M, Lin W, Lin C, Lai C, Tsai J, et al. Prevalence and associated factors with chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2013; 1-7.

  24. Kong D, Wu D, Wang T, Li T, Xu S, Chen F, Jin X, et al. Detection of viral antigens in renal tissue of glomerulonephritis patients without serological evidence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Int J Infect Dis 2013; 17(7): e535-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2013.01.017. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

  25. Ganesan A, Krantz E, Huppler Hullsiek K, Riddle M, Weintrob A, Lalani T, Okulicz N, et al.;Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program HIV/STI Working Group. Determinants of incident chronic kidney disease and progression in a cohort of HIV-infected persons with unrestricted access to health care. HIV Med 2013; 14(2): 65-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01036.x. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

  26. Cao Y, Gong M, Han Y, Xie J, Xuemei L, Zhang L, Li Y, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients in Mainland China: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Nephrology 2013; 18: 307-12.

  27. Bickel M, Marben W, Betz C, Khaykin P, Stephan C, Gute P, Haberl A, et al. End-stage renal disease and dialysis in HIV-positive patients: observations from a long-term cohort study with a follow-up of 22 years. HIV Medicine 2013; 14: 127-35.

  28. Mou S, Li J, Yu Z, Wang Q, Ni Z. Keto acid-supplemented low-diet protein diet for treatment of adult patients with hepatitis B virus infection and chronic glomerulonephritis. J Int Med Res 2013; 41: 129-37.

  29. Sun I, Hong Y, Park H, Choi S, Chung B, Park C, Yang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with IgA nephropathy and hepatitis B surface antigen. Ren Fail 2013; 35: 446-51.

  30. Mocroft A, Neuhaus J, Peters L, Ryom L, Bickel M, Grint D, Koirala J, et al; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Hepatitis B and C co-infection are independent predictors of progressive kidney disease in HIV-positive, antiretroviral-treated adults. PLoS One 2012; 7: e40245.

  31. Gish R, Clark M, Kane S, Shaw R, Mangahas M, Bagai S. Similar risk of renal events among patients treated with tenofovir or entecavir for chronic hepatitis B. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10: 941-6.

  32. Chen Y, Chang C, Chang C, Wang T, Wu C, Chen H. Is an estimated glomerular filtration rate better than creatinine to be incorporated into the end-stage liver disease score? World J Hepatol 2012; 4(11): 291-8. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v4.i11.291.

  33. Li P, Wei R, Tang L, Wu J, Zhang X, Chen X. Clinical and pathological analysis of hepatitis B virus-related membranous nephropathy and idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Clin Nephrol 2012; 78: 456-64.

  34. Zhang L, Meng H, Han X, Han C, Sun C, Ye F, Jin X. The relationship between HBV serum markers and the clinico- pathological characteristics of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis in the northeastern Chinese population. Virol J 2012; 9: 200.

  35. Shi C, Huang J, Liu X, Zeng X, Cheng C, Yin Q, Li M, et al. Diagnostic significance of hepatitis B viral antigens in patients with glomerulonephritis -associated hepatitis B virus infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 72: 156-60.

  36. Sun I, Hong Y, Park H, Choi S, Chung B, Park C, Yang C, et al. Experience of antiviral therapy in hepatitis B-associated membranous nephropathy. Korean J Intern Med 2012; 27: 411-6.

  37. Moon J, Lee S. Treatment of hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy: lamivudine era versus postlamivudine era. Korean J Intern Med 2012; 27: 394-6.

  38. Tsai M, Chen J, Fang Y, Yang A, Chang C. Membranous nephropathy induced by pegylated interferon alpha-2a therapy for chronic viral hepatitis B. Clin Nephrol 2012; 77: 496-500.

  39. Gwak G, Lee C, Lee D, Huh W, Koh K, Kim Y. Clinical impact of the development of YMDD mutants in hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis. Hepatogastroenterology 2011; 58: 1291-5.

  40. Sakai K, Morito N, Usui J, Hagiwara M, Hitawashi A, Fukuda K, Nanmoku T, et al. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis as a complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 371-3.

  41. Zhuang Y, Wei L, Yu Y, Zeng L, Xiong X, Wu Z. The expression and significance of nephrin in hepatitis B virusassociated membranous nephropathy. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2011; 50: 766-90.

  42. Fabrizi F, Viganò M, Banfi G, Martin P, Messa P, Lampertico P. HBV-related liver disease in renal insufficiency: successful antiviral therapy with entecavir. Int J Artif Organs 2011; 34: 1031-5.

  43. Mauss S, Berger F, Filmann N, Hueppe D, Henke J, Hegener P, Athmann C, et al. Effect of HBV polymerase inhibitors on renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 2011; 55: 1235-40.

  44. Flandre P, Pugliese P, Cuzin L, Bagnis C, Tack I, Cabiè A, Poizot-Martin I, et al, on behalf of the New AIDS Data Group. Risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1700-7.

  45. Xu G, Duang Z, Wu X, Zou H, Fang X, Tu W. Treatment of hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy patients in Chinese: an open parallel controlled trial. Clin Chem Lab Med 2011; 49: 1077-8.

  46. Numata A, Akimoto T, Toshima M, Iwazu Y, Otani N, Miki T, SugaseT, et al. Membranous nephropathy in an HIVpositive patient complicated with hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Exp Nephrol 2011; 15: 769-73.

  47. Das P, Vivek V, Ford M, Kingdon E, Holt S. Hepatitis B virus related membranous glomerulonephritis and proteinuria treated with lamivudine and tenofovir. BMJ Case Rep 2011. pii: bcr0520114287. doi: 10.1136/bcr.05.2011.4287.

  48. Yanagisawa N, Ando M, Ajisawa A, Imamura A, Suganuma A, Tsuchiya K, Nitta K. Clinical characteristics of kidney disease in Japanese HIV-infected patients. Nephron Clin Pract 2011; 118: c285-c291.

  49. Wiegand J, Karlas T, Schiefke I, Krasselt U, Bock T, Mossner J, Tillmann H. Resistance management in chronic hepatitis C complicated by renal failure. Clin Nephrol 2010; 74: 53-8.

  50. Enriquez R, Sirvent A, Andrada E, Escolano C, Rodriguez J, Millan I, Gutierrez F, et al. Cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis in chronic hepatitis B infection. Ren Fail 2010; 32: 518-22.

  51. Li X, Tian J, Wu J, He Q, Li H, Han F, Li Q, et al. A comparison of a standard dose prednisone regimen and mycophenolate mofetil combined with a lower prednisone dose in Chinese adults with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who were carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen: a prospective cohort study. Clin Ther 2009; 31(4): 741-50. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.04.011

  52. Agarwal S, Tiwari S. Hepatitis B virus associated focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis; reports of two cases and review of the literature. Clin Exp Nephrol 2009; 13(4): 373-7.

  53. Mesquita M, Lasser L, Langlet P. Longterm (7-year) treatment with lamivudine monotherapy in HBV-associated glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 2008; 70: 69-71.

  54. Chuang T, Hung C, Huang S, Lee C. Complete remission of nephrotic syndrome of hepatitis B virus-associated membranous glomerulopathy after lamivudine monotherapy. J Formos Med Assoc 2007; 106: 869-73.

  55. Wen Y, Chen M. Remission of hepatitis B virus-associated membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis in a cirrhotic patient after lamivudine therapy. Clin Nephrol 2006; 65: 21-215.

  56. Herbert J, Herberth Z, Abul-Ezz S, Kumar J, Gokden N. Hepatitis B infection as a possible cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Clin Nephrol 2006; 65: 380-4.

  57. Okuse C, Yotsuyanagi H, Yamada N, Ikeda H, Takahashi H, Suzuki M, Kondo S, et al. Successful treatment of hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy with lamivudine. Clin Nephrol 2006; 65: 53-6.

  58. Panomsak S, Lewsuwan S, Eiam-Ong S, Kanjanabuch T. Hepatitis B virus-associated nephropathies in adults: a clinical study in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89(Suppl. 2): S151-S156.

  59. Di Marco V, De Lisi S, Li Vecchi M, Maringhini S, Barbaria F. Therapy with lamivudine and steroids in a patient with acute hepatitis B and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 1187-8.

  60. Gan S, Devlin S, Scott-Douglas N, Burak K. Lamivudine for the treatment of membranous glomerulopathy secondary to chronic hepatitis B infection. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19: 625-9.

  61. Dede F, Ayli D. Efficient treatment of crescentic glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis B virus with lamivudine in a case referred with acute renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 3613-4.

  62. Tang S, Lai F, Lui Y, Tang C, Kung N, Ho Y, Chan K, et al. Lamivudine in hepatitis B-associated membranous nephropathy. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 1750-8.

  63. Guillevin L, Mahr A, Callard P, Godmer P, Pagnoux C, Leray E, Cohen P; French Vasculitis Study Group. Hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa: clinical characteristics, outcome, and impact of treatment in 115 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2005; 84: 313-22.

  64. Sayarlioglu H, Erkoc R, Dogan E, Sayarlioglu M, Topal C. Mycophenolate mofetil use in hepatitis B associated membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis induces viral replication. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39: 573.

  65. Takaki A, Natsuka A, Satou C, Iwataa Y, Ikeda H, Fukushima M. A case of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis complicated with chronic hepatitis B and treated with steroid and LDL apheresis. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 2002; 44: 806-12.

  66. Szczech L, Gange S, van der Horst C, Bartlett J, Young M, Cohen M, Anastos K, et al. Predictors of proteinuria and renal failure among women with HIV infection. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 195-202.

  67. Smith A, Cartledge J, Griffiths M, Miller R. Response to hepatitis B induced membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis to HAART. Sex Transm Infect 2001; 77: 302-3.

  68. Kovacevic Z, Jovanovic D, Skataric V, Dimitrijevic J, Rabrenovic V, Nozic D, Maksic D. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B in secondary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis using recombinant alfa-2 interferon. Vojnosanit Pregl 2000; 57: 235-40.

  69. Taskapan H, Oymak O, Dogukan A, Ozbakir O, Utas C. Transformation of hepatitis B virus-related membranous glomerulonephritis to crescentic form. Clin Nephrol 2000; 54: 161-3.

  70. Kovacevic Z, Jovanovic D, Skataric D, Dimitrijevic J, Rabrenovic V, Nozic D, Maksic D. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B in secondary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis using recombinant alfa-2 interferon. Vojnosanit Pregl 2000; 57: 235-40.

  71. Al-Wakeel J, Mitwalli A, Tarif N, Al-Mohaya S, Mzalik G, Khali M. Role of interferon-alpha in the treatment of primary glomerulonephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 1142-6.

  72. Abbas N, Pitt M, Green A, Solomon L. Successful treatment of hepatiti B virus -associated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with alpha interferon. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 1272-5.

  73. Gonzalo A, Mampaso F, Barcena R, Gallego N, Ortuno J. Membranous nephropathy associated with hepatitis B virus infection: long-term clinical and histologic out come. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 416-8.

  74. Dhiman R, Kohli H, Das G, Joshi K, Chawla Y, Sakhuja V. Remission of HBV-related mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis after interferon therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 176-8.

  75. Lopes Neto E, Lopes L, Kirsztajn G, Cruz C, Ferraz M, Silva A. Alpha-interferon therapy for HBV-related glomerulonephritis. Sao Paulo Med J 1998; 116: 1823-5.

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  77. Lin C, Lin C, Chang G, King C. Defect of cell-mediated immune response against hepatitis B virus: an indicator for pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy. Nephron 1997; 76: 178-85.

  78. Willson R. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 3-17.

  79. Chung D, Yang W, Kim S, Yu E, Chung Y, Lee Y, Park J. Treatment of hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis with recombinant human alpha interferon. Am J Nephrol 1997; 17(2): 112-7.

  80. Paydas S, Seyrek N, Gonlusen G, Sagliker Y. The frequencies of hepatitis B virus markers and hepatitis C virus antibody in patients with glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1996; 74: 617-9.

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ANTIVIRAL MEDICATIONS TOWARDS HBV AND NEPHRO-TOXICITY (INCLUDING TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS; ADULTS ONLY)

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  2. Maggi P, Montinaro V, Leone A, Fasano M, Volpe A, Bellacosa C, Grattagliano V, et al. Bone and kidney toxicity induced by nucleotide analogues in patients affected by HBV-related chronic hepatitis: a longitudinal study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2015; 70(4): 1150-4. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku502. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

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  5. Jia H, Ding F, Chen J, Lian J, Zhang Y, Zeng L, Xiang D, et al. Early kidney injury during long-term adefovir dipivoxil therapy for chronic hepatitis B. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21: 3657-32.

  6. Mandala J, Nanda K, Wang M, De Baetselier I, Deese J, Lombard J, Owino F, et al. Liver and renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine among African women in a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2014; 15: 77. doi: 10.1186/2050-6511-15-77.

  7. Terasaka T, Ueta E, Ebara H, Waseda K, Hanayama Y, Takaki A, Kawabata T, et al. Long-term observation of osteomalacia caused by adefovir-induced Fanconi’s syndrome. Acta Med Okayama 2014; 68(1): 53-6.

  8. Lin Q, Pan F, Hong F, Pan C. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and renal Fanconi syndrome induced by adefovir in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2014; 22(10): 779-80. Chinese. No abstract available.

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LIVER/RENAL TRANSPLANT

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Received: July 17, 2016; Accepted: August 29, 2016

Correspondence and reprint request: Fabrizio Fabrizi, M.D. Division of Nephrology, Maggiore Hospital and IRCCS Foundation, Pad. Croff, Via Commenda 15, 20122, Milan, Italy. Tel.: (39) 2 5503-4553. Fax: (39) 2 5503-3770 E-mail: fabrizi@policlinico.mi.it

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