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Innovación educativa (México, DF)

versión impresa ISSN 1665-2673

Innov. educ. (Méx. DF) vol.17 no.75 México sep./dic. 2017

 

Innovus

Labor intensification and emotions of Mexican language teachers: A case study

Intensificación laboral y emociones de profesores mexicanos de lenguas: un estudio de caso

Mariza Guadalupe Méndez Lópeza 

aUniversidad de Quintana Roo, México.

Abstract

Language teachers’ workload has intensified in Mexico as a result of the introduction of the Professional Development Programme’s (PRODEP) policy. This article presents an analysis of teachers’ emotions regarding the intensification and diversification provoked by the implementation of the PRODEP policy at Mexican state universities. Findings suggest that the diversification of the teachers’ work has added pressure to the teachers’ lives, originating stress, anger and frustration because of the workload and a lack of time for teaching-related activities. It is paramount for individual institutions to carry out a review of the effects of the PRODEP’S policy in their particular contexts, and to make the necessary adjustments to redirect its objectives if quality teaching is their goal.

Palabras clave: Emociones; intensificación; enseñanza de lenguas; educación superior; PRODEP

Resumen

El trabajo de los profesores de lenguas se ha intensificado debido a la introducción de la política del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP). Este artículo presenta un análisis de las emociones de los profesores con respecto a la intensificación y diversificación que la inserción de la política del PRODEP ha originado en la labor docente en universidades públicas mexicanas. Los resultados sugieren que la diversificación laboral ha traído presión a la vida de los profesores originando estrés, enojo y frustración debido a la carga de trabajo y la falta de tiempo para realizar actividades relacionadas con la enseñanza. Es importante que las instituciones lleven a cabo una revisión de los efectos de la política del PRODEP en sus contextos particulares, y hacer los ajustes necesarios para reorientar sus objetivos si la enseñanza de calidad es su objetivo.

Keywords: Emotions; Intensification; Language Teaching; Mexican state higher education institution; PRODEP

Introduction

Teaching is a very demanding profession that provokes emotions while interacting with students, colleagues or administration. Relationships in educational settings are shaped by emotions originated in the complex process of fulfilling not only the learners’ but also the teachers’ goals. Although there is an extensive body of empirical evidence of the impact of emotions in general education (Hargreaves, 1998; Day y Leitch, 2001; Sutton 2004, Sutton y Harper, 2009; Zembylas, 2004, 2007, 2010; Pekrun et al.; 2009; Truta, 2013), not much attention has been paid to these in the English Language Teaching (ELT) field (Cowie, 2003, 2011).

Emotions are defined by Schutz et al. (2006) as “...socially constructed personally enacted ways of being that emerge from conscious and/or unconscious judgments regarding perceived successes at attaining goals or maintaining standards or beliefs during transactions as part of social-historical contexts” (p. 344). Emotions that teachers experience and express are not just matters of personal disposition, but are based on social relationships, culture and school environment (Zembylas, 2004, p. 186). Thus, in order to examine teachers’ emotions, we need to understand the context where these are experienced.

Although Mexico has a long history of teaching English at the secondary school level, going back 60 years, the English language competence achieved by Mexican learners is basic if not poor (Sayer, 2015). English is taught in private schools starting at kindergarten, while in public schools, it has just been recently introduced in elementary schools. English was not taught in Mexican primary state schools until 2009 when the National English Programme for Basic Education was introduced by the Ministry of Education (Ramirez Romero, Sayer y Pamplón Irigoyen, 2014). It is expected with this programme that Mexican students, by the end of 9th grade, would have received 360 hours of instruction that will place them at a B1 level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (Council of Europe, 2001). This new policy requires qualified teachers usually trained at the country’s state universities.

Different state universities offer the English Language Teaching degree that trains future teachers of English. According to Ramirez Romero (2009), there are approximately 90 undergraduate language programmes in our country while Pérez López, Bellaton y Emilsson (2012) reported a total of 113 undergraduate programmes. These programmes have different focuses such as didactics, education, teaching or literature. However, they all prepare students to be teachers of English as a second language (Pérez López, Bellaton y Emilsson, 2012).

In 1996, the Teachers Development Programme (PROMEP), now called Professional Development Programme (PRODEP) was introduced in Mexican state universities as a support for the professional development of teachers (López, Lagunes and Recio, 2009). The PRODEP’s purpose is to improve fulltime teachers’ abilities to conduct research, teach and innovate in order to create a new academic community that is able to change its environment. This government programme supports the education of teachers working in state universities to study master’s and doctorate programs at national or international institutions. As a result, 8,141 teachers obtained scholarships to pursue Master’s and PhD degrees between 1998 and 2012 (PROMEP, 2013). All of this financial support is awarded through different evaluation systems of the PRODEP’s policy. Thanks to this, the PRODEP’s programme has supported fulltime teachers to conduct postgraduate studies, as well as provide state universities with funds to hire new teachers, finance research products, such as articles and books, and fund research group projects.

Due to the PRODEP, teachers’ responsibilities changed from teaching and designing lessons to tutoring, conducting research, supervising theses, carrying out administrative duties, presenting papers in conferences and, publishing books or articles. In order to carry out some of these new roles, teachers were encouraged to join in academic research groups since professional communities are seen as a model that can help them not only to develop knowledge but also to enhance professional development (Little and Mclaughlin, 1993). However, it has also been found that competition and rivalry are developed within these groups (Fraga-Cañadas, 2011). When hidden competition and rivalry are present it is not possible for communities of practice to be an advantage for teacher development. As Fraga-Cañadas (2011) pointed out “... my research and experience have revealed that many COPs at schools are dysfunctional, and for different reasons” (p. 299). Although the PRODEP has been beneficial as it has helped teachers to aquire the qualifications needed to conduct good research, it has also had some negative effects on teachers’ professional development and quality educational practice such as isolation, competition and avoiding participating in academic research groups as reported by studies done in different field areas (Castañon, 2016; Méndez, 2016; Monroy, López, and Tapia, 2012).

This article is focused on understanding the emotions English language teachers have experienced as a result of the intensification of their work due to the introduction of the PRODEP’s policy at Mexican state universities in 1996. The excessive demands placed on teachers in state universities in Mexico have pushed them to do their best in fulfilling all the roles required by this policy. In other countries when teachers face pressures such as the ones Mexicans are experiencing, some leave the teaching profession or retire if they have the opportunity (Kim, 2012). However, the crisis the Mexican economy is facing leaves no choice for teachers but to keep their jobs at any cost.

Emotions and intensification in Mexican state universities

Teaching is considered an activity involving “human nurturance, connectedness, warmth and love” (Hargreaves, 1994, p. 175). Thus, different studies have revealed that the major source of positive emotions in teachers is the relationship with their students (Cowie, 2011, Xu, 2013). Cowie (2011), reporting on EFL teachers working at Tokyo universities, found that the teachers had feelings of emotional warmth regarding their students as a result of positive experiences with them in the classroom. Similarly, Xu (2013) reports that Chinese teachers of English felt positive emotions from their interactions with students, such as satisfaction when the students showed improvement or joy when they showed affection. However, it has been reported that language teachers often feel the need to be funnier and more entertaining than other teachers in order to convey enthusiasm to the learners (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011), and thus, they may ‘bear the motivational burden’ of the class, by having to summon up positive and bright emotions they do not necessarily feel, in order to foster motivation in the classroom (Acheson-Clair, 2013, cited in King, 2016).

Although relationships with students can originate positive emotions, teachers can choose to genuinely care or may decide to perform a caring attitude in order to maintain a professional distance from their students in order to protect themselves (O’Connor, 2008, p. 122). According to Sutton and Wheatley (2003) most teachers believe they should not show their emotions to students. The act of suppressing real emotions or modifying them has been labeled as “emotional labor” (Hochschild, 1983). Teachers exercise emotional labor when they adjust their emotions in order to show enthusiasm and influence students to be engaged and motivated or suppress their frustration and desperation when students misbehave or do not understand a concept or content.

The negative emotion most reported by teachers in different studies is frustration (Sutton, 2007; Chang, 2009). This frustration can be originated by relationships with some students or by factors outside classrooms such as: administrative work, externally mandated change or reformation, and conflicts between their teaching goals and expectations from school administration (Cowie, 2003; Hargreaves, 2004; Zembylas, 2003,). Cowie (2011) found that relationships with colleagues and institutional contexts resulted in frustration, disappointment and anger. These feelings of frustration and anger developed into stress and made some teachers leave their jobs. Frustration may also lead teachers to develop cynicism towards educational policies (Day and Leitch 2001). Thus, teachers may remain in their jobs but not implement educational policies or adjust these to their personal circumstances.

Intensification is the process teachers have gone through which has made them carry out more and miscellaneous tasks. Apple (1986) conceptualised the changes on teachers’ working conditions in his ‘intensification thesis’. He argued that pressure on teachers to carry out more and different activities was a result of economic pressures that policy makers translated into efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, intensification imposes on teachers’ different tasks or roles that they have to perform, even if they have no resources or time to achieve them. The intensification of teachers working conditions includes deskilling (bureaucratic control incorporated into teachers’ day-to-day practices) and deprofessionalisation (teachers activities are reduced to the execution of decisions made by others) (Apple 1986; Apple y Jungck, 1996). Apple (1986) stated that teachers have to face pressures imposed by external demands while their working conditions are not suitable to the requirements expected of them.

Although the PRODEP policy’s main purpose is to increase quality in teaching practices through teacher development, intensification may not be achieving this objective since teachers have reported lack of resources, time and work overload (Méndez, 2016). According to Droogenbroeck, Spruyt and Vanroelen (2014) the demands and intensification imposed on teachers reduce the autonomy and creativity in classrooms. Ballet and Kelchtermans (2009) support this by stating that the result of intensification is “a growing disconnection between development and execution in teachers’ work” (p. 1150). Also, intensification is affecting not only teachers’ professional arena but also the personal one as they leave “less time for social contact with colleagues and in private life” (Droogenbroeck, Spruyt and Vanroelen, 2014, p. 100).

For the purpose of this study, the following research question was developed:

1. What emotions have language teachers experienced due to the introduction of the PRODEP policy and diversification of their jobs in public universities?

To address this, the objective of the study was to:

a. Map the emotions Mexican language teachers experience in their jobs in order to fulfill all the tasks implied by the diversification of their jobs in public universities in Mexico.

Materials and Methods

In order to understand Mexican language teachers’ emotions, a case study approach was followed. According to Zaidah (2007), a case study “not only helps to explore or describe the data in real-life environment, but also helps to explain the complexities of real-life situations which may not be captured through experimental or survey research” (p. 4). By exploring the diverse perspectives of 24 full time language teachers on the diversification required by the PRODEP’s national policy, I am able to describe the reality these Mexican language teachers are experiencing (Yin, 1984; Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2011). Thus, my aim is not to interpret, evaluate or judge participants’ information, but to present their views and experiences regarding their working conditions under the intensification demands of the PRODEP’s policy.

Participants

A purposive sample strategy was used to select participants from different institutions of higher education in Mexico (Patton, 2002). The sample of the research consisted of 24 full-time teachers. Women participants outnumbered (N=16) men (N=8), 18 of whom were married, five single and one divorced. The teaching experience of the participants ranged from five to 34 years, while ten held a PhD degree and 14 a Master’s. Participants teach English, French, Italian and German in the language department of their institutions. The 24 participants of this study were working in state universities located in North, Central and South Mexico. This survey was done with the intention of showing the reality of language teachers from as many state universities contexts as possible.

Instruments

Data for this study was collected through a questionnaire, informal discussions and an in-depth semi-structured interview (see Appendix A). In the questionnaire, teachers were asked to provide information about their personal status, professional qualifications, teaching experience, and hours dedicated to the different roles required from them by the PRODEP. Informal discussions were held with some participants a day or two after interviews. They took place in a neutral location in order to allow participants to more freely express their feelings about the pressure of performing different roles in their jobs on a typical workday. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in order to obtain information regarding teachers’ emotions since these cannot be evaluated. In the interviews, teachers were asked about their emotions regarding the roles required from them at state universities. Meaning was obtained through interactions between the researcher and the realities expressed by participants. Data collection was carried out for twenty months beginning in October 2014 and ending in June 2015.

Data analysis

Data from the study was analysed using thematic analysis (TA) in order to understand language teachers’ perceptions of the different roles they have to perform and the emotions these originate (Braun and Clarke, 2013). Thematic analysis was done following a systematic, six-stage process including: data preparation, data familiarization, coding, defining themes, reviewing themes and writing (Braun and Clarke, 2006). Data preparation included transcribing and organising data; then, the researcher became familiarised with the data by reading the interview transcriptions several times. After initial coding was done, the researcher asked a colleague to analyse two interviews in order to validate the codes and themes identified. The remaining interviews were analysed after a consensus on codes was reached. Then, all the interviews were analysed, and codes were revised and refined.

Results

The findings of this study are divided into five categories. The first is concerned with teachers’ awareness of the wide range of emotions they experience in their job. The following three concern participants’ perceptions of their interactions with students, colleagues and authority. The final category is related to the emotions caused by work demands and lack of time to fulfill all the roles expected from Mexican teachers due to the PRODEP’s policy.

All participants of the study (24) reported being aware of the mixed feelings they experience in their job as full-time teachers at public universities. Although participants reported both types of emotions, negative emotions predominated (see Table 1).

Table 1 Emotions experiensced by teachers’ roles diversification 

Emotional awareness

Emotions reported by participants can be divided into positive (emotions experienced because of their interaction with students) and negative (emotions experienced because of their interactions with colleagues, authority, lack of time to perform all the roles expected from them and the workload they had).

They are both positive and negative emotions... err...positive because really when I’m in the classroom I enjoy it. I think it’s the space where... as I have interaction with my students and all that... I enjoy being in the classroom. Uh, negative, mainly because of the very diverse activities we have to perform [PARTICIPANT-6]

Most teachers (20) reported their classrooms as a space to run away from the pressure they get from colleagues, authority and workload. Thus, participants expressed stress, anguish, anger and frustration in relation to the activities they had to perform that are not teaching-related.

I start thinking about stress...that is the first emotion. It is very individual, right? But I am very stressed by deadlines. Our teaching term used to be six months, but it was shortened to 4 months. Since then my stress levels have gone up. I even had an accident because of this. Because I pressure myself to do my job, as I like my work, not only with the course content... but administration changes everything...you do your programming and there is a public holiday or a cancellation because of the weather. All this stresses me a lot, and also to think about all those activities we have to perform besides teaching, ugh. [PARTICIPANT-4]

Emotions related to students

All participants (24) expressed their happiness, satisfaction and pride to see their students’ progress and development. Some teachers reported their classroom was an oasis to escape from the pressure of having to perform other roles. While others see their teaching hours as a therapy. It seems that the rapport teachers create with their students provides them the energy to continue with the different activities they have to complete outside the classroom.

I feel a passion for teaching, I feel very happy when I teach. And sometimes it’s like a prize for me. In a very nagging day with administrative procedures and all that stuff, teaching has a relaxing effect on me. I really enjoy it. It is like therapy that helps me to put up with administrative tasks [PARTICIPANT-16]

However, teaching also originates negative feelings when students do not respond to teaching materials as teachers expect or when they show no interest in classes.

I hate, not that I hate it, but it does make me feel frustrated when students have a lot of potential and they are not willing to use it. Or they are not really interested in what they are doing. Sometimes, I see people that are... you know it takes them ages to get it...and it is frustrating. Particularly, when ... you are trying and trying to motivate them. [PARTICIPANT-9]

Most teachers (19) also reported feeling frustration, anger and sadness because workload leaves no space for them to design their classes as they would like to and this affects the activity they reported as enjoying the most. This is worrying because although all participants (24) experience more positive emotions while interacting with students, the pressure to perform other roles is blurring the pleasure and reward they get from teaching. As stated by Seog (2014), “Excessive pressure and weak administrative support may inhibit teachers from constructing favorable interactions with students due to a lack of time” (p. 128).

Teaching brings joy because I do what I like to do. However, times have changed...terms are shorter than before, we now have an intense work life. So teaching also generates a lot of sadness because I cannot design my lessons as I would like to...as I have studied to do in my postgraduate studies. This generates sadness because I cannot exploit all my abilities. I cannot apply what I have studied because other activities consume all my time, and tiredness doesn’t allow me to do so either. [PARTICIPANT-5]

Participants also expressed that they tried not to show negative feelings such as frustration and anger, as they are aware of their responsibility to create a positive learning atmosphere, and felt that the display of negative emotions would be potentially dangerous to their teacher-student relationship. Thus, teachers are regulating their emotions and this can have negative effects such as stress and burnout (Isenbarger and Zembylas, 2006).

Emotions related to colleagues

Participants reported mixed feelings regarding their interaction with colleagues. One of the purposes of the PRODEP was to develop communities of practice through research groups; however, it seems that these have not been effective in fostering teacher development, as there are power relationships in place. A few teachers (4) reported carrying out research as the activity they enjoyed the most, since it has given them the opportunity to write and disseminate their work in national conferences, as well as work together with researchers from other institutions. However, most participants (18) perceived that the creation of research groups has originated a negative competition among teachers as some do not consider it an advantage for their professional development. Also, collegiality may not always be exercised due to personal preferences or lack of time, which may result in feelings of isolation (Yongcan, 2016). Few teachers (3) reported peers having supported their academic advancement giving them ideas and guidance in research projects, while others refer to the interaction with their peers as emotionally wearing them out. As suggested by Hargreaves (2001) it seems that teachers are “locked in silent rivalry” (p. 523).

How can we encourage communities of practice with teachers from other institutions when we are not putting that into practice...You know why?... because nobody wants to hand over anything... You can see that everywhere, in our research group, in the other research groups, in the academic staff, and the list continues. There is a lot of competition, a lot of envy mainly, and all that does not allow us to be a community of practice in which all support each other. [PARTICIPANT-6]

One teacher expressed her anger and frustration because she was excluded from an article she had contributed to, while others (5) refer to their peers as different regarding skills, quality standards and work commitment, which makes their job relationships more difficult. As suggested by Seog (2014) the lack of supportive colleague relationships “may encourage calculated exchanges rather than foster emotional links” (p. 127).

I was left out from an article. This is something that deserves... You can even lodge a complaint against these people. But I didn’t do it because it may have been an oversight. That is what I want to think...but seeing an article in which I contributed and then someone else publishes it as a first author caused a very nasty feeling. [PARTICIPANT-13]

It seems that for this particular group of language teachers, the creation of research groups within language departments, has contributed to division and competition instead of the creation of a community of practice in which teachers can support their professional development. The same was found by Tapia y Varela (2014) in their study about individual evaluation and academic career in which participants of diverse disciplines such as nursing, sociology or biology expressed that individualism and competition are prevailing in academic work.

Emotions related to management or authority

Most teachers (21) reported that their relation with management or authority is a source of negative emotions due to the time pressures and the fact that they have to perform different roles. Most of the time-related activities that have been previously arranged have to be changed because there is always something urgent that has to be done.

The lack of financial resources is another source of negative emotions. Mexican universities have suffered a cutback that has reduced the supplies for daily work. One teacher told she had to buy her own office supplies in order to be able to carry out her administrative duties.

Mainly stress...when you have to hand in paperwork or specific documents and you do not have the resources to do them. For example, here in the office there are days in which I do not have any consumable goods. All this generates stress...I am a very peaceful person and I do not get angry because of this but it is stressful. As I am the tutoring coordinator it is difficult not having paper, toner, so I end up buying them. [PARTICIPANT-8]

Besides not being able to have the basic supplies to perform administrative duties, some teachers (5) reported feeling repressed in their work centres. It seems that in some universities the work environment is not the best as some teachers expressed that there is division or administrative groups that make the environment unproductive. As Ball (2003) states, “The ethics of competition and performance are very different from the older ethics of professional judgement and co-operation (p. 218)”.

It is important to emphasise that three participants did not complain about strained authority relationships because they were the heads of departments in the institutions where interviews were carried out. Lack of funding for basic supplies or having to attend conferences has added pressure to teachers who must pay for supplies or transportation from their salaries in order to carry out some academic activities, as most universities have reduced their budget for such academic tasks.

All participants (24) expressed negative emotions because of the workload the different roles the PRODEP requires from them and the lack of time to complete those. Participants expressed anger and frustration regarding administrative duties, which in some institutions seem to be growing year after year. Additionally, the time they need to invest in filling out the diverse forms and the different roles they are required to fulfill causes them anger, frustration and stress.

Yes [referring to administrative duties], that makes me feel stressed, frustrated and annoyed. I don’t feel fulfilled when I am spending time filling out forms. But you have to do it when you are involved in a project and have to manage the funding. I have heard that in Europe researchers have a lot of support for all this paperwork...I feel that in that sense we are very neglected and we have to do a lot of paperwork. This makes me feel frustrated because I am wasting valuable time that I could use in other activities. [PARTICIPANT-19]

Teachers have to fill out different forms in a year in order to prove that they are performing the different roles required by the PRODEP’s policy not only for the national PRODEP’s evaluation, but also for different national and institutional evaluations for different purposes such as research group evaluation, individual production or teaching incentives, which are conducted every year. Furthermore, each institution has its own specific time, forms and procedures to carry out these processes that duplicate the information and time teachers invest in them.

Since universities need to present statistical information about the number of teachers that have the PRODEP’s qualification, teachers are pressured to go through this evaluation because it is one of the requirements for universities to obtain funds. This has caused teachers to sacrifice their spare time on weekends to complete academic activities. To sacrifice personal or family time causes more stress and anger. These negative emotions can later develop into burnout, which can not only deteriorate their interaction with students but also their health and personal and family life (Mukundan y Ahour, 2011).

I have to end up taking personal time to conduct research or fill out evaluation formats and this generates a lot of stress. [PARTICIPANT-23]

I am going to spend this weekend reviewing essays because the meetings and other activities did not allow me to do it. Last Sunday, I was also working on a presentation instead of spending time with my family. You cannot do this all the time because they also complain about you working on weekends... [PARTICIPANT-17]

Conclusions

The purpose of this study was to understand the emotions language teachers have experienced as a result of the intensification and diversification their jobs have suffered due to the introduction of the PRODEP’s policy at Mexican state universities. Participants reported positive and negative emotions regarding the different roles they have to perform. Most teachers are aware that teaching is the activity they enjoy most and consequently the one that generates more positive emotions. However, the intensification the PRODEP’s policy introduced to their profession has added pressure and stress to their lives. The different roles teachers have to carry out leave little time for them to focus on teachingrelated activities such as designing classes or providing feedback to students. As stated by Ballet, Kelchtermans and Loughranb (2006) non-teaching-related tasks are “... more often than not, distractions from the core activity of teaching” (p. 209). Thus, it is paramount for institutions to balance the different activities teachers are asked to perform so that they have time to do them with quality.

Gathering teachers in research groups seems to have caused division and competition among them. Most participants in this study revealed that relationships with colleagues were very strained because of rivalry and envy. However, some participants also reported they have been supported by colleagues in specific academic tasks. It seems that competition is also reinforced because of the financial support some institutions provide for research projects. As suggested by Ball (2003), an increased individualization is the result of the installation of the new culture of diversification in institutions of higher education around the world. It is paramount for policy makers and institutions to review the interaction guidelines for research groups in order to reduce the division and competition generated. Also, if the goal is to achieve quality research products, the frequency of evaluations should be changed.

Lack of time to perform all the roles as well as the need to “prove” they are doing all the tasks their particular institutions impose creates anger and stress. Although a few teachers expressed that they enjoy being involved in the different tasks the PRODEP requires, all of them resented the lack of time to complete all these activities. It seems that the PRODEP’s policy is not really achieving the purpose of supporting teachers’ professional development since the national evaluation scheme introduced by this same policy emphasizes products and has not paid any attention to the processes involved in achieving them. According to Kelchtermans (2005) external demands imposed on teachers undermine teachers’ professional self-confidence, hindering their professional development.

The PRODEP’s policy was created because of the international demands to create competitive institutions and provide human capital to this economically growing world. However, the Mexican context does not have the same infrastructure or the same funding as international higher education institutions. As mentioned before, lack of time and work intensification originates most negative emotions. Some roles teachers have to perform involve very time-consuming activities and this causes stress, anger and frustration. These emotions can develop into stress and burnout, which may later produce a lack of interest in teaching, health problems and personal or family difficulties. Thus, it is necessary for policymakers and authorities to review working conditions in Mexican higher education institutions in order to balance the time teachers spend on the different roles they have to perform. Some teachers reported enjoying teaching the most, while others seem to prefer carrying out research. Thus, teachers should be able to focus more on those activities they enjoy most since both academic activities are important to university life. Both activities should receive the same amount of financial support and status. Thus, it is paramount for the authorities at institutions of higher education to review the insertion of this policy and adapt it to their particular contexts.

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*NOTA: Este artículo fue desarrollado con resultados del proyecto “Language teachers become researchers: Teachers emotions about academic responsibilities in public universities in Mexico”, que contó con financiamiento del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) con la beca 251160. Este proyecto tuvo como finalidad profundizar sobre los efectos del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP) en la vida personal y profesional de profesores de lenguas en universidades públicas mexicanas.

Appendix A

.

Semi-structured Interview Guide Format

1. When you think about emotions and your job as a teacher, researcher, tutor, administrator and supervisor, what comes to mind?

2. What emotions are originated by the pressure to perform all these roles in your work hours every day?

3. Which emotions are relevant to you when:

  • a. Teaching

  • b. Researching

  • c. Tutoring

  • d. Doing administrative duties

  • e. Supervising student’s theses

4. Why do you associate that emotion to that particular job responsibility?

5. Which role originates more positive emotions? Why?

6. Which role originates more negative emotions? Why?

7. What do you do when you experience a negative emotion in (activity that causes more negative emotions)?

8. To which of these activities do you dedicate more time (teacher, researcher, tutor, thesis advising, administrative work)? Why?

9. To which of these activities do you dedicate less time? Why?

10. How do you manage the different emotions caused by the pressures of performing all these roles in your work hours every day?

11. Do you think your research skills have helped you to increase the quality of your teaching practice? If yes, how? If no, why?

12. What factors can help you to improve the quality of your teaching practice?

Received: October 03, 2016; Accepted: April 04, 2017

Mariza G. Méndez López es doctora por la Universidad de Nottingham, Inglaterra, maestra en TESOL por la Universidad de Manchester, Inglaterra, y maestra en psicopedagogía por la Universidad de la Habana, Cuba. Sus intereses de investigación incluyen los factores afectivos en el proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y el desarrollo profesional docente. Pertenece al Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI-1), CONACyT-México, y es líder del cuerpo académico en consolidación Diferencias Individuales en la Construcción de Conocimiento (CADICC).

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