SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.59 número1Evolución geológica del sureste mexicano desde el Mesozoico al presente en el contexto regional del Golfo de MéxicoFormación de megacristales naturales de yeso en Naica, México índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Revista

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO

Compartir


Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

versión impresa ISSN 1405-3322

Bol. Soc. Geol. Mex vol.59 no.1 México jun. 2007

http://dx.doi.org/10.18268/bsgm2007v59n1a4 

Artículos

Estratigrafía del Noreste de México y su relación con los yacimientos estratoligados de fluorita, barita, celestina y Zn-Pb

Stratigraphy of Northeastern Mexico and relation with stratabound fluorite, barite, Celestine and Pb-Zn deposits

Francisco González Sánchez 1   2 

Rafael Puente Solís 1   2 

Eduardo González Partida 2  

Antoni Camprubí 2   3 

1Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México

2Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Campus Juriquilla, Carretera Querétaro-San Luís Potosí km 15.5, Apartado Postal 1-742, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., México fgonzalez@geociencias.unam.mx

3Dirección actual: Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México.

Resumen

En el Noreste de México, en los estados de Coahuila y Nuevo León, se encuentran más de 200 depósitos estratoligados conocidos de celestina, barita, fluorita, y Pb-Zn, cuyas características geológicas permiten considerarlos como depósitos de tipo Mississippi Valley (MVT) y similares. Su emplazamiento se produjo en diferentes formaciones de la Cuenca de Sabinas (de edad mesozoica) a partir del inicio de la Orogenia Laramide. Dicha cuenca estuvo limitada por pilares tectónicos (e. g. Bloque de Coahuila) que actuaron como elementos paleogeográficos importantes durante el Mesozoico y controlaron la sedimentación de diversas formaciones detríticas proximales. Para poder explicar la formación de depósitos MVT en el área se realiza la descripción de la estratigrafía de la Cuenca de Sabinas, desde la primera transgresión marina durante el Calloviano, y recogiendo las subsiguientes regresiones y transgresiones durante el Jurásico Superior hasta el Cretácico Superior (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano), en que la Orogenia Laramide cambió los regímenes de sedimentación para esta área. El análisis de la distribución espacial y temporal de los depósitos MVT del Noreste de México pone de manifiesto la estrecha relación entre la presencia de dichos depósitos con secuencias estratigráficas específicas, especialmente las que incluyen evaporitas y carbonatos de ambientes lagunares someros. De la misma manera, se determina que existe una predominancia de depósitos de celestina en áreas que descansan sobre el basamento granítico de edad Permo-Triásica, y la mayoría de yacimientos de fluorita se restringen a zonas cercanas a un basamento predominantemente de metasedimentos también de edad Permo-Triásica. La distribución y agrupamiento de las diferentes mineralizaciones permitieron delimitar y proponer una nueva provincia metalogenética, la “Provincia MVT del Noreste de México” o PMNM y esta, a su vez, subdividirla en cuatro subprovincias, (1) Subprovincia Sur de Celestina, (2) Subprovincia Centro de Plomo-Zinc, (3) Subprovincia Centro de Barita, y (4) Subprovincia Norte de Fluorita. Se sugiere que el Sr y el Ba de los cuerpos de celestina y barita fueron lixiviados de las formaciones clásticas cuyas áreas fuente son los granitoides permo-triásicos en altos de basamento que limitaron la Cuenca de Sabinas. Así, buena parte del Sr sería de origen radiogénico, lixiviado de formaciones clásticas proximales a altos de basamento, y la formación de los depósitos estratoligados se debería a la interacción de salmueras de cuenca (cuyo flujo habría sido detonado por la Orogenia Laramide) con horizontes estratigráficos favorables a su emplazamiento. Dichas hipótesis constituyen la línea de partida de estudios geoquímicos pertinentes para establecer el modelo deposicional de los depósitos estratoligados de la PMNM.

Palabras clave: Depósitos MVT; Cuenca de Sabinas; Noreste de México; estratigrafía del Mesozoico; Orogenia Laramide; salmueras de cuenca

Abstract

In Northeastern Mexico, basically the states of Coahuila and Nuevo León, over 200 known stratabound celestine, barite, fluorite, and Pb-Zn deposits are found, with geological characteristics that allow assigning them to the Mississippi Valley type (MVT) and similar deposits. These deposits occur in different sedimentary formations in the Mesozoic Sabinas Basin since the beginning of the Laramide Orogeny. This basin was bounded by several horsts (i. e. the Coahuila Block) that were important paleogeographic highs during the Mesozoic and ruled the sedimentation of several detritic formations in their vicinities. In order to characterize the formation of MVT in this area we first describe the stratigraphy of the Sabinas Basin, from the first marine transgression during the Callovian, and the subsequent regressions and transgressions during the Upper Jurassic until the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian), when the Laramide Orogeny changed the depositional regimes in the region. Our analysis on the space and time distribution of the MVT deposits in Northeastern illustrates the close relationship between the occurrence of such deposits and specific stratigraphic sequences, especially those that contain evaporites and carbonate rocks formed in shallow lagoonal environments. Likewise, we determined the dominance of celestine deposits in rocks overlying the Permian-Triassic granitic basement, and that most of the fluorite deposits are found in neighboring areas to the metasedimentary basement, also aged Permian-Triassic. The distribution and grouping of the different mineralizations allow to set limits to a newly proposed metallogenic province, named “MVT Province of Northeastern Mexico” or MPNM, thus subdivided into four subprovinces, (1) Southern Celestine Subprovince, (2) Central Lead-Zinc Subprovince, (3) Central Barite Subprovince, and (4) Northern Fluorite Subprovince. We also suggest that the Sr and Ba in celestine and barite deposits were leached from clastic formations whose source areas are Permian-Triassic granitic rocks in the basement highs on the borders of the Sabinas Basin. Thus, most Sr would be radiogenic and would have been leached from clastic formations in the vicinities of basement highs, and the formation of stratabound deposits would be due to the interaction of basinal brines (whose flow would have been activated by the Laramide orogeny) with stratigraphic horizons favorable to their circulation. Such hypotheses are the startline to forthcoming geochemical studies to set a depositional model to stratabound deposits in the MPNM.

Keywords: MVT deposits; Sabinas Basin; Northeastern Mexico; Mesozoic stratigraphy; Laramide Orogeny; basinal brines

DESCARGAR ARTÍCULO EN FORMATO PDF

Referencias

Aguayo, C.J.E., 1978, Facies sedimentarias y diagénesis de la Formación Novillo (Jurásico Superior), noreste de México: Revista del Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, X (4), 5-45. [ Links ]

Anderson, T.H., Schmidt, V.A., 1983, The evolution of Middle America and the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean region during Mesozoic time: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 94, 941-966. [ Links ]

Charleston, S., 1981, A summary of the structural geology and tectonics of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, en Smith, C.I. (ed.), Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy and structure northern Mexico: West Texas Geological Society Publication, 81-74, 28-36. [ Links ]

Chávez-Cabello, G., Aranda-Gómez, J.J., Molina-Garza, R.S., Cossío- Torres, T., Arvizu-Gutiérrez, I.R., González-Naranjo, G.A., 2005, La falla San Marcos: una estructura jurásica de basamento multirreactivada del noreste de México: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 57, 27-52. [ Links ]

Eguiluz de Antuñano, S., 2001, Geologic evolution and gas resources of the Sabinas Basin in Northeastern Mexico, en Bartolini, C., Buffler, R.T., Cantú-Chapa, A. (eds.), The western Gulf of Mexico Basin: Tectonics, sedimentary basins, and petroleum systems: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 75, 241-270. [ Links ]

Fastovsky, D.E.O., Hermes, D., Strater, N.H., Bowring, S.A., Clark, J.M., Montellano, M., Hernández, R., 2005, Pre-Late Jurassic, fossilbearing volcanic and sedimentary red beds of Huizachal Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico, en Anderson, T.H., Nourse, J.A., McKee, J.W., Steiner, M.B. (eds.), The Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis: Development, assessment, and alternatives: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 393, 259-282. [ Links ]

Garrison, J.M., McMillan, N.J., 1999, Evidence for Jurassic continental rift magmatism in NE Mexico: Allogenic metaigneous blocks in El Papalote evaporite diapir, La Popa Basin, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, enBartolini, C. , Wilson, J.L., Lawton, T.F. (eds.), Mesozoic sedimentary and tectonic history of north-central Mexico: Boulder, Colorado, EUA, Geological Society of America Special Paper, 340, 319-332. [ Links ]

Goldhammer, R.K., 1999, Mesozoic sequence stratigraphy and paleogeographic evolution of northeast Mexico, enBartolini, C. , Wilson, J.L. , Lawton, T.F. (eds.), Mesozoic sedimentary and Tectonic History of North-Central Mexico: Boulder, Colorado, EUA, Geological Society of America Special Paper, 340, 1-58. [ Links ]

González-Partida, E., Carrillo-Chávez, A., Grimmer, J.O.W., Pironon, J., Mutterer, J., Levresse, G., 2003, Fluorite deposits at Encantada- Buenavista, Mexico: products of Mississippi Valley type processes: Ore Geology Review, 23, 107-124. [ Links ]

Humphrey, W.E., 1956, Tectonic framework of northeast Mexico: Gulf Coast Association of Geologists, Society Transactions, 6, 25-35. [ Links ]

Imlay, R.W., 1936, Evolution of the Coahuila Peninsula, Mexico, Part IV, Geology of the western part of the Sierra de Parras: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 47, 1091-1152. [ Links ]

Imlay, R.W., 1940, Neocomian faunas of northern Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 51, 117-190. [ Links ]

Johnson, C.A., 1989, Structural Analysis of the fold and thrust belt in the vicinity of Monterrey, northeastern Mexico: Houston, Texas, EUA, Exxon Productions Research Company Report (inédito), 40 p. [ Links ]

Johnson, C.R., Ward, W.C., Goldhammer, R.K., 1991, Mechanisms for high-frequency cyclicity in the Upper Jurassic limestones of northeastern Mexico: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 75, 603. [ Links ]

Jones, N.W., McKee, J.W. , Márquez, D.B., Tovar, J., Long, L.E., Laudon, T.S., 1984, The Mesozoic La Mula Island, Coahuila, Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 95, 1226-1241. [ Links ]

Kesler, S.E. Jones, L.M., 1981, Sulfur and strontium isotopic geochemistry of celestite, barite and gypsum from the Mesozoic basins of Northeastern Mexico: Chemical Geology, 31, 211-224. [ Links ]

Kisvaransayi, G., Grant, S.K., Pratt, W.P., Koening, J.W. (eds.), 1983, International Conference on Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposits, Proceedings Volume: Rolla, Missouri, EUA, University of Missouri-Rolla, 603 p. [ Links ]

Leach, D.L., Sangster, D.F., 1993, Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, en Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. (eds.), Mineral Deposit Models, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 40, 289-314. [ Links ]

Lehmann, C., Osleger, D.A., Montañez, I.P., Sliter, W., Arnaud-Vanneau, A., Banner, J., 1999, Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, Early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 111, 1010-1029. [ Links ]

López, R., Cameron, K.L., Jones, N.W. , 2001, Evidence for Paleoproterozoic, Grenvillian, and Pan-African age Gondwanan crust beneath northeastern Mexico: Precambrian Research, 107, 195-214. [ Links ]

McKee, W.J., Jones, W.N., Anderson, H.T., 1988, Las Delicias Basin, a record of Late Paleozoic arc volcanism in northeastern Mexico: Geology, 16, 37-40. [ Links ]

Ohle, E.L., 1959, Some considerations on determining the origin of ore deposits of Mississippi Valley-type: Economic Geology, 54, 769-789. [ Links ]

Oivanki, S.M., 1974, Paleodepositional environments in the Upper Jurassic Zuloaga Formation (Smackover), northeast Mexico: Gulf Coast Association of Geologists, Society Transactions, 24, 258-278. [ Links ]

Padilla y Sánchez, R.J., 1986a, Geologic evolution of the Sierra Madre Oriental between Linares, Concepción del Oro, Saltillo, and Monterrey, Mexico: Austin, Texas, EUA, The University of Texas at Austin, Tesis de doctorado inédita, 217 p. [ Links ]

Padilla y Sánchez, R.J., 1986b, Post-Paleozoic Tectonics of Northeast Mexico and its role in the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico: Geofísica Internacional, 25, 157-206. [ Links ]

Pindell, J.L., 1985, Alleghenian reconstructions and subsequent evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and proto-Caribbean: Tectonics, 4, 1-39. [ Links ]

Puente-Solís, R., 2006, Distribución de los depósitos estratoligados de barita, celestina, fluorita y plomo-zinc en el noroeste de México y ejemplo de los mantos de celestita de la Sierra del Venado, Coahuila: Juriquilla, Querétaro, México, Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tesis de maestría inédita, 180 p. [ Links ]

Ramírez, C.J., 1966, Tabla de correlación estratigráfica Zona noreste: Archivos de Pemex, reporte inédito. [ Links ]

Rueda-Gaxiola, J., López-Ocampo, E., Dueñas, M.A., Rodríguez, J.L., Torres-Rivero, A., 1999, The palynological method: basis for defining stratigraphy and age of the Los San Pedros Allogroup, Huizachal-Peregrina anticlinorium, Mexico, enBartolini, C. , Wilson, J., Lawton, T. (eds.), Mesozoic sedimentary and tectonic history of North-Central Mexico: Boulder, Colorado, EUA, Geological Society of America Special Paper, 340, 229-269. [ Links ]

Salvador, A., Green, A., 1980, Opening of the Caribbean Tethys (Origin and development of the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico), en Auboin, J., et al. (eds.), Géologie des chaînes alpines issues de la Téthys, Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière, Mémoires, 115, 224-229. [ Links ]

Sangster, D.F. , 1983, Mississippi Valley-Type deposits: a geologicalmélange, enKisvaransayi, G. , Grant, S. K., Pratt, W.P. , Koening, J.W. (eds.), International Conference on Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposits, Proceedings Volume: Rolla, Missouri, EUA, University of Missouri-Rolla, 7-19. [ Links ]

Sverjensky, D.A., 1986, Genesis of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits: Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 14, 177-199. [ Links ]

Tinker, S.W., 1985, Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Apitan La Peña Formation, northeast México and south Texas (part I), and the depositional setting of the Aptian Pearsall-La Peña Formations, Texas subsurface and northeast Mexico: Why is there not another Fairway Field? (part 2): Ann Arbor , University of Michigan, tesis de maestría inédita, 80 p. [ Links ]

Vinet, M.J., 1975, Geology of the Sierra of Balauartes and Sierra de Pajaros Azules: New Orleans, Louisiana, EUA, Louisiana State University, Tesis de doctorado inédita, 124 p. [ Links ]

Wilson, J.L. , 1990, Basement structural controls on Mesozoic carbonates facies in northeastern Mexico: A review, en Tucker, M.E., Wilson, J.L. , Crevello, P.D., Sarg, J.R., Read, J.F. (eds.), Carbonate platforms, facies, sequences and evolution: International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication, 9, 235-255. [ Links ]

Wilson, J.L. , Pialli, G., 1977, A Lower Cretaceous shelf margin in Northern Mexico, en Cretaceous carbonates of Texas and Mexico: Applications to subsurface exploration: Austin, Texas, EUA, The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations, 89, 286-298. [ Links ]

Wilson, J.L. , Ward, W.C. , Finneran, J. (eds.), 1984, A field guide to Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform and basin systems, Monterrey-Saltillo area, northeast Mexico: Gulf Coast Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 76 p. [ Links ]

Winker, C.D., Buffler, R.T. , 1988, Paleogeographic evolution of early deep-water Gulf of Mexico and margins, Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous (Comanchean): American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 72, 318-346. [ Links ]

Recibido: 12 de Diciembre de 2006; Revisado: 18 de Enero de 2007; Aprobado: 07 de Febrero de 2007

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons