SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.58 número1Características metalogenéticas de los depósitos de tipo pórfido cuprífero en México y su situación en el contexto mundialProcesos de mineralización en manantiales hidrotermales submarinos someros. Ejemplos en México índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Revista

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO

Compartir


Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

versión impresa ISSN 1405-3322

Bol. Soc. Geol. Mex vol.58 no.1 México ene. 2006

http://dx.doi.org/10.18268/bsgm2006v58n1a2 

Artículos

Depósitos epitermales en México: actualización de su conocimiento y reclasificación empírica

Epithermal deposits in Mexico- update of current knowledge, and an empirical reclassification

Antoni Camprubí1  * 

Tawn Albinson2 

1Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Carretera 57 km. 15.5, 76023 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., México.

2Exploraciones del Altiplano S.A. de C.V., Sinaloa 106 - oficina 302, Colonia Roma Norte, 06760 México, D.F. México.

Resumen

La tipología de yacimientos minerales ha sido tradicionalmente la más importante para México en términos económicos, con renombrados depósitos de clase mundial como los de los distritos de Pachuca - Real del Monte, Guanajuato, Fresnillo, Taxco, Tayoltita, y Zacatecas. También es uno de los temas más interesantes para la investigación científica y para la exploración de depósitos minerales, especialmente tras la determinación de sus nexos genéticos con otras tipologías como los depósitos metalíferos en pórfidos y en skarns. Además, los recientes ajustes en la denominación y definición de los tipos y subtipos de depósitos epitermales (Einaudi et al., 2003; Sillitoe y Hedenquist, 2003), y la consiguiente definición de inclusividades y exclusividades entre ellos, va a ser tema de discusión durante un tiempo, pues cualquier modelo de nuevo cuño necesita ser completado con evidencias adicionales. Como esquema general, Sillitoe y Hedenquist (2003) enfatizaron la estrecha asociación entre depósitos en pórfidos y depósitos epitermales de sulfuración alta e intermedia y, además, señalaron que en ciertas áreas (como la Great Basin de Nevada) los depósitos de sulfuración intermedia y baja son mutualmente excluyentes en espacio y tiempo. En el caso de los depósitos epitermales de México, los tipos de depósitos epitermales de sulfuración intermedia y baja no son mutualmente exclusivos, antes bien, coexisten en las mismas regiones, se formaron durante los mismos rangos de tiempo, e inclusive se presentan juntos en un mismo depósito. Estos depósitos son enteramente de edad terciaria, entre el Luteciano y el Aquitaniano-Burdigaliano (o Eoceno medio a Mioceno temprano, con la sola excepción advertida de un depósito del Paleoceno), y su distribución espacial y temporal mimetiza la propia evolución del vulcanismo de arco continental de la Sierra Madre Occidental y la Sierra Madre del Sur. La inmensa mayoría de los depósitos epitermales de México pertenecen a los tipos de sulfuración intermedia (SI) o baja (BS), y sólo se han descrito algunos depósitos de alta sulfuración (AS) en la parte noroccidental del país (e. g. El Sauzal, Mulatos, Santo Niño, La Caridad Antigua, todos ellos en Sonora y Chihuahua). Dado que muchos depósitos epitermales en México exhiben características compuestas de estilos de mineralización tanto de SI como de BS (y ocasionalmente también de AS), éstos no pueden caracterizarse simplemente como depósitos de SI (depósitos polimetálicos asociados con las salmueras más salinas) o depósitos de BS (fundamentalmente depósitos de Ag y Au asociados con salmueras de más baja salinidad). Así, en el presente trabajo proponemos el uso de una clasificación empírica para depósitos de SI+BS (esto es, depósitos epitermales alcalinos/neutros) según tres tipos de mineralización, que denominamos A, B, y C. El tipo A (o tipo de SI) comprende los depósitos formados a mayores profundidades a partir de salmueras altamente salinas, casi en ausencia de evidencias de ebullición, y contiene exclusivamente mineralizaciones de SI, consistentemente de carácter polimetálico. El tipo B (o tipo de BS-SI) comprende los depósitos que exhiben predominantemente características de BS pero que contienen raíces polimetálicas de SI (Zn-Pb), y es el tipo de depósito epitermal más abundante en México. El tipo C (o tipo de BS) comprende los depósitos que sólo exhiben mineralizaciones de BS, se formaron generalmente a partir de ebullición en la parte superior de los depósitos a partir de salmueras de relativa baja salinidad, y son los que presentan contenidos más altos en metales preciosos y más bajos en metales básicos.

En este trabajo se efectúa una revisión completa del conocimiento acerca de los depósitos epitermales y las técnicas de estudio de empleo común (y no tan común) en los mismos, en primer lugar a nivel general y, en segundo lugar, restringiéndonos al ámbito de los depósitos mexicanos. Así, se contemplan aspectos como la mineralogía de menas y gangas, la estructura de los depósitos, los datos y el tipo de datos geotermométricos obtenidos en ellos, las composiciones en isótopos estables de los fluidos mineralizantes y otros componentes, la química de los fluidos y sus orígenes, y los mecanismos más plausibles para la movilización de salmueras profundas y para la formación de los depósitos en el ambiente epitermal. En la revisión sobre los depósitos epitermales mexicanos se trata de mostrar qué se conoce en la actualidad de los mismos, tanto como se trata de mostrar los numerosos huecos que permanecen sobre el tema. En México existen literalmente cientos de depósitos epitermales de cualquier tipo, pero se cuenta con estudios multidisciplinarios detallados sólo en un puñado de ellos, y todos estos depositos pueden potencialmente proveer de información valiosa sobre las provincias metalogenéticas que los contienen, así como también acerca del origen y evolución de estos depósitos como tipología. Así, no propiamente en el sentido de una revisión, el presente trabajo debe tomarse como una forma de estimular los muchos estudios aún por realizarse en los depósitos epitermales de México, y lo que se conoce de estos depósitos actualmente es sólo un ejemplo de lo que puede hacerse.

Palabras clave: Depósitos epitermales; México; vulcanismo de arco continental; Terciario; sulfuración intermedia; baja sulfuración; alta sulfuración; polimetálico; metales básicos; metales preciosos; Plata; Oro

Abstract

Epithermal ore deposits have traditionally been the most economically important in Mexico, with renowned world-class deposits as those in the Pachuca - Real del Monte, Guanajuato, Fresnillo, Taxco, Tayoltita, and Zacatecas districts. It is also one of the most interesting topics for both scientific research and exploration on ore deposits, especially in the light of the genetic links with other deposit types such as metalliferous porphyries and skarns. Additionally, recent rearrangements of denominations and definitions for the types and subtypes of epithermal deposits (Einaudi et al., 2003; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003), with consequent inclusivities and exclusivities between them, are going to be a matter of discussion for a while, as any newly set model needs to be completed with further evidence. Sillitoe and Hedenquist (2003) indicated a close association between porphyry and high and intermediate sulfidation deposits whereas, in certain areas (as the Great Basin in Nevada), intermediate and low sulfidation deposits have been found to be mutually exclusive in time and space. In the case of epithermal deposits in Mexico, the intermediate and low sulfidation types do not appear to be mutually exclusive and, to the contrary, they coexist in the same regions, formed during the same time spans, and even occur together within a single deposit. These deposits are all Tertiary in age, ranging from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene, with the possible sole exception of a Paleocene deposit, and their space and time distribution follows the evolution of the continental arc volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre del Sur. The vast majority of epithermal deposits in Mexico belong to the intermediate (IS) or low sulfidation (LS) types, and only a few high sulfidation (HS) deposits have been described in the NW part of the country (i.e. El Sauzal, Mulatos, Santo Niño, La Caridad Antigua, all of them in Sonora and Chihuahua). As most epithermal deposits in Mexico exhibit composite characteristics of both IS and LS mineralization styles (as well as scarce characteristics of HS), they can not be simply characterized as IS (polymetallic deposits associated with the most saline brines) or LS deposits (mainly Ag and Au deposits associated with lower salinity brines). Thus, in this paper we propose to use an empirical classification for IS+LS deposits (that is, alkaline/neutral epithermal deposits) into four types of mineralization, namely A, B, and C. Type A (or IS type) comprises those deposits that generally formed at greater depths from highly saline but unsaturated brines, with or without evidence for boiling, and contain exclusively from top to bottom IS styles of mineralization with a consistent polymetallic character. Type B (or LS-IS type) comprises those deposits that exhibit dominant LS characteristics but have polymetallic IS roots (Zn-Pb-Cu), and is the most widespread type of epithermal mineralization in Mexico. Types A and B generally exhibit evidence for boiling. Type C (or LS type) comprises those deposits that exhibit only LS styles of mineralization, formed generally by shallow boiling of low salinity brines, and have the relatively highest precious metal and lowest base metal contents.

In this paper, although not necessarily as part of the above classification, we also review other known or attributable aspects of Mexican epithermal deposits, including ore and gangue mineralogy and their evolution in time and space, structure, geothermometry, stable isotopic composition of mineralizing fluids and other components of the deposits, chemistry and sources for mineralizing fluids, and the plausible mechanisms for the mobilization of deep fluid reservoirs and for mineral deposition at the epithermal environment. In this review the intent is to show what is known today of epithermal deposits in Mexico, and to point out the gaps that remain in their knowledge. Detailed multidisciplinary studies are available only for a handful of literally hundreds of epithermal deposits in the country, whose study may potentially provide valuable information about the origin and evolution of these deposits as well as about the metallogenic provinces that contain them.

Key words: Epithermal deposits; Mexico; continental arc volcanism; Tertiary; intermediate sulfidation; low sulfidation; high sulfidation; polymetallic; base metals; precious metals; Silver; Gold

DESCARGAR ARTÍCULO EN FORMATO PDF

Agradecimientos

El presente trabajo tiene una larga historia, que se inició con la tesis doctoral del primer autor a principios del año 1995, como un intento de ordenar las ideas de alguien que ignoraba por aquel entonces casi todo acerca de los depósitos epitermales. Aquel intento derivó en la elaboración de una revisión sobre el conocimiento de los depósitos epitermales, en que se intentaba integrar todo tipo de información acerca de los mismos. Ese propósito es notorio en el texto en su forma actual, por varias razones que incluyen la profusión de citas bibliográficas. Teniendo en cuenta que la redacción del mismo se ha producido, aunque intermitentemente, durante casi diez años, se entiende que no se ha simplemente “vertido” una gran cantidad de citas bibliográficas de forma gratuita, sino que éstas han ido acrecionándose al manuscrito a través de ese tiempo en función de su utilidad para ilustrar los más diversos conceptos. Este trabajo, antes de ser publicado en su forma actual, de hecho ha sido el gérmen de otros trabajos ya publicados (Camprubí et al., 2003a,b). Una gran parte de este trabajo proviene de la versión final de la tesis doctoral mediante el desarrollo de la cual éste se originó (Camprubí, 1999), que es la única versión publicada hasta el momento, corregida y (sobre)aumentada para esta ocasión. Dicha tesis fue financiada por el Fondo para la Investigación de la Unión Europea a través de proyecto CI1*-CT94-0075 (HSMU 12). Los directores de dicha tesis fueron Àngels Canals y Esteve Cardellach, a quienes A. Camprubí agradece su apoyo. Una de las versiones previas de este trabajo fue eventualmente utilizada para el concurso de oposición para la plaza de Investigador Titular “A” en la UNAM del primer autor en 2003, en lo que supuso una actualización de sus contenidos y que, en su estructura, es el antecedente inmediato del texto actual. Parte de este trabajo ha sido también posible a través de financiamiento adicional mediante los proyectos de investigación J32506-T de CONACyT, IN115999 e IN122604 de PAPIIT-DGAPA, y de asignaciones presupuestales anuales del Instituto de Geología y del Centro de Geociencias de la UNAM, básicamente en lo que respecta a la obtención de nueva información que se ha ido generando desde el año 2000 y que se incorpora aquí. Por sus comentarios críticamente constructivos o motivacionales, sus sugerencias, su ayuda en diversas versiones del texto o partes del mismo y, en definitiva, por su contribución a mejorar y enriquecer el presente trabajo, gracias muy especialmente a Víctor A. Valencia, Carles Canet (quienes también realizaron la revisión formal del mismo), Johannes Horner, Martín Valencia-Moreno, Rosa María Prol-Ledesma, Noel C. White, Fernando Tornos, Joaquín Proenza, Joan-Carles Melgarejo, Lucas Ochoa-Landín, y Xiomara Cazañas. Algunas de las fotos incluidas en este trabajo fueron tomadas por Noel C. White, Jordi Tritlla, y Eduardo González-Partida, quienes las cedieron amablemente para tal fin. Por último, nos unimos a las felicitaciones a la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana por su primer siglo de existencia.

Referencias

Abeyta, R.L., 2003, Epithermal gold mineralization of the San Nicolás vein, El Cubo mine, Guanajuato, Mexico: trace element distribution, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and gas chemistry: Socorro, New Mexico, E.U.A., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 130 p. [ Links ]

Ahmad, M., Solomon, M., Walshe, J.L., 1987, Mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Emperor gold telluride deposit, Fiji: Economic Geology, 82, 345-370. [ Links ]

Aiken, C.L.V., Schellhorn, R.W., de la Fuente, M.F., 1988, Gravity of northern Mexico, en Clark, K.F., Goodell, P.C., Hoffer, J.M. (eds.), Stratigraphy, tectonics, and resources of parts of Sierra Madre Occidental province: El Paso, Texas, E.U.A., El Paso Geological Society, Field Conference Guidebook, 119-133. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., 1985, Zoneamientos térmicos y su relación a la distribución de mineral en algunos yacimientos epitermales en México, en Memorias Técnicas XXVI Convención Nacional AIMMGM, Mazatlán, Sinaloa: México, D.F., Asociacion de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 17 p. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., 1988, Geologic reconstruction of paleosurfaces in the Sombrerete, Colorada, and Fresnillo district, Zacatecas state, Mexico: Economic Geology, 83, 1647-1667. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., 1995, Bosquejo de la evolución estructural e hidrotermal del distrito de Zacatecas, en Trabajos Técnicos XVI Convención Nacional AIMMGM, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociacion de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 143-170. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., Parrilla, L.V., 1988, Geologic, mineralogic and fluid inclusion characteristics of polymetallic veins, Real de Guadalupe mining district, Guerrero, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1975-1984. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., Rubio, M.A., 2001, Mineralogic and thermal structure of the Zuloaga vein, San Martín de Bolaños District, Jalisco, Mexico: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 115-132. [ Links ]

Albinson, T., Norman, D.I., Cole, D., Chomiak, B.A., 2001, Controls on formation of low-sulfidation epithermal deposits in Mexico: constraints from fluid inclusion and stable isotope data: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 1-32. [ Links ]

Allen, G., Thurston, B., Wayne, R., 2001, Geology and gold-silver mineralization in the Guadalupe de los Reyes district, Sinaloa, Mexico: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 59-70. [ Links ]

Anderson, W., Eaton, P., 1990, Gold mineralization at the Emperor mine, Vatukuola, Fiji: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 36, 339-374. [ Links ]

Arribas, A. Jr., 1995, Characteristics of high-sulfidation epithermal deposits, and their relation to magmatic fluid, en Thompson, J.F.H. (ed.), Magmas, fluids and ore deposits: Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series, 23, 419-454. [ Links ]

Arribas, A. Jr., Hedenquist, J.W., Itaya, T., Okada, T., Concepción, R.A., Garcia, J.S. Jr., 1995, Contemporaneous formation of adjacent porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au deposits over 300 ka in northern Luzon, Philippines: Geology, 23, 337-340. [ Links ]

Ashley, R.P., 1982, Occurrence model for enargite-gold deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 82-795, 144-147. [ Links ]

Atkinson, W.W. Jr., 1990, A variety of types of epithermal mineral deposits at Moctezuma: Abstracts with Programs Geological Society of America, 22(7), 41. [ Links ]

Atkinson, W.W. Jr., 1996, Evidence of a porphyry copper deposit below epithermal veins near Moctezuma, Sonora Mexico: Abstracts with Programs Geological Society of America , 28(7), 335. [ Links ]

Barnes, H.L., 1979, Solubilities of ore minerals, en Barnes, H.L. (ed.), Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2a edición: New York, New York, E.U.A., John Wiley & Sons Interscience, 404-460. [ Links ]

Barton, P.B. Jr., 1970, Sulfide petrology: Mineralogical Society of America, Special Paper, 3, 187-198. [ Links ]

Barton, P.B. Jr., Skinner, B.J., 1979, Sulfide mineral stabilities, en Barnes, H.L. (ed.), Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits , 2a edición: New York, New York, E.U.A., John Wiley & Sons Interscience , 278-403. [ Links ]

Benning, L.G., Seward, T.M., 1996, Hydrosulphide complexing of Au(I) in hydrothermal solutions from 150-400oC and 500-1500 bar: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 1849-1871. [ Links ]

Benton, L.D., 1991, Composition and source of the hydrothermal fluids of the Santo Niño vein, Fresnillo, Mexico, as determined from 87Sr/86Sr, stable isotope, and gas analyses: Socorro, New Mexico, E.U.A., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 55 p. [ Links ]

Berger, B.R., 1991, A historical perspective on the nature and genesis of epithermal gold-silver deposits: Economic Geology Monograph, 8, 249-263. [ Links ]

Berger, B.R., Eimon, P.L., 1983, Conceptual models of epithermal precious metal deposits, en Shanks, W.C. (ed.), Cameron volume on unconventional mineral deposits: New York, New York, E.U.A., Society of Mining Engineers, 191-205. [ Links ]

Berger, B.R., Henley, R.W., 1989, Advances in the understanding of epithermal gold-silver deposits, with special reference to the western United States: Economic Geology Monograph, 6, 405-423. [ Links ]

Bodnar, R.J., Reynolds, T.J., Kuehn, C.A., 1985, Fluid inclusion systematics in epithermal systems: Reviews in Economic Geology, 2, 73-96. [ Links ]

Bogie, I., Lawless, J.V., 1987, Controls on the hydrology of large volcanically hosted geothermal systems: implications for exploration for epithermal mineral deposits, en Proceedings Pacific Rim Congress 87: Parkville, Victoria, Australia, Australasian Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 57-60. [ Links ]

Bonev, I.K., Kerestedjian, T., Atanassova, R., Andrew, C.J., 2002, Morphogenesis and composition of native gold in the Chelopech volcanic-hosted Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria: Mineralium Deposita, 37, 614-629. [ Links ]

Bonham, H.F. Jr., 1986, Models for volcanic-hosted epithermal precious metal deposits: a review, en Volcanism, hydrothermal systems and related mineralization: Hamilton, New Zealand, Proceedings International Volcanological Congress, Symposium 5, University of Auckland Centre for Continue Education, 13-17. [ Links ]

Bonham, H.F. Jr., 1988, Models for volcanic-hosted precious metal deposits: a review, en Schafer, R.W., Cooper, J.J., Vikre, P.G. (eds.), Bulk mineable precious metal deposits of the Western United States: Reno, Nevada, E.U.A., Geological Society of Nevada, 259-271. [ Links ]

Bornhorst, T.J., Nurmi, P.A., Rasilainen, K., Kontas, E., 1995, Trace element characteristics of selected epithermal gold deposits of North America: Geological Survey of Finland Special Paper, 20, 47-52. [ Links ]

Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K., 2002, The Waihi epithermal gold-silverbase metal sulfide-quartz vein system: temperature and salinity controls on electrum and sulfide deposition: Economic Geology , 97, 269-290. [ Links ]

Brathwaite, R.L., Simpson, M.P., Faure, K., Skinner, D.N.B., 2001, Telescoped porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation, advanced argillic alteration and quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins in the Thames District, New Zealand: Mineralium Deposita , 36, 623-640. [ Links ]

Brown, K.L., 1989, Kinetics of gold precipitation from experimental hydrothermal sulfide solutions: Economic Geology Monograph, 6, 320-327. [ Links ]

Browne, P.R.L., 1978, Hydrothermal alteration in active geothermal fields: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 6, 229-250. [ Links ]

Browne, P.R.L., Ellis, A.J., 1970, The Ohaaki-Broadlands hydrothermal area, New Zealand: mineralogy and related geochemistry: American Journal of Science, 269, 97-131. [ Links ]

Buchanan, L.J., 1981, Precious metal deposits associated with volcanic environments in the Southwest: Arizona Geological Society Digest, 14, 237-262. [ Links ]

Buddington, A.F., 1935, High-temperature mineral associations at shallow to moderate depths: Economic Geology , 30, 205-222. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., 1999, Los depósitos epitermales Ag-Au de Temascaltepec (Estado de México), México: Barcelona, España, Universitat de Barcelona, Collecció de Tesis Doctorals Microfitxades, 3528, 252 p. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., 2003, Geoquímica de fluidos de los depósitos epitermales del sureste del Distrito de Temascaltepec, Estado de México: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, 20, 107-123. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Prol-Ledesma, R.M., Tritlla, J., 1999, Comments on ‘Metallogenic evolution of convergent margins: selected ore deposit models’ by S.E. Kesler: Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 71-76. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Canals, À., Cardellach, E., Prol-Ledesma, R.M., Rivera, R., 2001a, The La Guitarra Ag-Au low sulfidation epithermal deposit, Temascaltepec district, Mexico: vein structure, mineralogy, and sulfide-sulfosalt chemistry: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 133-158. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Cardellach, E., Canals, À., Lucchini, R., 2001b, The La Guitarra Ag-Au low sulfidation epithermal deposit, Temascaltepec district, Mexico: fluid inclusion and stable isotope data: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 159-185. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Tritlla, J., Corona-Esquivel, R., Centeno, E., Terrazas, A., 2001c, The hydrothermal sinter and kaolinite-Au-Ag deposits of Ixtacamaxtitlán (Puebla, Mexico): preliminary research, en Pietrzynski, A. et al. (eds.), Mineral deposits at the beginning of the 21st century: Lisse, Holanda, Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, 711-714. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., González-Partida, E., Levresse, G., Tritlla, J, CarrilloChávez, A., 2003a, Depósitos epitermales de alta y baja sulfuración: una tabla comparativa: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 56, 10-18. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Ferrari, L., Cosca, M.A., Cardellach, E., Canals, À., 2003b, Ages of epithermal deposits in Mexico: regional significance and links with the evolution of Tertiary volcanism: Economic Geology , 98, 1029-1037. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., Norman, D.I., Chomiak, B.A., 2003c, Evidence for fluid sources by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the La Guitarra AgAu epithermal deposit, Temascaltepec district, Mexico: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 78-79, 593-599. [ Links ]

Camprubí, A., González-Partida, E., Iriondo, A., Levresse, G., 2006, Mineralogy, fluid characteristics and depositional environment of the Paleocene low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the El Barqueño district, Jalisco, Mexico: Economic Geology , 101 en prensa. [ Links ]

Camus, F., 1990, The geology of hydrothermal gold deposits in Chile: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 197-232. [ Links ]

Camus, F., Skewes, M.A., 1991, The Faride epithermal silver-gold deposit, Antofagasta region, Chile: Economic Geology , 86, 1222-1237. [ Links ]

Candela, P.A., Piccoli, P.M., 1995, Model ore-metal partioning from melts into vapor and vapor/brine mixtures, en Thompson, J.F.H. (ed.), Magmas, fluids and ore deposits : Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, 23, 101-127. [ Links ]

Canet, C., Prol-Ledesma, R.M., Proenza, J., Rubio-Ramos, M.A., Forrest, M.J., Torres-Vera, M.A., Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A., 2005a, Mn-Ba-Hg mineralization at shallow submarine hydrothermal vents in Bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Chemical Geology, 224, 96-112. [ Links ]

Canet, C., Prol-Ledesma, R.M., Torres-Alvarado, I., Gilg, H.A., Villanueva, R.E., Lozano-Santa Cruz, R., 2005b, Silica-carbonate stromatolites related to coastal hydrothermal venting in Bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Sedimentary Geology, 174, 97-113. [ Links ]

Castor, S.B., Boden, D.R., Henry, C.D., Cline, J.S., Hofstra, A.H., McIntosh, W.C., Tosdal, R.M., Wooden, J.P., 2003, The Tuscarora Au-Ag district: Eocene volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits in the Carlin gold region, Nevada: Economic Geology , 98, 339-366. [ Links ]

Cathles, L.M., 1991, The importance of vein selvaging in controlling the intensity and character of subsurface alteration in hydrothermal systems: Economic Geology , 86, 466-471. [ Links ]

Charest, A., Castañeda, J., 1997, Geología y modelo yacimiento de oro El Sauzal, Chihuahua, Mex., en Trabajos Técnicos XXII Convención Nacional A.I.M.M.G.M., Vol. 1, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociación de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 137-148. [ Links ]

Cheilletz, A., Levresse, G., Gasquet, D., Azizi Samir, M.R., Zyadi, R., Archibald, D., 2002, The giant Imiter silver deposit: Neoproterozoic epithermal mineralisation in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco: Mineralium Deposita , 37, 772-781. [ Links ]

Christie, A.B., Brathwaite, R.L., 1986, Epithermal gold-silver and porphyry copper deposits of the Hauraki Goldfield-A review, en Henley, R.W., Hedenquist, J.W. , Roberts, P.J. (eds.), Guide to the active epithermal (geothermal) systems and precious metal deposits of New Zealand; Monograph series on mineral deposits: Berlin, Alemania, Gebruder Bornträger, 129-145. [ Links ]

Chutas, N.I., Sack, R.O., 2004, Ore genesis at La Colorada Ag-ZnPb deposit in Zacatecas, Mexico: Mineralogical Magazine, 68, 923-937. [ Links ]

Clark, K.F., 1990, Geology and mineral deposits of the Taxco mining district: Society of Economic Geologists, Guidebook Series, 6, 281-291. [ Links ]

Clark, K.F., Foster, C.T., Damon, P.E., 1982, Cenozoic mineral deposits and subsuction-related magmatic arcs in Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 93, 533-544. [ Links ]

Clarke, M., Titley, S.R., 1988, Hydrothermal evolution of silver-gold veins in the Tayoltita mine, San Dimas district, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1830-1840. [ Links ]

Clarke, W.B., Beg, M.A., Craig, H., 1969, Excess 3He in the sea: evidence for terrestrial primordial helium: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 6, 213-220. [ Links ]

Conrad, J.E., McKee, E.H., Rytuba, J.J., Nash, J.T., Utterback, W.C., 1993, Geochronology of the Sleeper deposit, Humboldt County, Nevada: epithermal gold-silver mineralization following emplacement of silicic flow-dome complex: Economic Geology , 88, 317-327. [ Links ]

Cooke, D.R., Bloom, M.S., 1990, Epithermal and subjacent porphyry mineralization, Acupan, Baguio District, Philippines: a fluid-inclusion and paragenetic study: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 35, 297-340. [ Links ]

Cooke, D.R., Simmons, S.F., 2000, Characteristics and genesis of epithermal gold deposits: Reviews in Economic Geology, 13, 221-244. [ Links ]

Cooke, D.R., McPhail, D.C., Bloom, M.S., 1996, Epithermal gold mineralization, Acupan, Baguio District, Philippines: geology, mineralization, alteration, and the thermochemical environment of ore deposition: Economic Geology , 91, 243-272. [ Links ]

Corbett, G.J., Leach, T.M., 1998, Southwest Pacific rim gold-copper systems: Structure, alteration and mineralisation: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 6, 238 p. [ Links ]

Craig, H., Lupton, J.E., Horibe, Y., 1978, A mantle helium component in circum-Pacific volcanic gases: Hakone, the Marianas, and Mt. Lassen, en Alexander, E.C., Ozima, M. (eds.), Terrestrial rare gases: Tokyo, Japón, Center Academy Publications Japan, 3-16. [ Links ]

Craig, J.R., Vaughan, D.J., Skinner, B.J., 1996, Resources of the Earth. Origin, use, and environmental impact, Segunda edición: New Jersey, New Jersey, E.U.A., Prentice Hall, 472 p. [ Links ]

Cumming, G.L., Kesler, S.E., Krstic, D., 1979, Isotope composition of lead in Mexican mineral deposits: Economic Geology , 74, 1395-1407. [ Links ]

Cunneen, R., Sillitoe, R.H., 1989, Paleozoic hot spring sinter in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia: Economic Geology , 84, 135-142. [ Links ]

Damon, P.E., Shafiqullah, M., Clark, K.F., 1981, Evolución de los arcos magmáticos en México y su relación con la metalogénesis: Revista del Instituto de Geología U.N.A.M., 5, 131-139. [ Links ]

Deen, J.A., Atkinson, W.W. Jr., 1988, Volcanic stratigraphy and ore deposits of the Moctezuma district, Sonora, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1841-1855. [ Links ]

Deen, J.A., Rye, R.O., Munoz, J.L., Drexler, J.W., 1994, The magmatic hydrothermal system at Julcani, Peru: evidence from fluid inclusions and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes: Economic Geology , 89, 1924-1938. [ Links ]

Doe, B.R., Steven, T.A., Delevaux, M.H., Stacey, J.S., Lipman, P.W., Fisher, F.S., 1979, Genesis of ore deposits in the San Juan volcanic field, southwestern Colorado-lead isotope evidence: Economic Geology , 74, 1-26. [ Links ]

Dong, G., Morrison, G.W., 1995, Adularia in epithermal veins, Queensland: morphology, structural state and origin: Mineralium Deposita , 30, 11-19. [ Links ]

Dong, G., Morrison, G., Jaireth, S., 1995, Quartz textures in epithermal veins, Queensland - classification, origin, and implication: Economic Geology , 90, 1841-1856. [ Links ]

Drummond, S.E., Ohmoto, H., 1985, Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydrothermal systems: Economic Geology , 80, 126-147. [ Links ]

Einaudi, M.T., Hedenquist, J.W. , Inan, E.E., 2003, Sulfidation state of fluids in active and extinct hydrothermal systems: transitions from porphyry to epithermal environments: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 10, 285-313. [ Links ]

Enríquez, E., Rivera, R., 2001a, Timing of magmatic and hydrothermal activity in the San Dimas district, Durango, Mexico: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 33-38. [ Links ]

Enríquez, E., Rivera, R., 2001b, Geology of the Santa Rita Ag-Au deposit, San Dimas district, Durango, Mexico: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 8, 39-58. [ Links ]

Ericksen, G.E., Cunningham, C.G., 1993, Epithermal precious-metal deposits hosted by the Neogene and Quaternary volcanic complex in the Central Andes, en Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. (eds.), Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 40, 419-431. [ Links ]

Etoh, J., Izawa, E., Watanabe, K., Taguchi, S., Sekine, R., 2002, Bladed quartz and its relationship to gold mineralization in the Hishikari low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, Japan: Economic Geology , 97, 1841-1851. [ Links ]

Ferrari L., López-Martínez, M., Aguirre-Díaz, G., Carrasco-Núñez, G., 1999, Space-time patterns of Cenozoic arc volcanism in central Mexico: from the Sierra Madre Occidental to the Mexican Volcanic Belt: Geology, 27, 303-307. [ Links ]

Ferrari L. , López-Martínez, M., Rosas-Elguera J., 2002, Ignimbrite flare up and deformation in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Mexico: implications for the late subduction history of the Farallon plate: Tectonics, 21, 17-1/24. [ Links ]

Flores, T., 1920, Estudio geológico-minero de los distritos de El Oro y Tlalpujahua: Instituto Geológico de México, Boletín, 37. [ Links ]

Foley, N.R., Ayuso, R.A., 1994, Lead isotope compositions as guides to early gold mineralization: the North Amethyst vein system, Creede district, Colorado: Economic Geology , 89, 1842-1859. [ Links ]

Fournier, R.O., 1987, Conceptual models of brine evolution in magmatic-hydrothermal systems, en Decker, R.W., Wright, T.L., Stauffer, P.H. (eds.), Volcanism in Hawaii, vol. 2: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1350, 1487-1506. [ Links ]

Fournier, R.O., 1991, The transition from hydrostatic to greater than hydrostatic fluid pressure in presently active continental hydrothermal systems in crystalline rock: Geophysical Research Letters, 18, 955-958. [ Links ]

Fredrickson, G., 1974, Geology of the Mazatlan area, Sinaloa: Austin, Texas, E.U.A., University of Texas at Austin, Tesis Doctoral inédita, 209 p. [ Links ]

Gammons, C.H., Williams-Jones, A.E., 1995, Hydrothermal geochemistry of electrum: thermodynamic constraints: Economic Geology , 90, 420-432. [ Links ]

Gammons, C.H., Williams-Jones, A.E., 1997, Chemical mobility of gold in the porphyry-epithermal environment: Economic Geology , 92, 45-59. [ Links ]

Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., Varne, R., 1994, Crustal contamination processes traced by helium isotopes: examples from the Sunda arc, Indonesia: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 126, 15-22. [ Links ]

Gemmell, J.B., Simmons, S.F., Zantop, H., 1988, The Santo Niño silver-lead-zinc vein, Fresnillo District, Zacatecas, Mexico: part I. Structure, vein stratigraphy, and mineralogy: Economic Geology , 83, 1597-1618. [ Links ]

Geyne, A.R., Fries, C. Jr, Segerstrom, K., Black, R.F., Wilson, I.F., 1963, Geology and mineral deposits of the Pachuca-Real del Monte District, State of Hidalgo, Mexico: México, D.F., Consejo de Recursos Naturales No Renovables, Publ. 5E, 203 p. [ Links ]

Ghosal, S., Sack, R.O., 1995, As-Sb energetics in argentian sulfosalts: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 17, 3573-3579. [ Links ]

Gibson, P.C., Noble, D.C., Larson, L.T., 1990, Multistage evolution of the Calera epithermal Ag-Au vein system, Orcopampa district, Southern Peru: first results: Economic Geology , 85, 1504-1519. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1981, Geothermal mineral equilibria: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 45, 393-410. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1986, The use of gas chemistry in delineationg the origin of fluid discharges over the Taupo volcanic zone: a review: Proceedings of the International Volcanological Congress, New Zealand, 5, 47-50. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1992a, The composition of gases in geothermal and volcanic systems as a function of tectonic setting, en Proceedings 7th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI-7): Rotterdam, Holanda, A.A. Balkema, 873-878. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1992b, Magma degassing and mineral deposition in hydrothermal systems along convergent plate boundaries: Economic Geology , 87, 1927-1944. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1992c, Isotopic shifts in waters from geothermal and volcanic systems along convergent plate boundaries and their origin: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 113, 495-510. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1995, Variations in the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids discharged from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 68, 89-116. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., 1997, the origin and evolution of fluids in magmatichydrothermal systems, en Barnes, H.L. (ed.), Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits , 3a ed.: New York, New York, E.U.A., John Wiley and Sons, 737-796. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., Glover, R.B., 1992, Tectonic and major processes governing the chemistry of water and gas discharges from the Rotorua geothermal field, New Zealand: Geothermics, 21, 121-140. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., Matsuo, S., 1991, Evaluation of results from second and third IAVCEI field workshops on volcanic gases, Mt. Usu, Japan, and White Island, New Zealand: Applied Geochemistry, 6, 125-141. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., Poreda, R.J., 1993, Helium isotopic and chemical composition of gases from volcanic-hydrothermal systems in the Philippines: Geothermics, 22. 369-380. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart, M.K., 1982, Processes controlling the isotopic composition of steam and water discharges from steam vents and steam-heated pools in geothermal areas: Geothermics, 11, 71-80. [ Links ]

Giggenbach, W.F., Sano, Y., Wakita, H., 1994, Isotopic composition of helium and CO2 and CH4 contents in gases produced along the New Zealand part of a convergent plate boundary: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 57, 3427-3455. [ Links ]

Giles, D.L., Nelson, C.E., 1982, Epithermal lode gold deposits of the circum-Pacific: Transactions 3rd Circum Pacific Energy and Mineral Resources Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, E.U.A., 273-278. [ Links ]

Gilmer, A.L., Clark, K.F., Conde, C., Hernandez, I., Figueroa, J.I., Porter, E.W., 1988, Sierra de Santa Maria, Velardeña mining district, Durango, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1802-1829. [ Links ]

Gomberg, J., Priestley, K.F., Masters, T.G., Brune, J.N., 1988, The structure of the crust and upper mantle of northern Mexico: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 94, 1-20. [ Links ]

Gómez-Caballero, A., Ponce-Sibaja, B.F., Miranda-Gasca, M.A., 1977, Informe de evaluación del distrito minero El Oro, Mex. - Tlalpujahua, Mich.: México, D.F., Gerencia de Estudios Especiales, Consejo de Recursos Minerales, Reporte técnico inédito, 80 p. [ Links ]

González-Partida, E., 1981, La province filonienne Au-Ag de TaxcoGuanajuato (Méxique): Lorraine, Francia, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Tesis de doctorado inédita, 234 p. [ Links ]

González-Reyna, J., 1956, Riqueza minera y yacimientos minerales de México: México D.F., Banco de México S.A., 497 p. [ Links ]

Grant, G.J., Ruiz, J., 1988, The Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposits of the Granadeña mine, San Francisco del Oro-Santa Bárbara district, Chihuahua, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1683-1702. [ Links ]

Gray, M.D., 2001, Exploration criteria for high sulfidation gold deposits in Mexico, en Corona-Esquivel, R., Gómez-Godoy, J. (eds.), Acta de Sesiones de la XXIV Convención Nacional de la AIMMGM, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociación de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 68-71. [ Links ]

Gross, W.H., 1975, New ore discovery and source of silver-gold veins, Guanajuato, Mexico: Economic Geology , 70, 1175-1189. [ Links ]

Guha, J., Dubé, B., Pilote, P., Chown, E.H., Archambault, G., Bouchard, G., 1988, Gold mineralization patterns in relation to the lithologic and tectonic evolution of the Chibougamau mining district, Quebec, Canada: Mineralium Deposita , 23, 293-298. [ Links ]

Gunnesch, K.A., Torres del Angel, C., Cuba, C.C., Saez, J., 1994, The Cu-(Au) skarn and Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposits of La Paz, northeastern Mexico: mineralogic, paragenetic, and fluid inclusion characteristics: Economic Geology , 89, 1640-1649. [ Links ]

Haas, J.L. Jr., 1971, The effect of salinity on the maximum thermal gradient of a hydrothermal system at hydrostatic pressure: Economic Geology , 66, 940-946. [ Links ]

Hall, H.T., 1966, The systems Ag-As-S, Ag-Sb-S, and Ag-Bi-S: Phase relations and mineralogical significance: Providence, Rhode Island, E.U.A., Brown University, Tesis doctoral inédita. [ Links ]

Hall, H.T., 1967, The pearceite and polybasite series: American Mineralogist, v. 52, p. 1311-1321. [ Links ]

Hallberg, A., 1994, The Enåsen gold deposit, central Sweden: a paleoproterozoic high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization: Mineralium Deposita , 29, 150-162. [ Links ]

Harvey, B.A., Myers, S.A., Klein, T., 1999, Yanacocha gold district, northern Peru, en Proceedings of the Pacrim’99 Congress, Bali, Indonesia: Parkville, Victoria, Australia, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 445-459. [ Links ]

Hayashi, K., Ohmoto, H., 1991, Solubility of gold in NaCland H2S-bearing aqueous solutions at 250-350oC: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 55, 2111-2126. [ Links ]

Hayba, D.O., Bethke, P.M., Heald, P., Foley, N.K., 1985, Geologic, mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of volcanic-hosted epithermal precious-metal deposits: Reviews in Economic Geology, 2, 129-167. [ Links ]

Heald, P., Foley, N.K., Hayba, D.O., 1987, Comparative anatomy of volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits: acid-sulfate and adularia-sericite types: Economic Geology , 82, 1-26. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., 1986, Geothermal systems in the Taupo volcanic zone: their characteristics and relation to volcanism and mineralisation, en Smith, I.E.M. (ed.), Late Cenozoic volcanism in New Zealand: Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin, 23, 134-168. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., 1987, Mineralization associated with volcanic-related hydrothermal systems in the Circum-Pacific Basin, en Transactions 4th Circum Pacific Energy and Mineral Resources Conference, Singapore, 1-26. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., 1991, Boiling and dilution in the shallow portion of the Waiotapu geothermal system, New Zealand: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 55, 2753-2765. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., 1996, Hydrothermal systems in volcanic arcs. Origin of and exploration for epithermal gold deposits: Genève, Suiza, Département de Minéralogie, Université de Genève, 139 p. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., Aoki, M., 1991, Meteoric interaction with magmatic discharges in Japan and the significance of mineralization: Geology, 19, 1041-1044. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Gulson, B.L., 1992, Intrusive and basement rock sources of lead in hydrothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 56, 2821-2829. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Henley, R.W., 1985a, The importance of CO2 on freezing point measurements of fluid inclusions: evidence from active geothermal systems and implications for epithermal ore deposition: Economic Geology , 80, 1379-1406. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Henley, R.W., 1985b, Hydrothermal eruptions in the Waiotapu geothermal system, New Zealand: their origin, associated breccias, and relation to precious metal mineralization: Economic Geology , 80, 1640-1668. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Lowenstern, J.B., 1994, The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits: Nature, 370, 519-527. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Goff, F., Phillips, F.M., Elmore, D., Stewart, M.K., 1990, Groundwater dilution and residence times, and constraints on chloride source in the Mokai geothermal system, New Zealand, from chemical, stable isotope, tritium and 36Cl data: Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 19365-19375. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Reyes, A.G., Simmons, S.F., Taguchi, S., 1992, The thermal and geochemical structure of geothermal and epithermal systems: a framework for interpreting fluid inclusion data: European Journal of Mineralogy, 4, 989-1015. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Eldridge, C.S., 1993, White Island volcanic hydrothermal system as an active analogue of the environment of high sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition: Geology, 21, 731-734. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W. , Matsuhisa, Y., Izawa, E., White, N.C., Giggenbach, W.F., Aoki, M., 1994a, Geology, geochemistry, and origin of highsulfidation Cu-Au mineralization in the Nansatsu District, Japan: Economic Geology , 89, 1-30. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., Aoki, M., Shinohara, H., 1994b, Flux of volatiles and ore-forming metals from the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Satsuma Iwojima volcano: Geology, 22, 585-588. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., Izawa, E., Arribas, A. Jr., White, N.C., 1996, Epithermal gold deposits: styles, characteristics, and exploration: Resource Geology Special Publication, 1, 18 p. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., Arribas, A. Jr., Reynolds, T.J., 1998, Evolution of an intrusion-centered hydrothermal system: Far Southeast-Lepanto porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au deposits, Philippines: Economic Geology , 93, 373-404. [ Links ]

Hedenquist, J.W., Arribas, A. Jr., Urien-Gonzalez, E., 2000, Exploration for epithermal gold deposits: Reviews in Economic Geology, 13, 245-277. [ Links ]

Helgeson, H.C., 1964, Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition: New York, New York, E.U.A., Pergamon Press, 136 p. [ Links ]

Henley, R.W., 1985, The geothermal framework of epithermal deposits: Reviews in Economic Geology, 2, 1-24. [ Links ]

Henley, R.W., 1991, Epithermal gold deposits in volcanic terranes, en Foster, R.P. (ed.), Gold metallogeny and exploration: London, Reino Unido, Blackie, 133-164. [ Links ]

Henley, R.W., Brown, K.L., 1985, A practical guide to the thermodynamics of geothermal fluids and hydrothermal ore deposits: Reviews in Economic Geology, 2, 25-44. [ Links ]

Henley, R.W., Ellis, A.J., 1983, Geothermal systems, ancient and modern: Earth Science Reviews, 19, 1-50. [ Links ]

Henley, R.W., Truesdell, A.H., Barton, P.B. Jr., Whitney, J.A., 1984, Fluidmineral equilibria in hydrothermal systems: Reviews in Economic Geology , 1, 267 p. [ Links ]

Herdianita, N.R., Rodgers, K.A., Browne, P.R.L., 2000, Routine instrumental procedures to characterise the mineralogy of modern and ancient silica sinters: Geothermics, 29, 65-81. [ Links ]

Herzig, P.M., Hannington, M.D., 1995, Hydrothermal activity, vent fauna, and submarine gold mineralization at alkaline fore-arc seamounts near Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, en Proceedings Pacific Rim Congress 1995: Parkville, Victoria, Australia, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 279-284. [ Links ]

Herzig, P.M., Petersen, S., Hannington, M.D., 1999, Epithermal-type gold mineralization at Conical Seamount: a shallow submarine volcano south of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, en Stanley, C.J. et al. (eds.), Mineral Deposits: Processes to Processing: Rotterdam, Holanda, A.A. Balkema , 527-530. [ Links ]

Hilton, D.R., Craig, H., 1989, A helium isotope transect along the Indonesian archipelago: Nature, 342, 906-908. [ Links ]

Hilton, D.R., Hammerschmidt, K., Teufel, S., Friedrichsen, H., 1993, Helium isotope characteristics of Andean geothermal fluids and lavas: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 120, 265-282. [ Links ]

Huckerby, J.A., Moore, J.McM., Davis, G.R., 1983, Tectonic control of mineralization at Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine, western Saudi Arabia: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Transactions, 92, B171-B182. [ Links ]

Ibarra-Serrano, A., 1997, Compañía San Felipe S.A. de C.V., Unidad San Felipe-Mexicali, B.C. Geología y tipos de mineralización del yacimiento San Felipe, en Memorias Técnicas XXII Convención Nacional AIMMGM, vol. 1, Acapulco, Guerrero, México: México, D.F., Asociación de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 219-228. [ Links ]

Izawa, E., Yamashita, M., 1995, Truscottite from the Hishikari mine, Kagoshima prefecture: Resource Geology, 45(252), 251. [ Links ]

Izawa, E., Urashima, Y., Ibaraki, K., Suzuki, R., Yokoyama, T., Kawasaki, K., Koga, A., Taguchi, S., 1990, The Hishikari gold deposit: highgrade epithermal veins in Quaternary volcanics of southern Kyushu, Japan: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 1-56. [ Links ]

Jacobi, P., 1999, The discovery of epithermal Au-Cu-Mo Proterozoic deposits in the Tapajós province, Brazil: Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 29, 277-279. [ Links ]

Jankovic, S., 1997, The Carpatho-Balkanides and adjacent area: a sector of the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt: Mineralium Deposita , 32, 426-433. [ Links ]

Jannas, R.R., Beane, R.E., Ahler, B.A., Brosnahan, D.R., 1990, Gold and copper mineralization at the El Indio deposit, Chile: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 233-266. [ Links ]

Jannas, R.R., Bowers, T.S., Petersen, U., Beane, R.E., 1999, High-sulfidation deposit types in the El Indio district, Chile: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 7, 219-266. [ Links ]

John, D.A., Hofstra, A.H., Fleck, R.J., Brummer, J.E., Saderholm, E.C., 2003, Geologic setting and genesis of the Mule Canyon lowsulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada: Economic Geology , 98, 425-464. [ Links ]

Jones, B., Renaut, R.W., Rosen, M.R., 2001a, Microbial construction of siliceous stalactites at geysers and hot springs: Examples from the Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand: Palaios, 16, 73-94. [ Links ]

Jones, B., Rosen, M.R., Renaut, R.W., 2001b, “Geyser eggs” from Te Whakarewarewatangaoteopetauaawahiao, North Island, New Zealand: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71, 190-204. [ Links ]

Keighin, C.W., Honea, R.M., 1969, The system Ag-Sb-S from 600oC to 200oC: Mineralium Deposita , 4, 153-171. [ Links ]

Keppie, J.D., Ortega-Gutiérrez, F., 1995, Provenance of Mexican terranes: isotopic constraints: International Geology Reviews, 37, 813-824. [ Links ]

Kilinc, I.A., Burnham, C.W., 1972, Partitioning of chloride between a silicate melt and coexisting aqueous phase from 2 to 8 kilobars: Economic Geology , 67, 231-235. [ Links ]

Konhauser, K.O., Phoenix, V.R., Bottrell, S.H., Adams, D.G., Head, I.M., 2001, Microbial-silica interactions in Icelandic hot spring sinter: possible analogues for some Precambrian siliceous stromatolites: Sedimentology, 48, 415-433. [ Links ]

Kwak, T.A.P., 1990, Geochemical and temperature controls on ore mineralization at the Emperor gold mine, Vatukuola, Fiji: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 297-338. [ Links ]

Lindgren, W., 1922, A suggestion for the terminology of certain mineral deposits: Economic Geology , 17, 202-294. [ Links ]

Lindgren, W., 1933, Mineral Deposits: New York, New York, E.U.A., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 930 p. [ Links ]

Liu, K., Epstein, S., 1984, The hydrogen isotope fractionation between kaolinite and water: Isotope Geoscience, 95, 335-350. [ Links ]

Losada-Calderón, A.J., McPhail, D.C., 1996, Porphyry and high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, Argentina: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 5, 91-118. [ Links ]

Loucks, R.R., Petersen, U., 1988, Polymetallic fissure vein mineralization, Topia, Durango, Mexico: Part II. Silver mineral chemistry and high resolution patterns of chemical zoning in veins: Economic Geology, 83, 1529-1559. [ Links ]

Loucks, R.R., Lemish, J., Damon, P.E., 1988, Polymetallic fissure vein mineralization, Topia, Durango, Mexico: Part I. District geology, geochronology, hydrothermal alteration, and vein mineralogy: Economic Geology, 83, 1499-1528. [ Links ]

Lupton, J.E., 1983, Terrestrial inert gases: isotope tracer studies and clues to primordial components in the mantle: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 11, 371-414. [ Links ]

Lyons, J.I., 1988, Geology and ore deposits of the Bolaños silver district, Jalisco, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1560-1582. [ Links ]

Mamyrin, B.A., Anufriev, G.S., Kamenskii, I.L., Tolstikhin, I.N., 1969, Determination of the isotopic composition of atmospheric helium: Geochemistry International, 7, 498-505. [ Links ]

Mancano, D.P., Campbell, A.R., 1995, Microthermometry of enargitehosted fluid inclusions from the Lepanto, Philippines, high-sulfidation Cu-Au deposit: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 59, 3909-3916. [ Links ]

Mango, H., Zantop, H., Oreskes, N., 1991, A fluid inclusion and isotope study of the Rayas Ag-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Guanajuato, Mexico: Economic Geology , 86, 1554-1561. [ Links ]

Mason, B.E., 1995, A comparative evaluation of three jasperoid occurrences in the Mesa Central province of Mexico, and their possible relation to sediment-hosted precious metals mineralization: Fort Collins, Colorado, E.U.A., Colorado State University, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 111 p. [ Links ]

Matsuhisa, Y., 1986, Effect of mixing and boiling of fluids on isotopic compositions of quartz and calcite from epithermal deposits: Mining Geology, 36, 487-493. [ Links ]

McDowell, F.W., Keizer, R.P., 1977, Timing od mid-Tertiary volcanism in the Sierra Madre Occidental between Durango city and Mazatlan, Mexico: Geologial Society of America Bulletin, 88, 1479-1487. [ Links ]

McGibbon, D.H., 1979, Origin and paragenesis of ore and gangue minerals, La Paz mining district, San Luis Potosí, Mexico: Arlington, Texas, E.U.A., University of Texas at Arlington, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 86 p. [ Links ]

McInnes, B.I, Crocket, J.H., Goodfellow, W.D., 1990, The Laforma deposit, an atypical epithermal-Au system at Freegold Mtn., Yukon Territory, Canada: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 73-102. [ Links ]

McKee, E.H., Dreier, J.E., Noble, D.C., 1992, Early Miocene hydrothermal activity at Pachuca-Real del Monte, Mexico: an example of space-time association of volcanism and epithermal Ag-Au mineralization: Economic Geology , 87, 1635-1637. [ Links ]

McKibben, M.A., Eldridge, C.S., 1990, Radical sulfur isotope zonation of pyrite accompanying boiling and epithermal gold deposition: a SHRIMP study of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Economic Geology , 85, 1917-1925. [ Links ]

McKibben, M.A., Williams, A.E., 1989, Metal speciation and solubility in saline hydrothermal fluids: an empirical approach based on geothermal brine data: Economic Geology , 84, 1996-2007. [ Links ]

Meyer, C., Hemley, J.J., 1967, Wall rock alteration, en Barnes, H.L. (ed.), Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits : New York, New York, E.U.A., Holt Rinehart & Winston, 166-235. [ Links ]

Mitchell, A.H.G., Balce, G.R., 1990, An overview of epithermal gold mineralisation in the Philippines: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 35, 241-296. [ Links ]

Mitchell, A.H.G., Garson, M.S., 1981, Mineral Deposits and Global Tectonic Settings: London, Reino Unido, Academic Press, 405 p. [ Links ]

Mitchell, A.H.G., Garson, M.S., 1981, Mineral Deposits and Global Tectonic Settings: London, Reino Unido, Academic Press , 405 p. [ Links ]

Morales-Ramírez, J.M., Tritlla, J., Camprubí, A., Corona-Esquivel, R., 2003, Fluid origin of the Ixtacamaxtitlán hydrothermal deposits, Puebla State, Mexico: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 78-79, 653-657. [ Links ]

Morán-Zenteno, D.J., Corona-Chávez, P., Tolson, G., 1996, Uplift and subduction erosion in southwestern Mexico since the Oligocene: pluton geobarometry constraints: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 141, 51-65. [ Links ]

Mosier, D.L., Menzie, W.D., Kleinhampl, F.J., 1986, Geologic and grade-tonnage information on Tertiary epithermal preciousand basemetal vein districts associated with volcanic rocks: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1666, 39 p. [ Links ]

Müller, D., Groves, D.I., 2000, Potassic igneous rocks and associated gold-copper mineralization, 3a edición: Heidelberg - Berlin - New York, Springer-Verlag, 252 p. [ Links ]

Müller, D., Kaminski, K., Uhlig, S., Graupner, T., Herzig, P.M., Hunt, S., 2002, The transition from porphyryto epithermal-style gold mineralization at Ladolam, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea: a reconnaissance study: Mineralium Deposita , 37, 61-74. [ Links ]

Mulshaw, S.C., Puig, C., Spiro, B., Buchanan, D.L., 1997, Genesis of epizonal mineralization at San Bartolomé in Central Ecuador: textural evidence, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope geochemistry: Economic Geology , 92, 210-227. [ Links ]

Muntean, J.L., Einaudi, M.T., 2001, Porphyry-epithermal transition: Maricunga belt, northern Chile: Economic Geology , 96, 743-772. [ Links ]

Muñoz, F., 1993, Modelo genético de los depósitos de oro proyecto San Martín, Querétaro, en Memorias Técnicas XX Convención Nacional AIMMGM, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociación de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 439-475. [ Links ]

Murray, M., 1997, Structural analysis of disseminated gold deposits in the Santa Gertrudis mining district, Sonora, Mexico: Boulder, Colorado, E.U.A., University of Colorado at Boulder, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 138 p. [ Links ]

Murray, M., Atkinson, W.W.Jr., 1997, Structural analysis of disseminated gold deposits in the Santa Gertrudis mining district, Sonora, Mexico: Geological Society of America, 1997 annual meeting Abstracts with Programs Geological Society of America , 29, 207. [ Links ]

Nesbitt, B.E., 1990, Fluid flow and chemical evolution in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits, en Nesbitt, B.E. (ed.), MAC Short Course on fluids in tectonically active regimes of the continental crust: Mineralogical Association of Canada, 261-297. [ Links ]

Nielson, D.L., Moore, J.N., Heizler, M.T., 1999, Lower limits of hydrothermal circulation in the Tiwi geothermal fluid, Luzon, en Proceedings 24th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering: Stanford, California, E.U.A., Stanford University, 7 p. [ Links ]

Nieto-Samaniego, A.F., Alaniz-Álvarez, S.A., Camprubí, A., 2005, La Mesa Central de México: estratigrafía, estructura y evolución tectónica cenozoica: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana , 57, 285-317. [ Links ]

Noguez, B.A., Flores, M.J., Toscano, A.F., 1988, El distrito minero de Zacualpan, Estado de México, en Salas, G.P. (ed.), Geología económica de México: México, D.F., Fondo de Cultura Económica, 467-473. [ Links ]

Norman, D.I., Musgrave, J.A., 1994, N2-Ar-He compositions in fluid inclusions: indicators of fluid source: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 58, 1119-1131. [ Links ]

Norman, D.I, Benton, L.D., Albinson, T., 1991, Calculation of ƒ(O2) and ƒ(S2) of ore fluids, and pressure of mineralization from fluid inclusion gas analysis for the Fresnillo, Colorada, and Sombrerete Pb-Zn-Ag deposits, Mexico, en Leroy, J.L., Pagel, M. (eds.), Source, transport and deposition of metals: Rotterdam, Holanda, A.A. Balkema , 209-212. [ Links ]

Norman, D.I, Moore, J.N., Musgrave, J.A., 1997a, Gaseous species as tracers in geothermal systems, en Proceedings 22nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Jan. 27-29: Stanford, California, Stanford University. [ Links ]

Norman, D.I, Chomiak, B., Albinson, T., Moore, J.N., 1997b, Volatiles in epithermal systems: the big picture: Geological Society of America 1997 Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, A-206. [ Links ]

Ohmoto, H., 1972, Systematics of sulfur and carbon isotopes in hydrothermal ore deposits: Economic Geology , 67, 551-579. [ Links ]

Panteleyev, A., 1988. A Canadian Cordilleran Model for Epithermal Goldsilver Deposits, en Roberts, R.G., Sheahan, P.A. (eds.), Ore Deposit Models: Geoscience Canada Reprint Series, 3, 31-43. [ Links ]

Panteleyev, A., 1996, Hot-spring Au-Ag, en Lefebure, D.V., Hõy, T. (eds.), Selected British Columbia Mineral Deposit Profiles, Volume 2 Metallic Deposits: Victoria, British Columbia, Canadá, British Columbia Ministry of Employment and Investment, Open File, 1996-13, 33-36. [ Links ]

Patterson, D.B., Farley, K.A., McInnes, B.I.A., 1997, Helium isotopic composition of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni island arc, Papua New Guinea: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 61, 2485-2496. [ Links ]

Peacock, S.M., 1990, Fluid processes in subduction zones: Science, 248, 329-337. [ Links ]

Pearson, M.F., Clark, K.F., Porter, E.W., 1988, Mineralogy, fluid characteristics, and silver distribution at Real de Ángeles, Zacatecas, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1737-1759. [ Links ]

Penczak, R.S., Mason, R., 1997, Metamorphosed Archean epithermal Au-As-Sb-Zn-(Hg) vein mineralization at the Campbell mine, Northwestern Ontario: Economic Geology , 92, 696-719. [ Links ]

Petersen, S., Herzig, P.M., Hannington, M.D., Jonasson, I.R., Arribas, A. Jr., 2002, Submarine gold mineralization near Lihir Island, New Ireland fore-arc, Papua New Guinea: Economic Geology , 97, 1795-1814. [ Links ]

Petruk, W., Owens, D., 1974, Some mineralogical characteristics of the silver deposits in the Guanajuato mining district, Mexico: Economic Geology , 69, 1078-1085. [ Links ]

Pitzer, K.S., Pabalan, R.T., 1986, Thermodynamics of NaCl in steam: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 50, 1445-1454. [ Links ]

Plumlee, G.S., 1994, Fluid chemistry evolution and mineral deposition in the main-stage Creede epithermal system: Economic Geology , 89, 1860-1882. [ Links ]

Plumlee, G.S., Rye, R.O., 1986, Extreme sulfur isotope. As, Sb and Ag variations in late-stage botryoidal pyrite from Creede, Colorado: vestiges of a waning hydrothermal system: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 18(6), 719. [ Links ]

Ponce, B.F., Clark, K.F., 1988, The Zacatecas mining district: a Tertiary caldera complex associated with precious and base metal mineralization: Economic Geology , 83, 1668-1682. [ Links ]

Ponce, D.A., Glen, J.M.G., 2002, Relationship of epithermal gold deposits to large-scale fractures in Northern Nevada: Economic Geology , 97, 3-9. [ Links ]

Poreda, R., Craig, H., 1989, Helium isotope ratios in circum-Pacific volcanic arcs: Nature, 338, 473-478. [ Links ]

Prol-Ledesma, R.M., Canet, C., Torres-Vera, M.A., Forrest, M.J., Armienta, M.A., 2004, Vent fluid chemistry in Bahía Concepción coastal submarine hydrothermal system, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 137, 311-328. [ Links ]

Randall, J.A., Saldaña, E., Clark, K.F., 1994, Exploration in a volcanoplutonic center at Guanajuato, Mexico: Economic Geology , 89, 1722-1751. [ Links ]

Reed, M.H., 1992, Origin of diverse hydrothermal fluids by reaction of magmatic volatiles with wall rock, en Hedenquist, J.W. (ed.), Extended abstracts, Japan-U.S. symposium on magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems: Geological Survey of Japan Reports, 279, 135-140. [ Links ]

Reed, M.H., Spycher, N., 1985, Boiling, cooling and oxidation in epithermal systems: a numerical model approach: Reviews in Economic Geology , 2, 249-272. [ Links ]

Renaut, R.W., Jones, B., Rosen, M.R., 1996, Primary silica oncoids from Orakeikorako Hot Springs, North Island, New Zealand: Palaios , 11, 446-458. [ Links ]

Reyes, A.G., 1990, Petrology of Philippine geothermal systems and the application of alteration mineralogy to their assessment: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 43, 279-309. [ Links ]

Reyes, A.G., 1991, Mineralogy, distribution and origin of acid alteration in Philippine geothermal systems: Geological Survey of Japan Reports , 277, 59-65. [ Links ]

Reyes, A.G., Giggenbach, W.F., Saleras, J.R.M., Salonga, N.S., Vergara, M.C., 1993, Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system: Geothermics , 22, 479-519. [ Links ]

Rice, C.M., Trewin, N.H., 1988, A Lower Devonian gold-bearing hotspring system, Rhynie, Scotland: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (Section B: Applied Earth Science), 97, B141-B144. [ Links ]

Richards, J.P., 1992, Magmatic-epithermal transitions in alkalic systems: Porgera gold deposit, Papua New Guinea: Geology, 20, 547-550. [ Links ]

Richards, J.P., 1995, Alkalic-type epithermal gold deposits-a review, en Thompson, J.F.H. (ed.), Magmas, fluids and ore deposits : Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, 23, 367-400. [ Links ]

Richards, J.P., Kerrich, R., 1993, The Porgera gold mine, Papua New Guinea: magmatic hydrothermal to epithermal evolution of an alkali-type precious metal deposit: Economic Geology , 88, 1017-1052. [ Links ]

Richards, J.P., Bray, C.J., Channer, D.M.DeR., Spooner, E.T.C., 1997, Fluid chemistry and processes at the Porgera gold deposit, Papua New Guinea: Mineralium Deposita , 32, 119-132. [ Links ]

Rivera, R., 1993, Cocientes metálicos e inclusiones fluidas del distrito minero de Real de Asientos, Aguascalientes. Memorias Técnicas XX Convención Nacional AIMMGM, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociación de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 310-325. [ Links ]

Robert, F., Poulsen, K.H., 1996, World-class Archean, hydrothermal gold deposits: a Canadian perspective: Geological Society of Australia Abstracts, 41, 368. [ Links ]

Ruaya, J.R., Seward, T.M., 1986, The stability of chlorozinc (II) complexes in hydrothermal solutions up to 350oC: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 50, 651-661. [ Links ]

Rubin, J.N., Kyle, J.R., 1988, Mineralogy and geochemistry of the San Martín skarn deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1782-1801. [ Links ]

Russell, N., Kesler, S.E., 1991, Geology of the maar-diatreme complex hosting precious metal mineralization at Pueblo Viejo, Dominican Republic: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 262, 203-215. [ Links ]

Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, D.C., Thompson, T.B., 1988, Ore deposits at the Fresnillo mine, Zacatecas, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1583-1596. [ Links ]

Rye, R.O., Ohmoto, H., 1974, Sulfur and carbon isotopes and ore genesis: a review: Economic Geology , 69, 826-842. [ Links ]

Rye, R.O., Sawkins, F.J., 1974, Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the Casapalca Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu deposits, central Andes, Peru: Economic Geology , 69, 181-205. [ Links ]

Rye, R.O., Bethke, P.M., Wasserman, M.D., 1992, The stable isotope geochemistry of acid-sulfate alteration: Economic Geology , 87, 225-267. [ Links ]

Sack, R.O., 2000, Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag2S-Cu2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb2S3-As2S3: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 64, 3803-3812. [ Links ]

Sack, R.O., 2005, Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag2S-Cu2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb2S3-As2S3: Update: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 69, 1157-1164. [ Links ]

Sakai, H., Matsubaya, O., 1977, Stable isotope studies of Japanese geothermal systems: Geothermics , 5, 97-124. [ Links ]

Sakharova, M.S., Ryakhovskaya, S.K, Uspenskaya, M.Ye., 1994, Natural and experimental data on gold crystallization in quartz-adularia assemblages: Geochemistry International , 31, 155-163. [ Links ]

Sander, M.V., Einaudi, M.T., 1990, Epithermal deposition of gold during transition from propylitic to potassic alteration at Round Mountain, Nevada: Economic Geology , 85, 285-311. [ Links ]

Sano, Y., Wakita, H., 1985, Geographical distribution of 3He/4He ratios in Japan: implications for arc tectonics and incipient magmatism: Journal of Geophysical Research , 90, 8729-8741. [ Links ]

Saunders, J.A., 1996, Retardation of boiling and the genesis of shallow bonanza epithermal gold deposits: evidence from the Sleeper deposit, Nevada: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, Denver Col., A-94. [ Links ]

Scheubel, F.R., Clark, K.F., Porter, E.W., 1988, Geology, tectonic environment, and structural controls in the San Martín de Bolaños district, Jalisco, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1703-1720. [ Links ]

Schoen, R., White, D.E., Hemley, J.J., 1974, Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada: Clays and Clay Minerals, 22, 1-22. [ Links ]

Schwarz-Schampera, U., Herzig, P.M., Hannington, M.D., 2001, Shallow submarine epithermal-style As-Sb-Hg-Au mineralization in the active Kermadec arc, New Zealand, en Piestrzynski et al. (eds.), Mineral deposits at the beginning of the 21st century : Lisse, Holanda, Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers , 333-335. [ Links ]

Scott, A.M., Watanabe, Y., 1998, “Extreme” boiling model for variable salinity of the Hokko low sulfidation epithermal Au deposit, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan: Mineralium Deposita , 33, 568-578. [ Links ]

Sellepack, S.M., 1997, The geology and geochemistry of the El Sauzal gold prospect, southwest Chihuahua, Mexico: El Paso, Texas, E.U.A., University of Texas at El Paso, Tesis de Maestría inédita, 89 p. [ Links ]

Seward, T.M., 1976, The stability of chloride complexes of silver in hydrothermal solutions up to 350oC: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 40, 1329-1341. [ Links ]

Seward, T.M., 1984, The transport and deposition of gold in hydrothermal systems, en Foster, R.P. (ed.), Gold’82: Rotterdam. Holanda, A.A. Balkema, 753. [ Links ]

Seward, T.M., 1989, The hydrothermal chemistry of gold and its implications for ore formation: boiling and conductive cooling as examples: Economic Geology Monograph, 6, 398-404. [ Links ]

Shenberger, D.M., Barnes, H.L., 1989, Solubility of gold in aqueous sulfide solutions from 150 to 350oC: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 53, 269-278. [ Links ]

Sheppard, S.M.F., 1986, Characterization and isotopic variation in natural waters, en Ribbe, P.H. (ed.), Stable isotopes in high temperature geological processes: Mineralogical Society of America, 16, 1-40. [ Links ]

Sheppard, S.M.F., Nielsen, R.L., Taylor, H.P. Jr., 1969. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of clay minerals from porphyry copper deposits: Economic Geology , 64, 755-777. [ Links ]

Sherlock, R.L., Tosdal, R.M., Lehrman, N.J., Graney, J.R., Losh, S., Jowett, E.C., Kesler, S.E., 1995, Origin of the McLaughlin mine sheeted vein complex: metal zoning, fluid inclusion, and isotopic evidence: Economic Geology , 90, 2156-2181. [ Links ]

Shinohara, H., Iiyama, J.T., Matsuo, S., 1989, Partition of chlorine compounds between silicate melt and hydrothermal solutions, I, partition of NaCl-KCl: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 53, 2617-2630. [ Links ]

Sibson, R.H., 1998, Brittle failure mode plots for compressional and extensional tectonic regimes: Journal of Structural Geology, 20, 655-660. [ Links ]

Sibson, R.H., 2001, Seismogenic framework for hydrothermal transport and ore depositio: Reviews in Economic Geology, 14, 25-50. [ Links ]

Sibson, R.H., Scott, J., 1998, Stress/fault controls on the containment and release of overpressured fluids: examples from gold-quartz vein systems in Juneau, Alaska, Victoria, Australia, and Otago, New Zealand: Ore Geology Reviews , 13, 293-306. [ Links ]

Sibson, R.H., Moore, J.McM., Rankin, A.H., 1975, Seismic pumping - a hydrothermal fluid transport mechamism: Journal of the Geological Society, London, 131, 653-659. [ Links ]

Silberman, M.L., Stewart, J.H., McKee, E.H., 1976, Igneous activity, tectonics and hydrothermal precious-metal mineralization in the Great Basin during Cenozoic time: AIME Transactions, 260, 253-263. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1977, Metallic mineralization affiliated to subaerial volcanism: a review, en Volcanic processes in ore genesis: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy-Geological Society of London, 99-116. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1988, Environments, styles and origins of gold deposits in western Pacific island arcs, en Bicentennial Gold 88: Geological Society of Australia, Abstracts, 22, 127-138. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1993, Epithermal models: genetic types, geometrical controls and shallow features, en Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. (eds.), Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, 40, 403-417. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1994, Erosion and collapse of volcanos: causes of telescoping in intrusion-centered ore deposits: Geology, 22, 945-948. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1995a, The influence of magmatic-hydrothermal models on exploration strategies for volcano-plutonic arcs, en Thompson, J.F.H. (ed.), Magmas, fluids and ore deposits : Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, 23, 511-525. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1995b, Exploration of porphyry copper lithocaps: Australasian Istitute of Mining and Metallurgy Publication Series, 9/95, 527-532. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., 1999, Styles of high sulfidation gold, silver and copper mineralisation in porphyry and epithermal environments, en PACRIM’99, Bali, Indonesia, 29-44. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., Bonham, H.F., 1984, Volcanic landforms and ore deposits: Economic Geology , 79, 1286-1298. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., Hannington, M.D., Thompson, J.F.H., 1996, High-sulfidation deposits in the volcanogenic massive sulfide environment: Economic Geology , 91, 204-212. [ Links ]

Sillitoe, R.H., Hedenquist, J.W., 2003, Linkages between Volcanotectonic Settings, Ore-Fluid Compositions, and Epithermal Precious Metal Deposits: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication Series, 10, 314-343. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., 1991, Hydrologic implications of alteration and fluid inclusion studies in the Fresnillo District, Mexico. Evidence for a brine reservoir and a descending water table during the formation of hydrothermal Ag-Pb-Zn orebodies: Economic Geology , 86, 1579-1601. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., 1995, Magmatic contributions to low-sulfidation epithermal deposits, en Thompson, J.F.H. (ed.), Magmas, fluids and ore deposits : Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, 23, 455-477. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., Browne, P.R.L., 1997, Saline fluid inclusions in sphalerite from the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal system: a coincidental trapping of fluids boiled towards dryness: Economic Geology , 92, 485-489. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., Browne, P.R.L., 2000, Hydrothermal minerals and precious metals in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal system: implications for understanding low-sulfidation epithermal environments: Economic Geology , 95, 971-999. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., Christenson, B.W., 1994, Origins of calcite in a boiling geothermal system: American Journal of Science , 294, 361-400. [ Links ]

Simmons, S.F., Gemmell, J.B., Sawkins, F.J., 1988, The Santo Niño silver-lead-zinc vein, Fresnillo District, Zacatecas, Mexico: part II. Physical and chemical nature of ore-forming solutions: Economic Geology , 83, 1619-1641. [ Links ]

Simpson, M.P., Mauk, J.L., Kendrick, R.G., 2004, Telescoped porphyrystyle and epithermal veins and alteration at the central Maratoto valley prospect, Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 47, 39-57. [ Links ]

Smith, L., 1995, Evolución dinámica y ocurrencia de mineralización, veta El Herrero, en Memorias Técnicas XXI Convención Nacional AIMMGM, Acapulco, Guerrero: México, D.F., Asociacion de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 13 p. [ Links ]

So, C.-S., Yun, S.-T., 1996, Geochemical evidence of progressive meteoric water interaction in epithermal Au-Ag mineralization, Jeongju-Buan District, Republic of Korea: Economic Geology , 91, 636-646. [ Links ]

So, C.-S., Dunchenko, V.Ya., Yun, S.-T., Park, M.-E., Choi, S.-G., Shelton, K.L., 1995, Teand Se-bearing epithermal Au-Ag mineralization, Prasolovskoye, Kunashir Island, Kuril island arc: Economic Geology , 90, 105-117. [ Links ]

Spycher, N., Reed, M., 1989, Evolution of a Broadlands-type epithermal ore fluid along alternative P-T paths: implications for the transport and deposition of base, precious and volatile metals: Economic Geology , 84, 328-359. [ Links ]

Starling, T., Uribe, J., Maldonado, D., 1997, Nuevos conceptos que definen los controles estructurales y la evolución del yacimiento de San Martín, Zacatecas, México. Trabajos técnicos XXII Convención Nacional AIMMGM, vol. 1, Acapulco, Guerrero; México, D.F., Asociacion de Ingenieros de Minas, Metalurgistas y Geólogos de México, 327-338. [ Links ]

Staude, J.-M., 1993, Gold, silver, and base metal epithermal mineral deposits around the Gulf of California, Mexico: relationship between mineralization and mayor structures, en Scott, R.W. Jr., Detra, P.S., Berger, B.S. (eds.), Advances related to United States and international mineral resources: developing frameworks and exploration technologies: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 2039, 69-78. [ Links ]

Staude, J.-M., 2001, Geology, geochemistry, and formation of Au-(Cu) mineralization and advanced argillic alteration in the Mulatos district, Sonora, Mexico: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication, 8, 199-216. [ Links ]

Staude, J.-M., Barton, M.D., 2001, Jurassic to Holocene tectonics, magmatism, and metallogeny of northwestern Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin , 113, 1357-1374. [ Links ]

Steven, T.A., Ratté, J.C., 1960, Geology of ore deposits of the Summitville district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 343, 70 p. [ Links ]

Steven, T.A., Lipman, P.W., Fisher, F.S., Blenlewski, C.L., Meeves, H.C., 1977, Mineral resources of study areas contiguous to the Uncompahgre Primitive area, San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1391-E, 126 p. [ Links ]

Stoffregen, R.E., 1987, Genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization at Summitville, Colorado: Economic Geology , 82, 1575-1591. [ Links ]

Stolper, E., Newman, S., 1994, The role of water in the petrogenesis of Mariana trough magmas: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 121, 293-325. [ Links ]

Strashimirov, S., Petrunov, R., Kanazirski, M., 2002, Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria: Mineralium Deposita , 37, 587-598. [ Links ]

Taran, Yu., Pokrovsky, B.G., Esikov, A.D., 1989, Deuterium and oxygen-18 in fumarolic steam and amphiboles from some Kamchatka volcanoes: “andesitic waters”: Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, 304, 440-443. [ Links ]

Taylor, B.E., 1986, Magmatic volatiles: isotopic variation of C, H, and S, in Valley, J.W., Taylor, H.P. Jr., O’Neil, J.R. (eds.), Stable isotopes: Reviews in Mineralogy, 16, 185-225. [ Links ]

Taylor, B.E., 1992, Degassing of H2O from rhyolite magma during eruption and shallow intrusion, and the isotopic composition of magmatic water in hydrothermal systems, en Hedenquist, J.W. (ed.), Extended abstracts, Japan-U.S. symposium on magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems: Geological Survey of Japan Reports , 279, 190-194. [ Links ]

Thiersch, P.C., Williams-Jones, A.E., Clark, J.R., 1997, Epithermal mineralization and ore controls of the Shasta Au-Ag deposit, Toodoggone District, British Columbia, Canada: Mineralium Deposita , 32, 44-57. [ Links ]

Thompson, T.B., Trippel, A.D., Dwelley, P.C., 1985, Mineralized veins and breccias of the Cripple Creek District, Colorado: Economic Geology , 80, 1669-1688. [ Links ]

Tolstikhin, I.N., Mamyrin, B.A., Khabarin, L.V., 1972, Anomalous helium isotopic composition in some xenoliths: Geochemistry International , 9, 407-409. [ Links ]

Tolstikhin, I.N., Mamyrin, B.A., Khabarin, L.V., Erlikh, E.N., 1974, Isotope composition of helium in ultrabasic xenoliths from volcanic rocks of Kamchatka: Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 22, 75-84. [ Links ]

Torgersen, T., Lupton, J.E., Sheppard, D.S., Giggenbach, W.F., 1982, Helium isotope variations in the thermal areas of New Zealand: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 12, 283-298. [ Links ]

Tritlla, J., Camprubí, A., Morales-Ramírez, J.M., Iriondo, A., CoronaEsquivel, R., González-Partida, E., Levresse, G., Carrillo-Chávez, A., 2004, The Ixtacamaxtitlán kaolinite deposit and sinter (Puebla state, Mexico): a magmatic-hydrothermal system telescoped by a shallow paleoaquifer: Geofluids, 4, 329-340. [ Links ]

Truesdell, A.H., Nathenson, M., Rye, R.O., 1977, The effects of subsurface boiling and dilution on the isotopic composition of Yellowstone thermal waters: Journal of Geophysical Research , 82, 3694-3704. [ Links ]

Valencia, V.A., 2005, Evolution of La Caridad porphyry copper deposit, Sonora, and geochronology of porphyry copper deposits in northwest Mexico: Tucson, Arizona, E.U.A.. University of Arizona, Tesis doctoral inédita, 192 p. [ Links ]

Valencia, V.A., Ruiz, J., Barra, F., Ochoa-Landín, L., Pérez-Segura, E., Espinoza, E., 2003, La Caridad porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: a porphyry-epithermal transition in the southwest North America Porphyry Copper Province, in Actas 10o Congreso Geológico Chileno: Concepción, Chile, Universidad de Concepción, 10 p. [ Links ]

Valencia-Moreno, M., Ochoa-Landín, L., Noguez-Alcántara, B., Ruiz, J., Pérez-Segura, E., 2005, Características metalogénicas de los pórfidos cupríferos en México y su posición en un contexto global: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana , 57(4), en prensa. [ Links ]

van Leeuwen, T.M., Leach, T.M., Hawke, A.A., Hawke, M.M., 1990, The Kelian disseminated gold deposit, east Kalimantan, Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 35, 1-61. [ Links ]

van Thournout, F., Salemink, J., Valenzuela, G., Merlyn, M., Boven, A., Muchez, P., 1996, Portovelo: a volcanic-hosted epithermal vein-system in Ecuador, South America: Mineralium Deposita , 31, 269-276. [ Links ]

Vassallo, L.F., 1988, Características de la composición mineralógica de las menas de la Veta Madre de Guanajuato: Revista Instituto de Geologia U.N.A.M., 7, 232-243. [ Links ]

Viglino, R.S., Harmon, R.S., Borthwich, J., Nehring, N.L., Mtyka, R.J., White, L.D., Johnston, D.A., 1985 Stable isotope evidence for a magmatic component in fumarole condensates from Augustine volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA: Chemical Geology, 49, 141-157. [ Links ]

Vikre, P.G., 1985, Precious metal vein systems in the National district, Humboldt County, Nevada: Economic Geology , 80, 360-393. [ Links ]

Vikre, P.G., 1989, Fluid-mineral relations in the Comstock Lode: Economic Geology , 84, 1574-1613. [ Links ]

Wake, B.A., Taylor, G.R., 1988, Major’s Creek, N.S.W., Australia - a Devonian epithermal gold deposit: Mineralium Deposita , 23, 239-246. [ Links ]

Walter, M.R., Bauld, J., Brock, T.D., 1972, Siliceous algal and bacterial stromatolites in hot springs and geyser deposits of Yellowstone National Park: Science, 178, 402-405. [ Links ]

Webster, J.D., 1997, Chloride solubility in felsic melts and the role of chloride in magmatic degassing: Journal of Petrology, 38, 1793-1807. [ Links ]

White, D.E., 1982, Vein and dissemination gold-silver deposits of the Great Basin through space and time, en Tooker, E.W. (ed.), Geologic characteristics of sedimentand vocanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits-Search for an occurrence model: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1646, 5-14. [ Links ]

White, D.E., Brannock, W.W., Murata, K.J., 1965, Silica in hot-spring waters: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , 10, 27-59. [ Links ]

White, N.C., 1991, High sulfidation epithermal gold deposits: characteristics and a model for their origin: Geological Survey of Japan Report, 277, 9-20. [ Links ]

White, N.C., Hedenquist, J.W., 1990, Epithermal environments and styles of mineralization: variations and their causes, and guidelines for exploration: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 445-474. [ Links ]

White, N.C., Wood, D.G., Lee, M.C., 1989, Epithermal sinters of Paleozoic age in North Queensland, Australia: Geology, 17, 718-722. [ Links ]

White, N.C., Leake, M.J., McCaughey, S.N., Parris, B.W., 1995, Epithermal gold deposits of the southwest Pacific: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 54, 87-136. [ Links ]

Wilkerson, G., Deng, Q., Llavona, R., Goodell, P., 1988, Batopilas mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico: Economic Geology , 83, 1721-1736. [ Links ]

Willan, R.C., Spiro, B., 1996, Sulphur sources for epithermal and mesothermal veins in Cretaceous-Tertiary magmatic-arc rocks, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands: Journal of the Geological Society , London, 153, 51-63. [ Links ]

Williams, L.A., Parks, G.A., Crerar, D.A., 1985, Silica Diagenesis, I. Solubility controls: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 55, 301-311. [ Links ]

Wood, D.G., Porter, R.G., White, N.C., 1990, Geological features of some Paleozoic epithermal gold occurrences in northeastern Queensland, Australia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 36, 413-443. [ Links ]

Yee, N., Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Benning, L.G., Ferris, F.G., 2003, The effect of cyanobacteria on silica precipitation at neutral pH: implications for bacterial silicification in geothermal hot springs: Chemical Geology , 199, 83-90. [ Links ]

Zartman, R.E., 1974, Lead isotopic provinces in the cordillera of the western United States and their genetic significance: Economic Geology , 69, 792-805. [ Links ]

Recibido: 12 de Diciembre de 2004; Revisado: 17 de Abril de 2005; Aprobado: 01 de Mayo de 2005

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons