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Agrociencia

versión On-line ISSN 2521-9766versión impresa ISSN 1405-3195

Agrociencia vol.40 no.1 México ene./feb. 2006

 

Agua-Suelo-Clima

Efecto de la estructura del suelo sobre el desarrollo radical del maíz con dos sistemas de labranza

Esteban S. Osuna-Ceja1 

Benjamín Figueroa-Sandoval2 

Klaudia Oleschko3 

María de L. Flores-Delgadillo2 

Mario R. Martínez-Menes2 

Félix V. González-Cossío2 

1Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, INIFAP. 20600. Km 32.5. Carretera Aguascalientes-Zacatecas. Pabellón de Arteaga. Aguascalientes, México. (esosuna@yahoo.com.mx).

2Campus Montecillo. Colegio de Postgraduados. 56230. Montecillo, Estado de México.

3Instituto de Geología. Departamento de Edafología. Universidad Autónoma de México. Ciudad Universitaria. 76230. México, D. F.


Resumen

La estructura del suelo (arreglo geométrico y topológico de los poros del suelo que se forman entre los agregados, y su estabilidad en tiempo y espacio) es una propiedad básica considerada como uno de los principales atributos de la calidad del suelo. En este estudio se analizaron dos sistemas de labranza de largo plazo bajo riego: tradicional (LT) y de conservación (LC), con especial énfasis en el comportamiento de propiedades como densidad aparente (ρb), la pendiente de la curva de retención de humedad en su punto de inflexión (S) y contenido de materia orgánica (MO), así como su relación con el sistema radical del maíz (Zea mays). Se efectuaron pruebas comparativas considerando algunos parámetros de suelo (ρb, MO, y S) y planta (biomasa, y longitud de raíz). Los resultados muestran que los parámetros ρb, MO y S utilizados para medir la calidad física del suelo, demostraron que los sistemas de labranza causan cambios en la estructura del mismo y por ende en su calidad. El sistema de LC propicia una mejor calidad e incrementa el contenido de MO en el suelo. Los valores de S son menores en LT, lo que indica que tiene menor capacidad de retener agua en comparación con LC. Se encontró una alta correlación entre S y longitud de raíz, significativa al agrupar los datos de acuerdo con el tipo de manejo. Por tanto, S se podría usar como un indicador para evaluar el impacto de las prácticas agrícolas sobre la calidad del suelo.

Palabras clave: Zea mays; labranza de conservación; sistema radical

Abstract

The soil structure (the geometric and topological arrangement of the soil pores, which are formed between the aggregates, and its stability over time and space) is a basic property, considered one of the main attributes of soil quality. In this study, two longterm irrigated tillage systems were analyzed: traditional (LT) and conservation (LC) with special emphasis on properties such as bulk density (ρb), slope of the water retention curve at its inflection point (S) and content of organic matter (OM), as well as their relationship to the corn root system (Zea mays). Comparative tests were conducted considering soil (ρb, OM and S) and plant (biomass and root length) parameters. The results show that the parameters ρb, OM and S used to measure physical quality of the soil showed that the tillage systems cause changes in soil structure and, thus, in its quality. The LC system favors better quality and increases the OM content in the soil. The values of S are lower in LT, indicating that it has lower capacity for water retention compared with LC. A high correlation between S and root length was found, significant when data were grouped by type of management. Therefore, S could be used as an indicator to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on soil quality.

Key words: Zea mays; conservation tillage; root systems

Texto completo disponible sólo en PDF.

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Recibido: Diciembre de 2004; Aprobado: Agosto de 2005

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