versión impresa ISSN 1026-8774
Rev. mex. cienc. geol v.26 n.2 México ago. 2009
Microtextures on quartz grains in the beach sediments of Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino, Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico
Microtexturas de granos de cuarzo de los sedimentos de playa de Puerto Peñasco y Bahía Kino, Golfo de California, Sonora, México
Jayagopal Madhavaraju1,*, Juan Carlos García y Barragán1, Shaik Mohammad Hussain2, and Saidapet Pachaiveedu Mohan2
1 Estación Regional del Noroeste, Instituto de Geología,Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 1039, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, México. * email@example.com
2 Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India.
Manuscript received: August 8, 2008
Corrected manuscript received: December 8, 2008
Manuscript accepted: December 15, 2008
Beach sand samples collected from two localities of the Gulf of California (Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino, Sonora) were analyzed in order to identify their provenance and depositional history on the basis of the different microtextures on the quartz grains. The quartz grains were examined under a scanning electron microscope which brought out thirty two distinct microtextures that can be grouped into three modes of origin, i.e., mechanical (eighteen features), mechanical and/or chemical (five features) and chemical (seven features) origin. Among nine microtextures of chemical origin, two features are of dissolutional origin, whereas five features are characteristic of precipitational origin. Most of the microtextures are common in both areas (Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino) but frequency of occurrence slightly varies. Quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino show conchoidal fractures, straight steps and arcuate steps, which are characteristic features of quartz grains derived from crystalline source rocks. The presence of angular to subangular outline together with straight and arcuate steps indicates that these sediments have undergone short transportation and rapid deposition. Vshaped patterns, straight scratches and curved scratches, which are characteristic features of marine environments, are common on the quartz grains of the analysed samples. Many quartz grains show subrounded outline with bulbous edges that are considered to be the product of fluvial transport. In addition, many quartz grains show subrounded to rounded outline, upturned plates and meandering ridges, which indicate that aeolian mechanisms controlled the transport of these grains. Some quartz grains show chemical precipitational features such as silica globules, silica flower, silica pellicle and trapped diatoms, which suggest that these quartz grains were derived from the silica saturated environments of intertidal zones. The present study reveals the following inferences: 1) the beach sediments in Puerto Peñasco area were transported to the area by fluvial and aeolian processes and subsequently deposited in the marine environment, and 2) the beach sediments in the Bahia Kino area were dominantly transported by fluvial processes, whereas subordinate quantity were contributed by aeolian processes and subsequently deposited in the marine environment.
Key words: microtextures, quartz grains, Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico.
De las áreas de Puerto Peñasco y Bahía Kino, Sonora se colectaron muestras de arena de playa con el fin de estudiar las diferentes microtexturas de los granos de cuarzo y así inferir la proveniencia y la historia de depósito de las arenas costeras del Golfo de California. El examen de estos granos de cuarzo realizado en un microscopio de barrido electrónico produjo treinta y dos microtexturas distintivas que de acuerdo a su origen, pueden clasificaron en tres grupos: origen mecánico (dieciocho rasgos), origen mecánico y/o químico (cinco rasgos) y origen químico (siete rasgos). Entre las nueve microtexturas de origen químico, dos rasgos se originaron por disolución, mientras que cinco rasgos son característicos de precipitación. La mayoría de las microtexturas observadas son comunes tanto en Puerto Peñasco como en Bahía Kino aunque su frecuencia de ocurrencia varía ligeramente. Los granos de cuarzo de Puerto Peñasco y Bahía Kino muestran fractura concoidal, bordes rectos y curvos, los cuales son rasgos típicos en granos de cuarzo derivados de una fuente de rocas cristalinas. La presencia de formas angulares a subangulares junto con bordes rectos y curvos indica que estos sedimentos experimentaron un transporte y depósito rápidos. Son comunes en los granos de cuarzo de las muestras analizadas patrones en forma de "V", así como estrías rectas y curvas, las cuales son características de ambientes marinos. Muchos granos de cuarzo tienen forma subredondeada con prominencias abultadas, las cuales se consideran como producto de un transporte fluvial. Además, muchos granos de cuarzo tienen una forma subredondeada a redondeada, placas volcadas y bordes subdivididos (meándricos) lo que indica que también los mecanismos eólicos controlaron el transporte de estos granos. Algunos granos de cuarzo muestran rasgos de precipitación química tales como glóbulos de sílice, "flores" de sílice y diatomeas atrapadas, lo que sugiere que estos granos de cuarzo se derivaron de ambientes saturados de sílice de zonas de intermarea. Del presente estudio se concluye que: 1) los sedimentos en Puerto Peñasco fueron transportados por procesos fluviales y eólicos y posteriormente depositados en el ambiente marino, y 2) los sedimentos de Bahía Kino fueron transportados principalmente por procesos fluviales con cantidades subordinadas de sedimentos que fueron transportados por procesos eólicos y más tarde depositados en el ambiente marino.
Palabras clave: microtexturas, granos de cuarzo, Golfo de California, Sonora, México.
The study of quartz grain microtextures (>200 μm) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques has been shown to be a valid method in sedimentary petrology for interpreting sedimentary environments and transport mechanisms (Krinsley and McCoy, 1977; Bull, 1981; Krinsley and Marshall, 1987; Helland and Diffendal, 1993; Madhavaraju et al., 2004;). The microtextures provide useful information regarding the various processes acting on the grains during transportation and after deposition (Krinsley and Funnell, 1965; Doornkamp and Krinsley, 1971; MoralCardona et al., 1996, 1997; Mahaney, 1998; Newsome and Ladd, 1999) and the criteria for distinguishing the mechanical and chemical features and their implications have been well established (Krinsley and Donahue, 1968; Brown, 1973; Whalley and Krinsley, 1974; Baker, 1976; AlSalech and Khalaf, 1982; Rahman and Ahmed, 1996). Hence, the microtextural study on quartz grains is considered as a power full tool in the identification of provenance, processes of transport and diagenetic history of the detrital sediments (Krinsley et al., 1976; Madhavaraju and Ramasamy, 1999; AbuZeid et al., 2001; Madhavaraju et al., 2004, 2006; Armstrong et al., 2005; KasperZubillaga and FaustinosMorales, 2007). The different impact features and the abrasion marks on the quartz grains were formed during transportation in different dynamic environments and they generally record those mechanical processes. The features of chemical origin consist of various types of etching and overgrowth.
Quartz grains from marine environment generally exhibit Vshaped patterns (V's), straight and curved scratches, with several protrusions (Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Higgs, 1979; Madhavaraju and Ramasamy, 1999; Madhavaraju et al., 2004, 2006). The presence of subrounded features, bulbous edges along with certain amount of Vshaped pits indicate fluvial origin (Linde, 1987; Mahaney, 1998). According to Margolish and Kenett (1971), V's generally occur on less than 50% of the grains from the fluvial origin and on more than 50% of those from high energy beaches. Those quartz grains of aeolian origin exhibit well rounded shape, pattern of meandering ridges that resulted from the intersection of slightly curved conchoidal breakage patterns and upturned plates on their surfaces (Krinsley and Takahashi, 1962; Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Mazullo and Ehrlich, 1983; Mazullo et al., 1986). Quartz grains from glacial origin display parallel striations, chattermarks and imbricated grinding features (Margolis, 1968; Higgs, 1979; Mahaney, 1995a, 1995b; Mahaney et al., 1996). On the basis of the different types of microtextures observed on the quartz grains, it is possible to distinguish the particular depositional environments such as marine, fluvial, aeolian and glacial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the microtextures that are present on quartz grains of beach sands from the Gulf of California (Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino), Sonora, and also to unravel the provenance and depositional history on the basis of the variety of these features.
GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF THE STUDY AREA
The Gulf of California is an intercontinental NWSE rift zone with oblique separation of the Baja California peninsula to the west (Pacific plate) and Sonora to the east (North American plate) (Figure 1). The structural pattern of the gulf is thus explained by an alternation of short spreading axes and longer dextral transform faults. The continental geologic framework adjacent to the coastal region between Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino is dominated by igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with ages ranging from the Proterozoic to Recent. The dominant lithology of the study area includes upper Precambrian and Cambrian carbonate rocks, a chertgraywackevolcaniclastic sequence (Carboniferous age) and Jurassic volcanicvolcaniclastic rocks (Gastil and Krummenacher, 1977). These rocks are intruded by granitic rocks with ages between 91 and 30 Ma. and by younger basaltic and dacitic dikes. The older rocks are overlain by Cenozoic rhyolite and basalt flows (pre 22 Ma) that are followed by a sequence of andesite (20 to 18 Ma), marine conglomerate and pyroclastic deposits, and a widespread, predominantly rhyolitic sequence (14 to 10 Ma) (Gastil and Krummenacher, 1977).
KasperZubillaga and FaustinosMorales (2007) studied the desert and coastal dune sands from San Luis Rio Colorado, El Pinacate, Gulf of Santa Clara and Puerto Peñasco areas and reported that the majority of the sands are fine to medium grained and moderately to well sorted. The study areas receive an average annual rainfall of less than 10 cm and most of the rainfall occurs during the JulySeptember season (Stensrud et al., 1997). Onshore winds from the NW and NE (velocities of 26 m s-1) prevail in the northern part of Gulf of California and occur 20 60% of the time during one month. Southerly onshore winds with velocities of 24 m-1 prevails in the Puerto Peñasco area, occurring 60% of the time during one month (PérezVillegas, 1990). The longshore current that flow adjacent to the study area in the coast region of the Gulf of California mainly generates sediment transport from SE to NW (FernandezEguiarte et al., 1990a, 1990b), whereas semidiurnal tides also redistribute the sediment in the coastal part of this region due to their potential influence on the transport of sands (Thompson, 1968). The Sonoyta and Sonora rivers are continental mainstreams that have contributed the sediments into Gulf of California in Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino, respectively.
Beach sand samples were collected from the two locations (Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino) of the Gulf of California, Sonora. Samples were collected from the foreshore along transects at regular interval of 500 m. Ten sand samples were collected from each location (Figure 1) for the microtextural study. Approximately 20 g of each sample was treated with 30% HCl and stannous chloride solution to dissolve carbonates and to remove iron stains from the quartz grains and then washed several times with distilled water (Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Helland and Holmes, 1997). Then, these samples were soaked with H2O2 solution to remove organic matter. The treated samples were sieved to separate the sand size fraction.
Quartz grains between 200 and 400 μm sizes were handpicked under a binocular microscope, mounted on stubs, sputtercoated with gold, and examined using a JEOL JSM 6360 scanning electron microscope available at Department of Geology, University of Madras, Chennai, India. Approximately twenty five quartz grains were randomly selected from the sand size fraction of each sample, which is considered as sufficient to understand the variations present in a single sample and also to interpret the depositional history (Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Baker, 1976).
Quartz grain microtextures were analyzed under the scanning electron microscope using checklist approach, as used previously by various authors (Bull, 1978; Higgs, 1979; Williams and Morgan, 1993). The various types of quartz grain microtextures have been established by Higgs (1979) on the basis of published data (Krinsley and Donahue, 1968; Krinsley and Margolis, 1971; Margolis and Kennet, 1971, Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Le Ribault, 1975). The check list composition (Table 1) was based upon the compilation of data by Higgs (1979). In addition, we have also referred the published work of Bull et al. (1987) and Mahaney et al. (1996).
In the present study we identified thirty types of microtextures (Figures 2(3,4,5) that have been grouped into three modes of origin, i.e., mechanical (eighteen features), mechanical and/or chemical (five features) and chemical (seven features) origins. Among nine identified microtextures of chemical origin, two features are of dissolutional origin and five are characteristic of precipitational origin (Table 1). Most of the microtextures are common in both areas (Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino) but frequency of occurrence is slightly varied, however, the mechanically formed microtextures predominate over the chemically formed features (Figure 6). The important characters of each microtexture are discussed below in detail.
The studied quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino areas show three types of irregular pits, i.e., small, medium and large (Table 1), with class limits of 10 and 100 microns (Higgs, 1979). Small pits are abundant, whereas medium and large pits are common in the studied areas (Figures 2a2c). Like irregular pits, conchoidal fractures are also categorized into small (<10 μm), medium and large (>100 μm) on the basis of the size of the fracture. Small to large conchoidal fractures (Table 1) are common to abundant in the beach samples from Bahia Kino (Figures 2c2f). Straight and arcuate steps (Figures 2g2h) are closely associated with conchoidal fractures and are present in considerable amount in the sand samples of Bahia Kino, whereas these features are sparsely distributed on the quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco (Table 1). The frequency of upturned plates is higher in the quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco area than in the Bahia Kino samples (Figure 3a). They appear as thin, parallel plates, which may be either continuous or discontinuous. The ridges extent upwards to about 10 μm from the surface of the quartz grains, and may be up to 50 μm in length. These plates are generally affected by subsequent chemical processes which tend to produce subdued features. Chatter marks (Figure 3b) are sparsely distributed, and parallel striations (Figures 3c and 3d) are rarely present on the quartz grains from the both areas (Table 1). Imbricated grinding features (Table 1) are completely absent in the beach samples from Puerto Peñasco, whereas these features are rarely present on the quartz grains from Bahia Kino (Figure 3e). Meandering ridges (Figure 3f) are sparsely distributed on the studied quartz grains (Table 1). Straight scratches are moderately present, whereas curved scratches are common (Table 1; Figure 3g). These scratches vary in length from 1 to 100 μm and are randomly oriented. Samples from Puerto Peñasco show a considerable amount of quartz grains with rounded outline (Figure 4a), whereas angular shapes predominate in the quartz grains from Bahia Kino (Table 1; Figure 3h). Vshaped impact pits are common on quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino (Table 1). Vshaped pits (Figure 4b) are irregular, differ in shape and size and occur as crescentic and elongated slitlike openings 0.550 μm in length. The density of the V's appears to be in direct relationship to the number of straight and curved scratches. V's, straight and curved scratches were formed by graintograin collisions in an aqueous medium (Krinsley and Margolis, 1969; Higgs, 1979).
Fracture plates/planes (Figure 4c) are sparsely distributed on the quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino (Table 1). Quartz grains reveal varied relief (low, medium and high; Figures 4d4f). The relief of the quartz grain resulted from the mechanical and chemical action of the medium, which occurred since the liberation of the grains from the source region (Higgs, 1979). Adhering particles (Figure 4g) are distributed on the quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino (Table 1).
Quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino show both types of chemical (dissolutional and precipitational) features, viz. solution pits, solution crevasses, silica globules, silica flower, silica pellicles, crystalline overgrowth and trapped diatoms (Table 1).
Solution pits (Figure 4h) are sparsely distributed on the quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino. Solutions pits are highly variable in size and shape, although circular and subcircular shapes are common (Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973). Solution crevasses (Figure 5a) that are rarely present on few quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino (Table 1), mainly occur in association with solution pits (Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973). Silica globules (Figure 5b) and silica flower (Figure 5c) are sparsely distributed on the studied quartz grains, but silica globules are common in the samples from Bahia Kino (Table 1). Silica globules may grow concurrently to form silica flowers (Le Ribault, 1975), which are convexupward and display radial structures with hexagonal symmetry. Coalescence of silica globules leads to the formation of soluble silica pellicles (Figure 5d), which grow partly or wholly, depending upon the available silica solution, and may mask the earlier microtextures. Few quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino show minor crystalline overgrowth (Figure 5e and 5f). Generally, quartz overgrowth observed in the present study is much smaller in size as compared with the overgrowth formed in subsurface diagenetic environments. Hence, this type of smaller overgrowth likely formed during pedogenic processes. Diatoms (Figure 5g and 5h) are seen on the fractured surfaces of some quartz grains from the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino (Table 1).
PROVENANCE AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino exhibit different types of microtextures. The conchoidal fractures are characteristic of glacial origin and also of grains derived from crystalline source rocks (Higgs, 1979). In the studied areas, the microtextures of glacial environment are sparsely distributed on the quartz grains. Hence, the observed abundant conchoidal fractures on the quartz grains from both areas indicate that the quartz grains were mainly derived from crystalline source rocks. In addition, straight and arcuate steps are closely associated with conchoidal fractures (Higgs, 1979), which also support that the studied quartz grains were liberated from crystalline source rocks. The conchoidal fractures and the straight and arcuate steps are common in quartz grains of Bahia Kino (Figure 7), which indicates that the coastal area of Bahia Kino received more sediment from the crystalline source rocks than the coastal part of Puerto Peñasco. The quartz grains of the present study exhibit angular to rounded outline. The beach sediment from Puerto Peñasco show more rounded outline than angular outline (Figure 7a and 7b), whereas the sediment from Bahia Kino exhibit more angular outline than rounded grains (Figure 7c and 7d). The dominance of angular grains and the presence of straight steps and arcuate steps suggest that the quartz grains in the Bahia Kino have undergone short transportation and rapid deposition. Straight and arcuate steps are delicate features. If the quartz grains undergo long transportation, then these features may be destroyed during transportation. The presence of abundant angular grains support a local source rock origin as suggested by Folk (1978). On the contrary, the abundance of rounded grains in the beach sediments from Puerto Peñasco suggests that the coastal part of this area received a considerable amount of recycled sediments.
Solution pits and silica deposits observed on the quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino are generally formed by chemical processes in tropical or silicasaturated areas like the intertidal zones of the beach (LeRibault, 1975; Higgs, 1979; MoralCardona et al., 1997). The quartz grains from the studied areas exhibit certain chemically formed microtextures such as silica globules, silica flower, silica pellicle and diatoms. The overprinting or superposition of silica precipitation with respect to other microtextures suggests that these features represent the final event to affect the quartz grains. The presence of silica precipitation, including diatoms, is related to high humidity and high rainfall rates, and intertidal zones saturated with silica (Pye and Mazzullo, 1994; KasperZubillaga et al., 2005). Silica flower, silica globules and silica pellicles are generally formed on the quartz grains during post deposition/diagenesis on the broken surfaces (Madhavaraju et al., 2004). In the present study, the quartz grains exhibit well preserved silica flower and diatoms which are seen on the broken part of the grains. Hence, it is considered that these types of microtextures are postdepositional in nature. If these features were formed prior to their deposition, then they would have been partly or wholly destroyed during the transportation. The chemically formed microtextures observed on the analysed quartz grains suggest that these features were derived from the intertidal zones with silicasaturated environments.
Vshaped patterns (V's), straight scratches and curved scratches are present on many quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino. Such features are characteristics of moderate to high energy subaqueous conditions as suggested by Margolis and Krinsley (1974), and mainly occur on quartz grains from shallow marine, fluvial (high energy) and deltaic (seaward) environments (Higgs, 1979). Vshaped patterns result from both mechanical and chemical processes. V's that result from mechanical processes exhibit irregular shape and randomly oriented patterns, whereas Vshaped patterns having regular outer edges with oriented patterns result from chemical etching.
Vshaped features of mechanical origin are caused by graintograin collision in subaqueous environment when one grain strikes another (Manker and Ponder, 1978). One set of V's may have resulted from projection of one grain striking another grain with linear motion, whereas second collision may cause another set of V's with different orientation (Krinsley and Donahue, 1968). The quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino exhibit different orientations of V's, which is a characteristic feature of a mechanical origin. Vshaped patterns of mechanical origin mainly originate in subaqueous medium with highenergy conditions. In addition to that, V's are associated with straight and curved scratches, which also support the mechanical origin for their formation.
Having defined V's being of mechanical origin, the abundance and size of V's tend to increase when grains are subjected to longer period and higher intensities of subaqueous agitation (Linde and MycielskaDowgiallo, 1980). Sand grains from modern and ancient fluvial, littoral and shelf deposits exhibit Vshaped pits, and the density and abundance of V's are related to the duration and intensity of subaqueous agitation in such environments (Margolis and Kennett, 1971). Margolis and Kennett (1971) mentioned that V's occur on less than 50% of the grains from fluvial environment whereas they are abundant in grains from highenergy beach environment. In the present study, the quartz grains from both Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino show irregular V's on more than 50% of grains (Figure 7). In addition, many quartz grains show subrounded to rounded outline with bulbous edges, which is considered as a product of fluvial transport. Hence, we suggest that V's, straight and curved scratches resulted from the combination of fluvial processes and high energy beach environments.
Many quartz grains from Puerto Peñasco show upturned plates, but they are sparsely distributed on the quartz grains from Bahia Kino (Figure 7); these features were developed in an aeolian environment (e.g., Krinsley and Doornkamp, 1973; Mazullo and Ehrlich, 1983). Upturned plates are considered as highenergy impact features that occur on the quartz grains that are transported by high velocity winds (Mazullo et al., 1986). The coastal area of Puerto Peñasco received more sand grains from the aeolian processes when compared with the coastal area of Bahia Kino. In addition, quartz grains from the studied areas also show meandering ridges. Meandering ridges are formed during grain to grain collision in an aeolian environment (Krinsley and Takahashi, 1962; MoralCordona et al., 1997). Many grains from Puerto Peñasco show a subrounded to rounded outline that suggests a moderate distance of aeolian transport, whereas the lower percentage of rounded grains in Bahia Kino indicates minor aeolian transport.
Microtextures such as microstriations, chatter marks, lattice shattering, curved and linear troughs and imbricated grinding features on quartz grain surfaces provide evidence of glacial transport (Folk, 1975; Le Ribault, 1975; Mahaney and Vortisch, 1989; Mahaney, 1995a, 1995b; Mahaney et al., 1996). The glacial features such as chatter marks, parallel striations and imbricated grinding features are observed on few grains from Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino. These features are sparsely distributed on quartz grains from both areas, which suggest that a small population of grains were contributed by glacial processes.
In summary, the microtextural study of quartz grains from the Gulf of California leads to the following inferences: 1) the beach sediments in Puerto Peñasco were dominantly transported to the region by fluvial and aeolian processes, and subsequently deposited in the marine environment; and 2) the Bahia Kino beach sediments were mainly transported by fluvial processes, whereas only a subordinate amount of sediments were derived from aeolian processes, and subsequently deposited in the marine environment.
The first author would like to thank Dr. Thierry Calmus, ERNO, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico for his support and encouragement during this work. JM would like to thank Dr. Hannes Löser for his help during the field work. We would like to express our gratefulness to Dr. Carlos González for his critical review and constructive comments. We would like to thank Dr. Juan Jose Kasper for his useful suggestions. JM acknowledge the support of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico through internal projects. This work was partly supported by UGC SAPII and UGC COSIST programs of Department of Geology, University of Madras.
AbuZeid, M.M., Baghdady, A.R., ElEtr, H.A., 2001, Textural attributes, mineralogy and provenance of sand dune fields in the greater Al Ain area, United Arab Emirates: Journal of Arid Environment, 48, 475499. [ Links ]
AlSalech, S., Khalaf, F.I., 1982, Surface textures of quartz grains from various recent sedimentary environments in Kuwait: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52, 215225. [ Links ]
ArmstrongAltrin, J.S., Madhavaraju, J., Ramasamy, S., Gladwin Gnana Asir, N., 2005, Provenance and depositional history of sandstones from the Upper Miocene Kudankulam Formation, Tamil Nadu: Journal of the Geological Society of India, 66, 5965. [ Links ]
Baker, H.W., 1976, Environmental sensitivity of submicroscopic surface textures on quartz sand grains a statistical evaluation: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 46, 871880. [ Links ]
Brown, J.E., 1973, Depositional histories of sand grain textures: Nature, 242, 396398. [ Links ]
Bull, P.A., 1978, A quantitative approach to scanning electron microscope analysis of cave sediments, in Whalley, W.B. (ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Study of Sediments: Norwich, Geobooks, 821828. [ Links ]
Bull, P.A., 1981, Environmental reconstruction by electron microcopy: Progress in Physical Geography, 5, 368397. [ Links ]
Bull, P.A., Goudie, A.S., PriceWilliams, D., Watson, A., 1987, Colluvium: a scanning electron microscope analysis of a neglected sediment type, in Marshall, J.R. (ed.), Clastic Particles: Scanning Electron Microscopy and Shape Analysis of Sedimentary and Volcanic clasts: New York, Van RostrandReinhold, 1635. [ Links ]
Doornkamp, J.C., Krinsley, D.H., 1971, Electron microcopy applied to quartz grains from a tropical environment: Sedimentology, 17, 89101. [ Links ]
FernándezEguiarte, A., GallegosGarcía, A., ZavalaHidalgo, J., 1990a, IV.9.1 Oceanografía Física 1 (Masas de agua y mareas de los mares mexicanos), in Atlas Nacional de México, Tomo II, IV. Naturaleza, 9. Oceanografía: México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Geografía, 1 map. [ Links ]
FernándezEguiarte, A., GallegosGarcía, A., ZavalaHidalgo, J., 1990b, IV.9.2 Oceanógrafía Física 2 (Aspectos regionales de los mares mexicanos), in Atlas Nacional de México, Tomo II, IV. Naturaleza, 9. Oceanografía: México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Geografía, 1 map. [ Links ]
Folk., R.L., 1975, Glacial deposits identified by chattermark traces in detrital garnets: Geology, 8, 473475. [ Links ]
Folk, R.L., 1978, Angularity and silica coatings of Simpson desert sand grains. Northern Territory, Australia: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 48, 611624. [ Links ]
Gastil, R.G., Krummenacher, D., 1977, Reconnaissance geology of coastal Sonora between Puerto Lobos and Bahia Kino: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 88, 189198. [ Links ]
Helland, P.E., Diffendal Jr. R.F., 1993, Probable glacial climatic conditions in source areas during depositions of parts of the Ash Hollow Formation, Ogallala Group (Late Tertiary), of western Nebraska: American Journal of Science, 293, 744757. [ Links ]
Helland, P.E., Holmes, M.A., 1997, Surface textural analysis of quartz sand grains from ODP Site 918 off the southeast coast of Greenland suggests glaciation of southern Greenland at 11 Ma: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 135, 109121. [ Links ]
Higgs, R., 1979, Quartz grain surface features of Mesozoic Cenozoic sands from the Labrador and Western Greenland continental margins: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 49, 599610. [ Links ]
KasperZubillaga, J.J., FaustinosMorales, R., 2007, Scanning electrón microscopy análisis of quartz grains in desert and coastal dune sands (Altar Desert, NW Mexico): Ciencias Marina, 33, 1122. [ Links ]
KasperZubillaga, J.J., Dickinson, W.W., CarranzaEdwards, A., HornelasOrozco, Y., 2005, Petrography of quartz grains in beach and dune sands of Northland, North Island, New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 48, 649660. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Donahue, J., 1968, Environmental interpretations of sand grain surface textures by electron microscopy: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 79, 743748. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Doornkamp, J.C., 1973, Atlas of quartz sand surface textures: Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 91 p. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Funnell, B.M., 1965, Environmental history of quartz sand grains from the Lower and Middle Pleistocene of Norfolk, England: Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London, 121, 435461. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Margolis, S., 1969, A study of quartz sand grain surface textures with the scanning electron microscope: Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series II, 31, 457477. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Margolis, S., 1971, Grain surface texture, in Carver, R.E. (ed.), Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology: New York, Wiley, 151180. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Marshall, J.R., 1987, Sand grain textural analysis: an assessment, in Marshall, J.R. (ed.), Clastic particles: Scanning Electron Microscopy and Shape Analysis of Sedimentary and Volcanic Clasts: New York, Van NostrandReinhold, 215. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., McCoy, F.W., 1977, Significance and origin of surface textures on broken sand grains in deep sea sediments: Sedimentology, 24, 857862. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Takahashi, T., 1962, Applications of electron microscopy to geology: Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. Series II, 25, 322. [ Links ]
Krinsley, D.H., Friend, P., Klimentidis, R., 1976, Eeolian transport textures on the surface of sand grains of Early Triassic age: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 87, 130132. [ Links ]
LeRibault, L., 1975, L'exoscopie. Methode et applications: Compagnie Francaise des petroles, Notes et Memoires, 12, 231 p. [ Links ]
Linde, K., 1987, Experimental aeolian abrasion of different sandsize materials: some preliminary results, in Marshall, J.R. (ed.), Clastic Particles: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 242247. [ Links ]
Linde, K., MycielskaDowgiallo, E., 1980, Some experimentally produced microtextures on grain surface of quartz sand: Geografiska Annaler, Series A, Physical Geography, 62(34), 171184. [ Links ]
Madhavaraju, J., Ramasamy, S., 1999, Rare earth elements in limestones of Kallankurichchi Formation of Ariyalur Group, Tiruchirapalli Cretaceous, Tamil Nadu: Journal of the Geological Society of India, 54, 291301. [ Links ]
Madhavaraju, J., Ramasamy, S., Mohan, S.P., Hussain, S.M., Gladwin Gnana Asir, N., Stephen Pitchaimani, V., 2004, Petrography and surface textures on quartz grains of Nimar Sandstone, Bagh Beds, Madhya Pradesh Implications for provenance and depositional environment: Journal of the Geological Society of India, 64, 747762. [ Links ]
Madhavaraju, J., Lee, YI., ArmstrongAltrin, J.S., Hussain, S.M., 2006, Microtextures on detrital quartz grains of upper MaastrichtianDanian rocks of the Cauvery Basin, Southeastern India: implications for provenance and depositional environments: Geosciences Journal, 10, 2334. [ Links ]
Mahaney, W.C., 1995a, Glacial crushing, weathering and diagenetic histories of quartz grains inferred from scanning electron microscopy, in Menzies, J. (ed.), Glacial Environments Processes, Sediments and Landforms: London, Pergamon, 487506. [ Links ]
Mahaney, W.C., 1995b, Pleistocene and Holocene glacier thickness and/or transport histories inferred from microtextures on quartz particles: Boreas, 24(4), 293304. [ Links ]
Mahaney, W.C., 1998, Scanning electron microscopy of Pleistocene sands from Yamal and Taz Peninsulas, OB river estuary, northeastern Siberia: Quaternary International, 4546, 4958. [ Links ]
Mahaney, W.C., Vortisch, W.B., 1989, Scanning electron microscopy of feldspar and volcanic glass etching and neoformation of clay minerals in a Quaternary paleosol sequence, Mount Kenya, East Africa: Journal of African Earth Sciences, 9, 729737. [ Links ]
Mahaney, W.C., Claridge, G., Campbell, I., 1996, Microtextures on quartz grains in tills from Antarctica: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatolgy, Palaeoecology, 121, 89103. [ Links ]
Manker, J.P., Ponder, R.F., 1978, Quartz grain surface features from fluvial environments of northeastern Georgia: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 2, 243256. [ Links ]
Margolis, S., 1968, Electron microscopy of chemical solution and mechanical abrasion features on quartz sand grains: Sedimentary Geology, 2, 243256. [ Links ]
Margolis, S., Kennett, J.P., 1971, Cenozoic paleoglacial history of Antarctica recorded in Subantarctic deepsea cores: American Journal of Science, 271, 136. [ Links ]
Margolis, S., Krinsley, D.H., 1974, Processes of formation and environmental occurrence of microfeatures on detrital quartz grains: American Journal of Science, 274, 449464. [ Links ]
Mazullo, J., Ehrlich, R., 1983, Grain shape variation in the St. Peter Sandstone: a record of eolian and fluvial sedimentation of an Early Paleozoic cratonic sheet sand: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 53, 105119. [ Links ]
Mazullo, J., Sims, D., Cunningham, D., 1986, The effects of eolian sorting and abrasión upon the shapes of fine quartz sand grains: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 56, 4556. [ Links ]
MoralCardona, J.P., SanchezBellon, A., LopezAquayo, F., Caballero, M.A., 1996, The analysis of quartz grain surface features as a complementary method for studying their provenance: the Guadalete River Basin (Cadiz, SW Spain): Sedimentary Geology, 106, 155164. [ Links ]
MoralCardona, J.P., GutiérrezMas, J.M., SánchezBellón, A., LópezAquayo, F., Caballero, M.A., 1997, Provenance of multicycle quartz arenites of Pliocene age at Arcos, Southwestern Spain: Sedimentary Geology, 112, 251261. [ Links ]
Newsome, D., Ladd, P., 1999, The use of quartz grain microtextures in the study of the origin of sand terrains in Western Australia: Catena, 35, 117. [ Links ]
PérezVillegas, G., 1990, IV.4.2 Viento dominante durante el año, in Atlas Nacional de México, Tomo II, IV. Naturaleza, 4. Clima: México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Geografía, 1 map. [ Links ]
Pye, K., Mazzullo, J., 1994, Effects of tropical weathering on quartz shape: An example from northeastern Australia: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 64(3a), 500507. [ Links ]
Rahman, M.H., Ahmed, F., 1996, Scanning electron microscopy of quartz grain surface textures of the Gondwana Sediments, Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh: Journal of the Geological Society of India, 47, 207214. [ Links ]
Stensrud, D.J., Gall, R.L., Nordquist, M.K., 1997, Surges over the Gulf of California during the Mexican monsoon: Monthly Weather Review, 125, 417437. [ Links ]
Thompson, R.W., 1968, Tidal flat sedimentation on the Colorado River Delta, northwestern Gulf of California: Geological Society of America, Memoir 107, 133 p. [ Links ]
Whalley, W.B., Krinsley, D.H., 1974, A scanning electron microscope study of surface textures of quartz grains from textural environments: Sedimentology, 21, 87105. [ Links ]
Williams, A.T., Morgan, P., 1993, Scanning electron microscope evidence for offshoreonshore sand transport at Fire Island, New York, USA: Sedimentology, 40(1), 6377. [ Links ]