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Contaduría y administración

Print version ISSN 0186-1042

Contad. Adm vol.64 n.1 México Jan./Mar. 2019 


Antecedents of revisited intention : Evidence from Indonesia zoo tourism

Antecedentes de intención revisada: evidencia del turismo del zoológico de Indonesia

Jasanta Peranginangin1  * 

1Institut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Indonesia.


This study aimed to find out antecedences that affected revisited intention to the zoo. Opportunities to developing tourism industry especially in zoo tourism management. This study applied a quantitative research method using 200 questionaires disseminated to zoo tourists, in which 166 of these were completed. The study applied a structured equation modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Squere. Results of the study revealed important factors to build revisited intention to the zoo. This study found that all variables are significant affecting to revisited intention. This study will strengtened the previous research about revisited intention to zoo tourism. This research finding provides conceptual framework revisited intention.All of variables relationship proved the same result as previous studies about service quality, image, satisfaction and revisit intention. The proposed model tested empirically, the model shown that all variables is an ideal strategy to built zoo tourism competitiveness. This study reveals the antecedents of the desire to revisit the zoo, this is very important given the lack of research on the sustainability of a zoo. This study will contributed to the body of knowledge.

Keywords: Revisited intention; Tourist satisfaction; Service quality; Zoo image

JEL codes: L83; M31; Z32


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo descubrir los antecedentes que afectaron la intención revisada del zoológico. Oportunidades para desarrollar la industria del turismo, especialmente en la gestión del turismo zoológico. Este estudio aplicó un método de investigación cuantitativa utilizando 200 cuestionarios diseminados a los turistas del zoológico, en los cuales se completaron 166 de estos. El estudio aplicó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurado (SEM) con Partial Least Squere. Los resultados del estudio revelaron factores importantes para construir una nueva intención para el zoológico. Este estudio encontró que todas las variables son significativas y afectan la intención revisada. Este estudio reforzará la investigación previa sobre la intención revisada del turismo zoológico. Este hallazgo de investigación proporciona una intención revisada del marco conceptual. Todas las relaciones de variables demostraron el mismo resultado que los estudios previos sobre la calidad del servicio, la imagen, la satisfacción y la intención de revisar. El modelo propuesto probado empíricamente, el modelo mostró que todas las variables son una estrategia ideal para construir la competitividad del turismo zoológico. Este estudio revela los antecedentes del deseo de volver a visitar el zoológico, esto es muy importante dada la falta de investigación sobre la sostenibilidad de un zoológico. Este estudio contribuirá al cuerpo de conocimiento.

Palabras clave: Intención revisada; Satisfacción del turista, Calidad del servicio; Imagen del zoológico

Códigos JEL: L83; M31; Z32


Tourism is a key driver highly dinamic socio-economic growth Najda-Janoszka and Kopera (2014). Zoo as a product of tourism industry increases the economic growth. Zoo visitors has significance contribution to amount of tourism industry development. Creating zoo as a favorite destination makes this research note worthy.

Zoo as one of favorite destinations generates empowering society environment and has multiple effect on the economy. Other businesses will grow around the zoo environment. Revisit intention becomes a fundamental aspect in depeloving economic sphere. Strategic development tourism is about linking different markets to different tourist products (Korunovski & Marinoski, 2012).

Service quality and destination image are the first pivotal points to understand tourist satisfaction then to create repeat visitation Hui, Wan, and Cheng (2010). Service quality and image are the prime factors to built satisfaction (Peranginangin, 2009).This study was composed to prove; a) the effect of service quality on tourist satisfaction; b) the effect of service quality on revisited intention; c) the effect of zoo image on tourist satisfaction; d) the effect of zoo image on revisited intention; and e) the effect of tourist satisfaction on revisited intention. This research is divided into 5 sections, the first is the introduction, then the second part is the literature review, the third part is the research methodology, the fourth part is the research methodology, and the last part is the conclusion and the research implications

Literature review

Destination generating by five components are infrastucture, empowering public service, destination image, environment, and the perfect system among the destination(Ting, Ru-liang, & Xiao-juan, 2011). Service quality and destination image become pivotal to strengthen tourist satisfaction and revisited intention to the destination. The favorable destination depends on tourist revisited intention ti raise their expenditure.

A study (Byon & Zhang, 2010) explains that image destination as measurement sticks to determine visitors satisfaction. Destination image in order to predicted tourist revisit intention, and recommended to others. Therefore, destination image affects the tourists revisit intention significantly.

Service quality and destination image are two important variables to build visitors satisfaction to the destination. Tourists satisfaction will affect to revisited. Another study (Guntoro & Hui, 2013) concludes that satisfaction to price competitiveness, quality, variety, and better service in order to increase tourist satisfaction. Tourists satisfaction is an affecting factor to repeat visitation to the destination.

Service quality and satisfaction relationship

Dominici and Guzzo (2010) found that service quality affects visitors satisfaction. A research of Supitchayangkool (2012) concludes that service quality significantly affects the visitors satisfaction and tourists revisited intention. Fulfilling specific needs of visitors becomes the prime factors to raise visitors satisfaction and revisited intention (Gina Ionela Butnarua & Miller, 2012; Quintal and Polczynski (2010)).

Gina Ionela Butnarua and Miller (2012) describe that service quality leads to visitors satisfaction, the nature of service quality is about reaching the tourist satisfaction, personnel’s satisfaction, and the objective of organitation. The study on satisfaction (Arasli & Baradarani, 2014) found service quality in lodging, atrraction, shopping, safety, and transportation has stong effect to tourist satisfaction. Felix (2017) concluded that service quality would have a significant impact on increasing satisfaction.

The above description led this study to proposing the following hypothesis:

  • H1: The higher degree of service quality, the higher degree of Visitors satisfaction.

Service quality and revisited intention relationship

Service quality is built as personal touch to each visitors, giving personal service to visitors through standardised service quality. Alegre and Cladera (2009) found that service quality and quantity of previous visits have significant effect on revisit intention. Bigne, Sánchez, and Andreu (2009) explain that tourist satisfaction is the most relevant factor to short and long term revisit intention.

Service quality effecting positevely to visitors revisited intention (Hsieh, 2012). Similarly, the higher degree of service quality will effect to the higher degree of visitors revisit intention (Yang, Wang, Huang, & Chang, 2010), (Quintal & Polczynski, 2010).

Therefore, the study proposed the following hypothesis:

  • H2: The higher degree of service quality, the higher degree of revisited intention.

Zoo image and tourist satisfaction relationship

Pratminingsih, Rudatin, and Rimenta (2014) found that destination image affects significantly the tourists satisfaction. The higher degree of destination image will increase the tourists visiting to the destination. Another study (Kuo, Chang, & Huang, 2014) describes destination image relationship with tourist satisfaction and revisit intention.

Ryu, Lee, and Kim (2012) conclude that image strongly affects the tourist satisfaction. Image is divided into distinctiveness of stereotypical image, distinctiveness of affective image, and distinctiveness uniqueness image (Pan & Li, 2011). Research conducted Melo, Moniz, Silva, and Batista (2017) also proved as a tourist spot image is very aligned to the satisfaction of visitors. Image affective to the tourist satisfacion, the higher degree of image then then the higher degree of tourist satisfaction.

Therefore, the study proposed the following hypothesis:

  • H3: The higher degree of zoo image, the higher degree of tourists satisfaction.

Zoo image and revisited intention relationship

Greaves and Skinner (2010), (Byon & Zhang, 2010) describe destination image effecting significantly to revisited intention. Research finding of Som, Marzuki, Yousefi, and AbuKhalifeh (2012), (Pratminingsih et al., 2014)concluded that destination image have strong relationship to revisited intention.

Mohamad, Abdullah, and Mokhlis (2012), Som et al. (2012) found that factors affecting the revisited intention are a good destination image, modern environment, pleasant, hospitality, and beautiful places to enjoy. There is a positive correlation between destination image to tourists revisited intention (Lertputtarak, 2012) explained. Artuger and Cetinsoz (2017) explains that the image of the zoo influences the desire of tourists revisited. Image consists of two types of cognitive image and affective image

Therefore, the study proposed the following hypothesis:

  • H4: The higher degree of zoo image, the higher degree of revisited intention

Tourist satisfaction and revisited intention relationship

Kim, Kim, and Taylor (2010) explain revisit intention to the destination measurement by visitors satisfaction. (Quintal & Polczynski, 2010) [Quintal and Polczynski (2010)] also describe that good governance of destination will cause an increase in visitors satisfaction and, in turn, will affect the revisit intention. The effect of competition on visitors satisfaction will result in loyalty to the destination (Taplin, 2013).

Raza, Siddiquei, Awan, and Bukhari (2012) discover that visitors satisfaction have positive relationship to tourists revisited intention. The similar study (Supitchayangkool, 2012) found that visitors satisfaction have positive relationship to revisited intention. Furthermore, tourist satisfaction as a significant trigger of revisited intention (Marinkovic, Senic, Ivkov, Dimitrovski, & Bjelic, 2014)

Therefore, the study proposed the hypothesis:

  • H5: The higher degree of tourist satisfaction, the higher degree of revisited intention

Figure 1 The Proposed Model 

Research methodology

This study was conducted on zoo visitors in a Special Province of Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Where this area is the second largest international tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Zoo visitors who become the target of research are local tourists and foreign tourists. This research is very interesting because there are 68 zoos in Indonesia and more than 50 million per year zoo visitors in Indonesia.

This research applies the structural equations of modelling, in SEM sample size depends on the complexity of a research model. The number of sample participants required is five times the number of observed parameters, the number of parameters in this study amounted to 33, so that the minimum participants to be surveyed by 165 respondents, (Bentler & Chou, 1987). The research model using the construct ≤ 5 minimum sample size required is 100 respondents, ( Joseph F Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2014).

This research methodelogy examined structured equation modeling with partial least squares (Kock, 2011), ( J.F Hair, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2013). The correlation between five hyphotheses measured five variables correlation measured using fourten indicators. Questionnaires were disseminated to 200 respondents who just came out of the zoo. There were 166 questionnaires or 83% of the total, that could be processed figuring the population. The data collected structured equation modeling conditions, Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) and Joseph F. Hair, Black, Babin, and Anderson (2010). These questionnaires consisted of opened and closed questions. Closed questionnaire 1-10 scale abridge to respondents answering. The opened questions were used for completing uncovered answer of closed questions.


All of the variables were tested using WarpPLS, the hypotesized model fit, as evidenced shown below:

Table 1 shows that P values of Average Path Coefficient (APC) and Average R-Squared (ARS) < 0.05, so that Average Variance Inflation Factor (AVIF) result 2.154, good if < 5.

Table 1 Model Fit Indices and P Values 

APC = 0.341 P < 0.01
ARS = 0.632 P < 0.001
AVIF = 2.154 Good if <5

Table 2 shows result of standard error for part coefficients Service Quality (SQ) to Tourist Satisfaction (TS) 0.101, Zoo Image (ZI) to Tourist satisfaction (TS) 0.097, Service Quality to Revisit Intention (RI) 0.104, Zoo Image (ZI) to Revisit intention 0.089, and Tourist Satisfaction to Revisi Intention 0.101.

Table 2 Standard Errors for path coefficients 

TS 0.101 0.097
RI 0.104 0.089 0.101

Table 3 shows the result of effect sizes for path coefficients, score for Service Quality (SQ) to Tourist Satisfaction (TS) 0.104, Zoo Image (ZI) to Tourist satisfaction (TS) 0.571, Service Quality (SQ) to Revisit Intention (RI) 0.05, Zoo Image (ZI) to Revisit intention (RI) 0.177, and Tourist Satisfaction to Revisi Intention 0.361.

Table 3 Effect sizes for path coefficients 

TS 0.104 0.571
RI 0.05 0.177 0.361

Table 4 shows scores of correlation among indicators described good correlationamong indicators with diagonal scores 1.

Table 4 Correlation Among Indicators 

SQ1 1 0.45 0.45 0.32 0.23 0.41 0.34 0.35 0.42 0.42 0.42
SQ2 0.45 1 0.42 0.29 0.26 0.25 0.22 0.32 0.3 0.3 0.22
SQ3 0.45 0.42 1 0.62 0.41 0.41 0.48 0.43 0.4 0.48 0.4
SQ4 0.32 0.29 0.51 2 0.36 0.23 0.36 0.41 0.29 0.31 0.29
SQ5 0.23 0.26 0.41 0.36 1 0.26 0.38 0.56 0.44 0.39 0.38
ZI1 0.41 0.25 0.41 0.23 0.26 1 0.48 0.41 0.45 0.56 0.51
ZI2 0.34 0.22 0.48 0.36 0.38 0.48 1 0.6 0.59 0.55 0.6
ZI3 0.35 0.32 0.43 0.43 0.56 0.41 0.6 1 0.66 0.61 0.63
TS1 0.42 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.44 0.45 0.59 0.66 1 0.66 0.69
TS2 0.53 0.3 0.48 0.48 0.39 0.56 0.55 0.61 0.66 1 0.62
TS3 0.53 0.22 0.4 0.4 0.38 0.51 0.6 0.63 0.69 0.62 1
RI1 0.38 0.24 0.37 0.37 0.39 0.45 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.52 0.6
RI2 0.44 0.23 0.49 0.49 0.45 0.48 0.56 0.57 0.6 0.55 0.68
RI3 0.41 0.25 0.39 0.39 0.34 0.42 0.56 0.53 0.55 0.52 0.69

Table 5 describes all variables significantly affected above 50%. R-squared for tourist satisfaction 67,5% and Revisit Intention 58,9% it means that all variables were standadized.

Table 5 Latent Variables Coefficients 

R-squared 0.675 0.589
Composite Realib 0.832 0.857 0.909 0.94
Cronbach's alpha 0.746 0.748 0.85 0.904
Avg.var. extrac. 0.499 0.666 0.77 0.84
Full Collin. Vif 1.725 3.257 3.375 2.312
Q-squared 0.682 0.591

Table 6 shows diagonal scores above 0.7 (0.706, 0.816, 0.877, and 0.916). It meant that there were no difficulties to respondent answering the quationaires. All questionaires possessed good quality.

Table 6 Latent Variables Correlation 

SQ (0.706) 0.626 0.588 0.531
ZI 0.626 (0.816) 0.8 0.691
TS 0.599 0.8 (0.877) 0.728
RI 0.531 0.691 0.728 (0.916)

Note: Average Variances Extracted shown on diagonal

Table 7 shows all variables had P Value < 0.001. It meant that all variables were reliable to this research.

Table 7 P Value for Correlations 

SQ 1 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
ZI <0.001 1 <0.001 <0.001
TS <0.001 <0.001 1 <0.001
RI <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 1

Figure 2 shows the result of proposed model revisit intention with mediating tourist satisfaction. The correlation of service quality to tourist satisfaction of 0.17 was significant. It meant that hypothesis 1 was proved. Hypothesis 2 the higher degree of service quality, the higher degree of revisit intention was significant at 0.09. The correlation of zoo image to tourist satisfaction was strongly significant. Therefore, Hypothesis 3 was proved. Hypothesis 4, the higher degree of zoo image, the higher degree of revisited intention proved at 0.26. Hypothesis 5, strength relationship tourist satisfaction with revisited intention of 0.46. All hypotheses were proven significant to built revisited intention in zoo tourism.

Figure 2 The Result of Proposed Model 

The correlation among all variables drew an inference that zoo image (0.7) had a stronger effect than service quality connection to tourist satisfaction. The revisited intention effect of zoo image (0.26) had a stronger effect than service quality 0.09. the tourist satisfaction have significant effect to the revisited intention. The wishes of a revisit intention can be directly influenced by the image of the zoo and the quality of service or through mediation of tourist satisfaction. According to the result, focusing in service quality improvement.


This research finding provides conceptual framework revisited intention.All of variables relationship have proven the same result as the previous studies on service quality, image, satisfaction and revisit intention. The proposed model tested empirically, the model shown that all variables is an ideal strategy to built zoo tourism competitiveness.

The result of this research contributes to marketing theory and managerial policy to enhanced zoo performance.Improving service quality, zoo image, and tourist satisfaction will makes all tourist more comportable to repeat their visitation. Managerial focusing on tourist satisfaction through service quality especially animal atrraction and supporting environment around zoo.

This study had the following limitations: firstly, this research only focused on zoo visitors without exlore the demograpic and social economic of the population; secondly, the respondents were only the visitors just come out from the zoo. This study requires future research to build a stronger model. The indicators and population of the research object must beenlarge, so the variables added to make the model more powerful. Only few studies had been performed about the zoo tourism. Therefore, this research is attractive to developed.


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Answer all the statements in this questionnaire by providing an assessment of the extent to which the statement fits the reality. Fill in a box with a number with a value of 1-10 in the box provided and answer it on the bottom line.

A.Variable Quality of Service

1. The Zoo has good equipment facilities

What equipment is not good at the zoo


2.The zoo employees provide good service

What aspects do you think are lacking in the service?


3.Employee of the zoo provide services quickly

What services are needed to be fixed


4. You feel safe visiting the zoo

What kind of security do you need?


5. The zoo employee gives smile and greetings

What smile and greetings do you expect?


B. Variable of Zoo Image

1. Zoo image compared to other Zoos

What is the zoo's position compared to other zoos?


2. The zoo Image in the eyes of your family and relatives.

What is your family and relatives' opinion of the zoo?


3. Gembira Loka has a satisfactory service image

What kind of service satisfies you?


C. Variable of Visitor Satisfaction

1. I feel happy to visit Gembira Loka

Happy like what you feel?


2. I feel satisfied to visit the zoo

What facilities have not satisfied you?


3. I feel the zoo as expected

What facilities are in line with your expectations?


D. Variable of Revisited Intention

1. I will return to the zoo

When will your plan return?


2. I want to feel the atmosphere of the zoo again

What atmosphere do you want feel again?


3. The zoo worth to visit again

What factors make the zoo to be worth a visit again?


Received: May 24, 2017; Accepted: January 22, 2018

*Corresponding author. E-mail address:

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