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Acta zoológica mexicana

On-line version ISSN 2448-8445Print version ISSN 0065-1737

Acta Zool. Mex vol.36  Xalapa  2020  Epub Aug 28, 2020

https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2020.3612237 

Essays

Catalog of the family Calliphoridae (Diptera: Oestroidea) of Mexico

Catálogo de la familia Calliphoridae (Diptera: Oestroidea) de México

Santiago Jaume-Schinkel1 

Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal1  * 

1Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad,Instituto de Ecología, A.C. (INECOL), Carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, Colonia El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, México. C.P. 91073. <santijaumes@hotmail.com>; <sergio.ibanez@inecol.mx>


ABSTRACT

Calliphoridae is a worldwide distributed family of flies with over 1,500 described species. There are approximately 100 species in the Nearctic region and 130 in the Neotropical region, but in the Mexican territory only few species have been recorded. There is not a previous catalog of Mexican calliphorids. This catalog summarizes taxonomic actualized information of 30 species of 11 genera and three subfamilies of Calliphoridae known up to date in Mexico.

Key words: blow flies; taxonomy; species list

RESUMEN

La familia Calliphoridae está presente en casi todo el mundo con más de 1,500 especies descritas. Existen aproximadamente 100 especies en la región Neártica y 130 en la región Neotropical, pero en el territorio mexicano solo pocas especies se han registrado. No existe un catálogo previo de califóridos de México. Este catálogo recopila la información taxonómica básica y actualizada de las 30 especies de 11 géneros y tres subfamilias de Calliphoridae conocidos hasta el momento en México.

Palabras clave: moscas metálicas; taxonomía; lista de especies

INTRODUCTION

Flies of the family Calliphoridae are commonly known in English as blow flies, green bottles or blue bottles, and in Spanish “moscas metálicas” or “moscas panteoneras”, with some species very familiar to people around the world (Prado e Castro et al., 2016). It has a great diversity within calyptrate Diptera with about 1,500 described species belonging to 150 genera present in all biogeographic regions (Rognes, 1991).

Blow flies are medium-size Diptera (4-16 mm) some with a beautiful metallic color (iridescence) ranging from green, blue to purplish and violet, while some others have duller coloration, but all with some degree of metallic reflections. Males are usually holoptic and females dichoptic with chaetotaxy similar in both sexes (Prado e Castro et al., 2016; Wolff & Kosmann, 2016). Adult Calliphoridae are found in wide variety of habits; some species feed on nectar and are pollinators, other species are parasites of worms, bird nestlings and snails, a few have medical and veterinary importance causing myiasis or mechanical transmission of pathogens, but the bulk of species are associated with decaying animal and vegetable matter and feces (Norris, 1966; Rognes, 1998; Zumpt, 1965; Prado e Castro et al., 2016). Immature stages feed on a wide variety of substrates including carcasses and healthy/necrotic tissues of vertebrates, and some feed on amphibians, birds or mammals’ blood (Wolff & Kosmann, 2016). These habits allow the family to play an important ecological key role as decomposers, being a useful tool in forensic entomology studies for that reason (Byrd & Castner, 2010). Blow fly species show different levels of synanthropy (association with human habitats), some associated with high disturbed habitats as urban environments and human settlements (eusynanthropy), modify ecosystems for agricultural, pastoral and forestry practices (hemisynanthropy) or natural pristine ecosystems (asynanthropy) (Povolnỳ, 1971).

Phylogeny of Calliphoridae is still debatable and some authors believe it is not a monophyletic group (Rognes, 1997; Kutty et al., 2010). Some subfamilies of Calliphoridae have been recently elevated to the family status based in morphological and molecular data, such as Mesembrinellidae and Rhiniidae (Kutty et al., 2010; Marinho et al., 2012, 2017; Cerretti et al., 2017), changes that we follow in this work. Some authors have contributed since 1960’s with a variety of studies regarding the blow fly fauna in the Neotropical region (James, 1955, 1966, 1970, 1971; Mello, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969a, 1969b, 1972a, 1972b, 1974, 1978, 1996, 2003; Whitworth, 2014; Wolff, 2013) and some others to the Nearctic region fauna (e.g. Hall, 1948; Tantawi & Whitworth, 2014; Tantawi et al., 2017; Whitworth, 2006).

The number of species distributed in America is significantly smaller as compared to the rest of the world (Wolff & Kosmann, 2016), as there are nearly 100 species in the Nearctic region (Pape et al., 2009) and 130 species in the Neotropical region (Pape et al., 2011). Considering that Mexico belongs to the biogeographic transition zone between Nearctic and Neotropical areas (Halffter, 2003), with a variety of ecosystems, the number of species expected in Mexico should be higher than the number known to date. This is probably consequence of the scarcity of faunistic studies on this group.

There are few catalogs of American Calliphoridae and no one specific for Mexico. The Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico (Hall, 1965), presented species distributed in North America with few records in Mexico which unfortunately is not updated taxonomically, whereas the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States (James, 1970) do not include all the Mexican species known today, also in a non-updated classification. Some South and Central America catalogs have been published recently in different countries such as Chile (Mac-Lean & González, 2006), Nicaragua (Maes et al., 1994), Colombia (Wolff & Kosmann, 2016), and Systema Dipterorum available online, with records on nomenclature and references of several worldwide species (Pape & Evenhuis, 2019), and for Mexico there is one catalog of Diptera available online at CONABIO (Ibáñez-Bernal, 2017), which includes Mesembrinellidae as subfamily and other species as valid that now are synonyms.

In the particular case of Mexico, studies regarding this family are few and disperse, some are focused on the entomological succession on corpses (Byrd & Castner, 2010; Flores, 2009; García-Espinoza et al., 2012; Mañas-Jordá et al., 2017; Stanford-Camargo et al., 2017; Valdés-Perezgasga et al., 2012). Nevertheless, scarcity of systematized and periodic studies in nearly all the Mexican territory makes difficult to present a complete list of Mexican species, moreover, to trace the geographic distribution of species.

In this work an up-to-date catalog of Calliphoridae (Diptera) for Mexico based on an extensive literature review is presented. It includes 30 species, in 11 genera and three subfamilies (Table 1), with their synonyms and early name combinations and references. Information is presented by category starting with family, genus and species, followed by the author (s) and year of publication of the original description. The original reference, type species for supraspecific taxa and type locality for species are also presented. A chronological list of synonyms for each taxon, with the author (s), year of publication, starting page of mention and type specimens for supraspecific taxa and type locality for species, are provided. For each species the known distribution by country is given and in the case of Mexican records the states in which the species are known are presented between parentheses. For some species we present notes or additional useful references that we consider to be complemental information regarding taxonomical notes or further discussions.

Table 1 Calliphoridae species recorded in Mexico. 

Subfamily Genus Species Author
Calliphorinae Calliphora coloradensis Hough, 1889
grahami Aldrich, 1930
irazuana Townsend, 1908
latifrons Hough, 1889
triseta Whitworth, 2012
vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
Cynomya cadaverina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
Protocalliphora asiovora Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924
beameri Sabrosky, Bennett & Whitworth, 1989
sialia Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924
Lucilinae Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849)
cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830)
eximia (Wiedemann, 1830)
illustris (Meigen, 1826)
mexicana Macquart, 1843
purpurascens (Walker, 1836)
sericata (Meigen, 1826)
silvarum (Meigen, 1826)
Chrysomyinae Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858)
macellaria (Fabricius, 1775)
Compsomyiops callipes (Bigot, 1877)
fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)
melloi Dear, 1985
Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)
Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794)
rufifacies (Macquart, 1843)
Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805)
semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850)
Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, 1877)
Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826)

Family Calliphoridae Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

Calliphorinae Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 85. Type: Calliphora Robineau-Desvoidy.

Additional references: Sabrosky, 1999: 85.

Subfamily Calliphorinae Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

Genus Calliphora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Calliphora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 433. Type species: Musca vomitoria Linnaeus, 1758: 595.

Steringomyia Pokorny, 1889: 568. Type species: Steringomyia stylifera Pokorny, 1889: 569.

Abonesia Villeneuve, 1927: 357. Type species: Musca genarum Zetterstedt, 1838: 658.

Acrophaga Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 367. Type species: Acophaga stelviana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 367; Brauer, 1893: 500.

Eucalliphora Townsend, 1908: 118. Type species: Calliphora latifrons Hough, 1899a: 286.

Aldrichiella Rohdendorf, 1931: 177. Type species: Calliphora grahami Aldrich, 1930: 1. Junior homonym of Aldrichiella Vaughan, 1903: 101, and Aldrichiella Hendel, 1911: 37.

Stobbeola Enderlein, 1933: 126. Type species: Stobbeola norwegica Enderlein, 1933: 126.

Aldrichina Townsend, 1934a: 111. Type species: Calliphora grahami Aldrich, 1930: 1, replacement name for Aldrichiella Rohdendorf, 1931: 177.

Acronesia Hall, 1948: 272. Type species: Steringomyia aldrichia Shannon, 1923: 112.

Calliphora coloradensis Hough, 1899

Calliphora coloradensis Hough, 1899a: 286. Type locality: USA, Colorado.

Additional references: Shannon, 1923: 109, 1926: 135; Hall, 1948: 294; James, 1953: 143; Poole, 1996: 77; Whitworth, 2006: 699; Tantawi et al., 2017: 314.

Distribution: Canada, United States of America. Mexico (Durango, Morelos, Puebla) (Tantawi et al., 2017).

Calliphora grahami Aldrich, 1930

Calliphora grahami Aldrich, 1930: 1. Type locality: China, Sichuan Province.

Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich): Hall, 1948: 290.

Additional references: Thomas, 1951: 181; James, 1953: 144, 1955: 10; Hall, 1965: 929; Poole, 1996: 77; Whitworth, 2006: 699; Tantawi et al., 2017: 316.

Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de México, Durango, Hidalgo) (Tantawi et al., 2017). This species is indigenous to the west Palearctic and Oriental regions but was introduced to Hawaii and Western of United States of America (Whitworth, 2006) and then to Mexico.

Calliphora irazuana Townsend, 1908

Calliphora irazuana Townsend, 1908: 118. Type locality: Costa Rica, Irazú.

Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala. Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de México, Durango, Estado de México, Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz) (Whitworth, 2012).

Calliphora latifrons Hough, 1899

Calliphora latifrons Hough, 1899a: 286. Type locality: USA, Idaho, Moscow.

Eucalliphora latifrons (Hough): Townsend, 1908: 118.

Eucalliphora arta Hall, 1948: 287. Type locality: Mexico, San Luis Potosí.

Calliphora arta (Hall): Whitworth, 2006: 698.

Calliphora bezzi Zumpt, 1956: 16. Type locality: Ruta, Italy.

Additional references: Shannon, 1923: 109; James, 1970: 12; Whitworth, 2006: 703; Rognes, 2016: 195; Tantawi et al., 2017: 326.

Distribution: Canada, United States of America. Mexico (Baja California, Chiapas, Ciudad de México, Durango, Puebla, Tabasco) (Tantawi et al., 2017). Tantawi et al. (2017) presented this species as indigenous of North America, but Rognes (2016) reported this species in China and Italy as Calliphora bezzi Zumpt, and he stated that apparently this species was dispersed by human activity, as it has only been found at international ports, leading to believe that the species has not stablished outside North America, but it can become a stablished population in the future.

Calliphora triseta Whitworth, 2012

Calliphora triseta Whitworth, 2012: 18. Type locality: Costa Rica, San Jose Province.

Additional references: Whitworth, 2012: 18.

Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador. Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca) (Whitworth, 2012). Its distribution overlaps with Calliphora irazuana, but Whitworth (2012) makes a clear difference to recognize both species, stating that this species may distribute in high altitudes of mountain areas thorough Central America.

Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 435. Type locality: USA, Philadelphia.

Musca carnivora Fabricius, 1794: 313. Name suppressed, see International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1992 [Opinion 1670]: 90).

Musca erythrocephala Meigen, 1826: 62. Junior primary homonym of Musca erythrocephala De Geer, 1776. Name suppressed, see International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1992 [Opinion 1670]: 90).

Calliphora littoralis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 435. Type locality: Not specified.

Calliphora spitzbergensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 435. Type locality: Norway, Spitzbergen.

Calliphora monspeliaca Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 436. Type locality: France, Montpellier.

Calliphora musca Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 436. Type locality: Not specified.

Calliphora nana Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 436. Type locality: France, Paris.

Calliphora scutellata Macquart, 1834: 161. Type locality: France, Lille.

Musca thuscia Walker, 1849: 897. Type locality: USA, New York.

Calliphora rufifacies Macquart, 1851: 216. Type locality: USA, New York.

Musca aucta Walker, 1853: 334. Type locality: India, Madras or Calcutta.

Calliphora insidiosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1853: 334. Type locality: France, Paris.

Calliphora turanica Rohdendorf, 1926: 90. Type locality: Not specified.

Additional references: Rognes, 1991: 63; Tantawi et al., 2017: 339.

Distribution. This species is widespread around the world, mainly in large cities. In America it is present from Canada through Central and South America (Whitworth, 2006, 2012; Tantawi et al., 2017). In Mexico it has been recorded in Ciudad de México, but it is possible to be found in other states of Mexico. For detailed information see Rognes (1991).

Genus Cynomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Cynomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 363. Type species: Musca mortuorum Linnaeus, 1761: 452 (Macquart, 1834: 176).

Cynophaga Lioy, 1864: 890. Type species: Musca mortuorum Linnaeus.

Carcinomyia Townsend, 1915b: 21. Type species: Cynomya hirta Hough, 1898a: 166 (= Musca mortuorum).

Cynomyopsis Townsend, 1915c: 118. Type species: Cynomya cadaverina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 365.

Cynomya cadaverina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Cynomya cadaverina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 365. Type locality: USA, Carolina.

Calliphora myoidea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 436. Type locality: USA, Pennsylvania.

Calliphora aurulans Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 437. Type locality: USA, Carolina.

Calliphora compressa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 438. Type locality: USA, Carolina.

Musca mortisequa Kirby, 1837: 316. Type locality: USA, Alaska.

Musca ilerda Walker, 1849: 895. Type locality: Canada, Ontario.

Cynomyia americana Hough, 1898b: 105. Type locality: USA, Louisiana.

Calliphora texensis Townsend, 1908: 116. Type locality: USA, Texas.

Cynomyopsis cadaverina (Robieneau-Desvoidy): Townsend, 1915a: 118.

Distribution: Alaska, Canada, Denmark, United States of America. Mexico (Aguascalientes) (Whitworth, 2006; Martínez-Ruvalcaba et al., 2009). Rognes (1991) mentioned this species to be widespread in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions, Hall (1948) mentioned it is a common species in United States of America and Canada, whereas Whitworth (2006) mentioned that he rarely found it in the southern United States. Martínez-Ruvalcaba et al. (2009) reported some specimens in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

Genus Protocalliphora Hough, 1899

Protocalliphora Hough, 1899b: 65-66. Type species: Musca azurea Fallén, 1817: 245.

Avihospita Hendel, 1901: 29. Type species: Musca azurea Fallén, 1817: 245. Aldrich, 1901: 68; Aldrich, 1905: 523.

Apaulina Hall, 1948: 179. Type species: Protocalliphora avium Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924: 249. Hamerstrom & Hamerstrom, 1954: 5; James, 1955: 24; Zumpt, 1956: 94.

Trypocalliphora Peus, 1960: 199. Type species: Avihospita braueri Hendel, 1901: 30.

Additional references: Rognes, 1985: 371-382 (revision of Trypocalliphora); Shewell, in McAlpine et al., 1987: 1134-5, 1140, 1143; Sabrosky et al., 1989: 44.

Protocalliphora (P.) asiovora Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924

Protocalliphora avium var. asiovora Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924: 249. Type locality: USA, Washington, McElroy Lake.

Apaulina avium (Shannon & Dobroscky): Hall, 1948: 186.

Apaulina basingeri Hall, 1948: 190. Type Locality: USA, California, San Diego.

Protocalliphora asiovora (Shannon & Dobroscky): Hall, 1965: 926.

Distribution: Canada, United States of America. Mexico (Baja California) (Sabrosky et al., 1989).

Protocalliphora beameri Sabrosky, Bennett & Whitworth, 1989

Protocalliphora beameri Sabrosky, Bennett & Whitworth, 1989: 113. Type locality: USA, Arizona, Cave Creek Canyon.

Protocalliphora n. sp. B of Horning & Barr, 1970: 73.

Additional references: Sabrosky et al., 1989: 113.

Distribution: United States of America. Mexico (Baja California) (Sabrosky et al., 1989).

Protocalliphora sialia Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924

Protocalliphora splendida var. sialia Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924: 249. Lectotype locality: USA, Pennsylvania, Delaware River.

Protocalliphora chrysorrhoea (Meigen): Henshaw, 1908: 87. Type series: destroyed (Rognes, 1991).

Phormia chrysorrhoea (Meigen): Lloyd, 1922: 116.

Apaulina sialia (Shannon & Dobroscky): Hall, 1948: 201.

Additional references: Sabrosky et al., 1989: 208 (lectotype designation).

Distribution: Alaska, Canada, United States of America. Mexico (Durango, Puebla) (Sabrosky et al., 1989).

Subfamily Luciliinae Shannon, 1923

Lucilini Shannon, 1923: 103, elevated to subfamily by Brues et al., 1954: 356.

Genus Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 452. Type species: Musca caesar Linnaeus, 1758. Subsequent designation of Macquart, 1834: 162.

Phaenicia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863: 750. Type species: Phaenicia concinna Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863: 778 (Townsend, 1916b: 8). Some Authors in North America continued to use this as a subgenus or genus until Rognes (1991) and Stevens and Wall (1996) discussed their phylogenetic relationships.

Bufolucilia Townsend, 1919: 542. Type species: Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, 1876: 25.

Francilia Shannon, 1924: 74. Type species: Francilia alaskensis Shannon, 1924: 74.

Viridinsula Shannon, 1926: 131. Shannon used this name as a subgenus of Lucilia but Curran (1934) elevated the subgenus to genus, James (1966) degraded it again to subgenus, and posteriorly Rognes (1991) did not recognized any subgenera and listed Viridinsula as a synonym of Lucilia (See Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849)

Musca cluvia Walker, 1849: 855. Type locality: West Indies.

Lucilia pilatei Hough, 1899a: 287. Type locality: USA, Georgia, Tifton. See Whitworth (2014) for further discussion on synonymy.

Lucilia cluvia (Walker): Shannon, 1926: 133.

Phaenicia cluvia (Walker): Hall, 1948: 236.

Distribution: Widespread in North and Central America. Mexico (Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Campeche, Nayarit) (Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830)

Musca cuprina Wiedemann, 1830: 654. Type locality: China.

Lucilia dorsalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 453. Type locality: Cape of Good Hope.

Lucilia amica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 453. Type locality: Indonesia, Timor.

Lucilia elegans Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 458. Type locality: France, Ile de France.

Lucilia argyricephala Macquart, 1846: 326. Type locality: Cape of Good Hope (see Waterhouse & Paramonov, 1950 as Lucilia argyrocephala Macquart).

Musca fucina Walker, 1849: 883. Type locality: South Africa.

Musca serenissima Walker, 1852: 340. Type locality: West Indies.

Musca temperata Walker, 1852: 340. Type locality: East Indies.

Lucilia leucodes Frauenfeld, 1867: 453. Type locality: “Im Chinesischen Meer”.

Somomya pallifrons Bigot, 1877a: 257. Type locality: Australia.

Strongyloneura nigricornis Senior-White, 1924: 115. Type locality: India, North West Frontier Post, Cherat.

Lucilia pallescens Shannon, 1924: 78. Type locality: USA, North Carolina, Wilmington.

Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann): Shannon, 1926: 131.

Additional references: Waterhouse & Paramonov, 1950.

Distribution. This species has an almost worldwide distribution; in America it has stablished from southern United States through Central America to Northern Argentina and Peru. Mexico (Veracruz) (Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819)

Musca eximia Wiedemann, 1819: 53. Type locality: Brazil.

Lucilia smaragdula Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 462. Type locality: Brazil.

Lucilia punctipennis Macquart, 1848: 216. Type locality: Brazil.

Lucilia subrectineuris Macquart, 1851: 223. Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais.

Musca insularis Walker, 1853: 340. Type locality: West Indies.

Somomya amazona Bigot, 1877a: 255. Type locality: Brazil.

Somomyia mutabilis Bigot, 1877a: 248. Type locality: “Mexicus”.

Somomyia pueblensis Bigot, 1877a: 250. Type locality: “Mexicus”.

Somoyia sylphida Bigot, 1877b: 45. Type locality: USA, New Orleans.

Lucilia hirtiforceps Shannon, 1926: 133. Type locality: Panama, Canal Zone.

Lucilia mera Shannon & Del Ponte, 1926: 586. Type locality: Argentina, San Pedro de Jujuy.

Lucilia primaveris Shannon & Del Ponte, 1926: 586. Type locality: Argentina, Buenos Aires, San Isidro.

Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann): Aubertin, 1933: 423.

Lucilia littoralis Blanchard, 1938: 380. Type locality: Argentina (see Whitworth, 2014).

Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann): Hall, 1948: 239.

Additional references: Hall, 1948: 239; James, 1970: 10; Whitworth, 2014: 26.

Distribution: Widespread from southern United States through Central and South America. Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Estado de México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz) (Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia illustris (Meigen, 1826)

Musca illustris Meigen, 1826: 54. Type locality: Germany.

Musca parvula Meigen, 1826: 55. Type locality: Europe.

Musca equestris Meigen, 1826: 57. Type locality: Europe.

Lucilia fraterna Macquart, 1848: 217. Type locality: “America septentrionale”.

Lucilia consobrina Macquart, 1848: 217. Type locality: “America septentrionale”.

Musca muralis Walker, 1849: 888. Type locality: Canada, Hudson’s Bay, Albany River.

Calliphora simulatrix Pandelle, 1896: 218. Type locality: France.

Lucilia purpurea Townsend, 1908: 122. Type locality: USA, Alaska, Fort Wrangel (see Hall, 1948).

Lucilia ilustris (Meigen): Collin, 1926: 258.

Distribution: Holarctic, from Canada to Northern Mexico (Hall, 1948; James, 1970; Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia mexicana Macquart, 1843

Lucilia mexicana Macquart, 1843: 300. Type locality: Mexico.

Lucilia unicolor Townsend, 1908: 121. Type locality: USA, New Mexico.

Lucilia infuscata Townsend, 1908: 123. Type locality: USA, New Mexico.

Phaenicia mexicana (Macquart): Hall, 1948: 243.

Distribution: Southwestern United States of America to Honduras. Mexico (Baja California, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Zacatecas) (Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia purpurascens (Walker, 1836)

Musca purpurascens Walker, 1836: 355. Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina.

Lucilia brunnicornis Macquart, 1843: 299. Type locality: “Mexique”.

Lucilia violacea Macquart, 1847: 99. Type locality: “Mexique”.

Lucilia ocularis Shannon, 1926: 132. Type locality: Costa Rica, San Mateo. There is a misspelling as “Lucilia oculatis” (see Whitworth (2014) for explanation).

Lucilia purpurascens (Walker): Aubertin, 1933: 426.

Phaenicia purpurescens (Walker): Hall, 1948: 254. Misspelling and subsequent authors mistake (see Whitworth, 2014).

Distribution: Mainly Neotropical from Mexico to northern Argentina. Mexico (Chiapas, Veracruz, Morelos, Tamaulipas, Ciudad de México) (Whitworth, 2014).

Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826)

Musca sericata Meigen, 1826: 53. Type locality: Germany.

Musca nobilis Meigen, 1826: 56. Type locality: Europe.

Chrsomya capensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 451. Type locality: Africa.

Lucilia basalis Macquart, 1842: 305. Type locality: Not specified.

Lucilia flavidipennis Macquart, 1843: 296. Type locality: Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

Musca lagyra Walker, 1849: 885. Type locality: Fayal.

Lucilia latifrons Schiner, 1862: 590. Type locality: Not specified.

Lucilia sayi Jaennicke, 1867: 375. Type locality: USA, Illinois.

Lucilia giralti Townsend, 1908: 121. Type locality: France, Paris.

Lucilia barberi Townsend, 1908: 121. Type locality: USA, Arizona, Williams.

Lucilia frontalis Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 116 (nomen nudum). Aubertin, 1933: 411. Type locality: Egypt.

Lucilia sericata (Meigen): Townsend, 1908: 120.

Additional references: Mello, 1961: 261; James, 1970 for synonymy and discussion, and Whitworth (2012), for description and distribution.

Distribution: From southern Canada to Argentina. It is commonly stated that the species has a widespread distribution in the Americas, but it is doubtful (Hall, 1948; Mello, 1961; Whitworth, 2014). Mexico (Coahuila, San Luis Potosí) (Valdés-Perezgasga & García-Espinoza, 2014).

Lucilia silvarum (Meigen, 1826)

Musca silvarum Meigen, 1826: 53. Type locality: Not specified.

Lucilia brunicosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 459. Type locality: North America.

Lucilia nigripalpis Townsend, 1908: 120. Type locality: USA, Ohio.

Bufolucilia lucilioides Wulp, 1896: 288. Enderlein, 1933: 120 (as Xerophilophaga). Type locality: Mexico, Mexico City.

Bufolucilia silvarum (Meigen): Townsend, 1919: 542; Hall, 1948: 219.

Lucilia silvarum (Meigen): Rognes, 1991>: 181.

Additional references: Hall, 1948: 219; Tantawi & Whitworth, 2014: 104 (Key).

Distribution: Holarctic: Europe, Asia, North Africa (Rognes, 1991); Nearctic: Canada, United States of America. Mexico (Ciudad de México, Coahuila) (Hall, 1948, 1965; James, 1970; Valdés-Perezgasga & García-Espinoza, 2014).

Subfamily Chrysomyinae Shannon, 1923

Chrysomyini Shannon, 1923: 103, elevated to subfamily by Malloch, 1927: 299, 300, 324.

Genus Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915

Callitroga Brauer, 1883: 74. Type species: Musca macellaria Fabricius, 1775: 776. Type locality: West Indies (see Melville, 1984, name suppression).

Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915c: 646. Type species: Musca macellaria Fabricius.

Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858)

Lucilia hominivorax Coquerel, 1858: 173. Type locality: French Guiana, Cayenne.

Compsomyia homicida Brauer, 1899: 525, misspelling of hominivorax Coquerel.

Calliphora infesta Philippi, 1861: 513. Type locality: Chile, Santiago.

Calliphora anthropophaga Conil, 1878: 71. Type locality: Argentina, Córdoba.

Somomyia fulvobarbata Bigot, 1888: 598. Type locality: Uruguay, Montevideo.

Cochliomyia americana Cushing & Patton, 1933: 539. Type locality: USA, Texas, Menard.

Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel): Dear, 1985: 138.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 138. (taxonomy discussion).

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guyana, Greater Antilles, Guatemala, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay. Mexico (Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Yucatán, Chiapas) (Dear, 1985; Wolff & Kossman, 2016).

Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775)

Musca macellaria Fabricius, 1775: 776. Type locality: “America”.

Musca laniaria Wiedemann, 1830: 683. Type locality: Brazil.

Chrysomya viridula Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 445. Type locality: Brazil.

Chrysomya affinis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 445. Type locality: Brazil.

Chrysomya tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 446. Type locality: Jamaica, Pour-Au-Prince.

Chrysomya lherminieri Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 446. Type locality: USA, Carolina.

Chrysomya alia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 447. Type locality: Brazil.

Chrysomya socia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 447. Type locality: Brazil.

Chrysomya decora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 448. Type locality: “Antilles”.

Chrysomya plaei Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 448. Type locality: “Antilles”.

Chrysomya lepida Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 448. Type locality: Brazil.

Calliphora violacea Macquart, 1843: 285. Type locality: Africa, probably a mistake. Dear (1985) states that it is from Chile.

Lucilia vittata Macquart, 1843: 298. Type locality: Australia, New-Holland. Dear (1985) mentioned a locality mistake, because it is a species from the New World.

Lucilia durvillei Macquart, 1843: 299. Type locality: Peru, Payta.

Musca certima Walker, 1849: 873. Type locality: USA, Florida.

Musca phauda Walker, 1849: 896. Type locality: Galapagos Islands.

Pyrellia cyanicolor Rondani, 1850: 178, unjustified name for Calliphora violacea Macquart.

Calliphora tristriata Verhuell, 1850: 273. Type locality: Surinam, Paramaribo, Paramaribo.

Calliphora tibialis Macquart, 1851: 215. Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.

Lucilia rubrifrons Macquart, 1851: 223. Type locality: Argentina, Buenos Aires.

Musca turbida Walker, 1853: 336. Type locality: Jamaica.

Musca fasciata Walker, 1853: 337. Type locality: Brazil.

Lucilia picicrus Thomson, 1869: 543. Type locality: Panama.

Lucilia curvipes Thomson, 1869: 544. Type locality: Brazil, Río de Janeiro.

Lucilia porticola Thomson, 1869: 544. Type locality: Peru, Callao.

Lucilia quadrisignata Thomson, 1869: 544. Type locality: Galapagos Islands.

Somomya flavigena Bigot, 1877a: 249. Type locality: Mexico.

Somomya aztequina Bigot, 1877a: 252. Type locality: Mexico.

Somomyia iridicolor Bigot, 1888: 599. Type locality: Cuba.

Chrysomyia lynchi Lahille, 1915: 12. Type locality: Argentina, Chaco.

Cochliomyia fontanai García, 1952: 71. Type locality: Argentina, Belgrano.

Distribution: This species is common in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Greater Antilles, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela. Mexico (Veracruz, Jalisco, Yucatán, Chiapas, Morelos, Durango) (Dear, 1985; Whitworth, 2010; Wolff & Kosmann, 2016).

Genus Compsomyiops Townsend, 1918

Compsomyiops Townsend, 1918: 153. Type species: Calliphora fulvipes Macquart, 1843: 289.

Myiolucilia Hall, 1948: 109. Type species: Musca lyrcea Walker, 1849: 873.

Compsomyiops callipes (Bigot, 1877)

Somomya callipes Bigot, 1877a: 249. Type locality: Mexico.

Somomya calopus Bertkau, 1879: 538 (unjustified emendation of callipes).

Chrysomyia wheeleri Hough, 1899a: 284. Type locality: USA, California, Monterey.

Paralucilia wheeleri (Hough): Hall, 1948: 153.

Distribution: United States of America. Mexico (Ciudad de México, Guerrero, Michoacán, Morelos, Veracruz) (Dear, 1985).

Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

Chrysomya fulvicrura Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 446. Type locality: Uruguay, Montevideo.

Calliphora fulvipes Macquart, 1843: 289. Type locality: Chile.

Musca lyrcea Walker, 1849: 873. Type locality: Montevideo, Uruguay.

Musca caruca Walker, 1849: 877. Type locality: Chile.

Musca gamelia Walker, 1849: 878. Type locality: Uruguay, Montevideo.

Calliphora annulipes Philippi, 1861: 514. Type locality: Chile, Santiago.

Lucilia taeniaria Thomson, 1869: 544. Type locality: Argentina, Buenos Aires.

Paralucilia nigripes Mello, 1968: 184. Type locality: Argentina, Buenos Aires, Boulogne.

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Uruguay (Lopes & Albuquerque, 1955; James, 1970; Guimarães et al., 1983; Kosmann et al., 2013). However, there is not a punctual record for Mexico, as stated above many authors use the distribution of this species as it is spread through Mexico, Central and South America. But according to Dear (1985), González-Mora et al. (1998) and Mariluis and Mueleri (2003), the distribution is restricted to South America (Bolivia, Guyana, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile). Dear (1985) stated that there has been a lot of misidentifications thorough history, and confusion specially with Hall (1948) (See the discussion under Paralucilia in Dear, 1985), so this species is recorded for Mexico in many works, but it may or may not be present in Mexico as we could not find a punctual record, further analysis and material revision is required to confirm this.

Compsomyiops melloi Dear, 1985

Compsomyiops melloi Dear, 1985: 155. Type locality: Mexico, Ciudad (de México).

Distribution: Colombia. Mexico (Ciudad de México) (Dear, 1985; Kosmann et al., 2013).

Genus Chloroprocta Wulp, 1896

Chloroprocta Wulp, 1896: 296. Type species: Chloroprocta semiviridis Wulp, 1896: 296 (= Chrysomya idiodea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

Callitrogopsis Townsend, 1935: 70. Type species: Callitrogopsis costalis Townsend, 1935: 70 (= Chrysomya idiodea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

Chloroprocta idiodea (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

Chrysomya idiodea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 445. Type locality: Brazil.

Musca violacea Fabricius, 1805: 228. Type locality: “America Meridionalis”.

Lucilia fuscanipennis Macquart, 1851: 223. Type locality: Brazil.

Musca purpurea Walker, 1853: 337. Type locality: South America.

Chloroprocta semiviridis Wulp, 1896: 296. Type locality: Mexico, Yucatán (Type designation of Townsend, 1937: 123).

Strongyloneura flavifacies Engel, 1931: 138. Type locality: Bolivia.

Callitrogopsis costalis Townsend, 1935: 71. Type locality: Brazil (type designation of Townsend, 1937: 123).

Additional references: James, 1970: 5; Dear, 1985: 113; Pape et al., 2004: 203; Amat, 2009: 700; Amat, 2010: 399; Kosmann et al., 2013: 76; Wolff & Kosmann, 2016: 859.

Distribution: Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad, United States of America, Venezuela (Kosmann et al., 2013). México (Colima, Yucatán) (Dear, 1985; Kosmann et al., 2013).

Genus Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 444. Type species: Chrysomya regalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 444, by designation of Coquillett, 1910: 523.

Compsomyia Rondani, 1875: 425. Type Species: Musca dux Eschscholtz.

Pycnosoma Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894: 623. Type species: Musca marginalis Wiedemann.

Paracompsomyia Hough, 1898c: 184. Type species: Paracompsomyia nigripennis Hough.

Psilostoma Surcouf, 1919: 58. Type species: Ochromyia incisuralis Macquart.

Microcalliphora Townsend, 1916a, 618. Type species: Lucilia varipes Macquart.

Cyaneosomyia Séguy, 1928: 112. Type species: Cyaneosomyia phaonis Seguy.

Pycnosomops Townsend, 1934b: 277. Type species: Musca putoria Wiedemann.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 112; Zumpt, 1956: 178 (taxonomic review of the genus).

Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794)

Musca megacephala Fabricius, 1794: 317. Type locality: India, Teshi, Gahna.

Musca dux Eschscholtz, 1822: 114. Type locality: Guam.

Chrysomya duvaucelii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 451. Type locality: India, West Bengai.

Chrysomya gratiosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 451. Type locality: “Oriental Region”.

Lucilia flaviceps Macquart, 1843: 302. Type locality: India.

Musca remuria Walker, 1849: 871. Type locality: China.

Musca bata Walker, 1849: 875. Type locality: Not specified.

Musca combrea Walker, 1849: 876. Type locality: Not specified.

Pollenia basalis Smith, 1876: 449. Type locality: Indic ocean, Isla Rodrigues.

Somomyia pfefferi Bigot, 1877a: 257. Type locality: Mauritius.

Somomyia cyanocincta Bigot, 1888: 604. Type locality: Indonesia, Java.

Somomyia dives Bigot, 1888: 600. Type locality: India, Calcutta.

Chrysomya megacephala (Facribius): Malloch, 1930: 233.

Additional references: Senior-White et al., 1940: 138 (taxonomic review and keys); Kurahashi, 1991: 713; Zumpt, 1965: 97.

Distribution: From North to South America (Dear, 1985). Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Estado de México, Michoacán, Morelos, Veracruz, Yucatán) (Castañeda-Vildózola et al., 1999; Pérez-Balam et al., 2012).

Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1843)

Lucilia rufifacies Macquart, 1843: 303. Type locality: Australia, New Holland.

Lucilia orientalis Macquart, 1843: 302. Type locality: India, Pondicherry.

Lucilia pavonina Schiner, 1868: 305. Type locality: Kar Nicobar and Tellschong (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

Somomyia barbata Bigot, 1877b: 30. Type locality: India.

Chrysomya cordieri Séguy, 1925: 303. Type locality: Indonesia, Java, Sockaboemi.

Chrysomyia rufifacies (Macquart) Bezzi, 1927: 235.

Additional references: Holdaway, 1933: 553; Senior-White et al., 1940: 141; Zumpt, 1965: 92 (taxonomic review and history); Kurahashi, 1991: 713.

Distribution: Stablished in almost all the Americas (Dear, 1985). Mexico (Chiapas to Durango) (Gagné, 1981; Baumgartner & Greenberg, 1984).

Genus Hemilucilia Brauer, 1895

Hemilucilia Brauer, 1895: 598. Type species: Musca segmentaria Fabricius, 1805: 292.

Mya Rondani, 1850: 175, primary homonym.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 124 (species review).

Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805)

Musca segmentaria Fabricius, 1805: 292. Type locality “America Meridionalis”. Additional references: Dear (1985); Kosmann et al. (2013) (taxonomic review and keys).

Lucilia nubipennis Rondani, 1848: 77. New name for “segmentaria” of Wiedemann.

Chrysomya hyacinthina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 450. Type locality: South America.

Calliphora femorata Walker, 1861: 310. Type locality: Mexico.

Hemilucilia hermanlenti Mello, 1972b: 548. Type locality: Brazil, Río de Janeiro.

Hemilucilia nubipennis occidentalis Mariluis, 1980: 86. Type locality: Ecuador.

Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius): Dear, 1985: 127.

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad (Dear, 1985). Mexico (Morelos, Veracruz, personal observations).

Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850)

Mya semidiaphana Rondani, 1850: 177. Type locality: Brazil.

Hemilucilia hermanlenti Mello, 1972b: 548. Type locality: Brazil, Río de Janeiro.

Hemilucilia segmentaria ssp. pacifiencis Mariluis, 1980: 85. Type locality: Ecuador.

Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani): Dear, 1985: 130.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 130 (discussion of types and taxonomic review).

Distribution: From Argentina to Mexico (Dear, 1985). Mexico (Veracruz, personal observation).

Genus Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891

Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 391. Type species: Calliphora fulvipes Macquart, 1834: 289.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 117 (review of species; commentaries on type species specimen).

Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, 1877)

Somomya fulvinota Bigot, 1877a: 251. Type locality: Mexico.

Chrysomyia desvoidy Hough, 1900: 208. Type locality: Brazil, Chapada.

Paralucilia braueri Townsend, 1916b: 11. Type locality: Chile.

Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot): Dear, 1985: 119.

Additional references: Dear, 1985: 119 (discussion about types and taxonomy).

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela. Mexico (Morelos, Veracruz) (Dear, 1985).

Genus Phormia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Phormia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 465. Type species: Musca regina Meigen, 1826: 58.

Euphormia Townsend, 1919: 542. Type species: Musca regina Meigen, 1826: 58.

Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826)

Musca regina Meigen, 1826: 58. Type locality: Not specified.

Musca thalassina Meigen, 1826: 54. Type locality: Europe.

Phormia philadelphica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 466. Type locality: USA, Pennsylvania.

Phormia regina (Meigen): Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 466.

Phormia cuprea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 467. Type locality: France, Paris.

Phormia fulvifacies Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 467. Type locality: France, Paris.

Phormia vittata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 467. Type locality: France, Yonne.

Phormia squalens Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 468. Type locality: France, Yonne.

Musca mollis Walker, 1849: 892. Type locality: Canada, Ontario.

Musca proxima Walker, 1853: 341: Type locality: USA, California.

Lucilia rufipalpis Jaennicke, 1867: 375. Type locality: USA, Illinois.

Lucilia stigmaticalis Thomson, 1869: 544. Type locality: USA, California.

Somomya nigrina Bigot, 1877a: 247. Type locality: USA, Illinois.

Somomyia rupicola Bigot, 1888: clxxx (180) . Type locality: USA, Rocky Mountains.

Somomyia rufigena Bigot, 1888: clxxxi (181) . Type locality: USA, Rocky Mountains.

Distribution: Holarctic: Canada, United States of America. In Mexico as south as Mexico City (Hall, 1948), but also in Veracruz (personal observation).

Acknowledgements

The first author was supported by a scholarship from the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT, No. 634637) as part of the work “Diversidad de moscas carroñeras de la familia Calliphoridae (Diptera) en tres sitios con diferente grado de antropización en la ciudad de Xalapa, Veracruz, México”. It was also supported by the project “Actualización del Catálogo de Autoridad Taxonómica del Orden Diptera (Insecta) de México” (CONABIO JE006) and (INECOL-10816), granted to Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal .

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Responsible editor: Karina D. Rivera-García

Jaume-Schinkel, S., Ibáñez-Bernal, S. (2020) Catalog of the family Calliphoridae (Diptera: Oestroidea) of Mexico. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (nueva serie), 36, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2020.3612237

Received: September 09, 2019; Accepted: January 15, 2020

*Corresponding author: <sergio.ibanez@inecol.mx>

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