SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.26 número1Establecimiento del gusano rojo en plantas de maguey en invernaderoNueva información para la avifauna del estado de Querétaro, México índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Acta zoológica mexicana

versión impresa ISSN 0065-1737

Acta Zool. Mex v.26 n.1 Xalapa abr. 2010

 

Artículos originales

 

The mosquitoes of Quintana Roo State, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae)

 

Los mosquitos del estado de Quintana Roo, México (Diptera: Culicidae)

 

Aldo I. ORTEGA MORALES1,3, Pedro MIS AVILA2, Armando ELIZONDO–QUIROGA3, Ralph E. HARBACH4, Quetzaly K. SILLER–RODRÍGUEZ3 and Ildefonso FERNÁNDEZ–SALAS3

 

1 Departamento de Parasitología, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro Unidad Laguna, Torreón Coah., CP 27084, MÉXICO. E–mail: agrortega@hotmail.com.

2 Control de Vectores, Secretaría de Salud de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, CP 77000, MÉXICO.

3 Laboratorio de Entomología Medica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apartado Postal 109–F, San Nicolás de los Garza, NL, CP 66451, MÉXICO.

4 Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UNITED KINGDOM.

 

Recibido: 17/05/2009
Aceptado: 09/10/2009

 

ABSTRACT

A study on the distribution of the mosquitoes of Quintana Roo State of México was carried out by collecting immature and adult stages during September and October 2006. The collections were made from different locations in the three physiogeographical provinces of the state: Carso Yucateco, Carso, Lomeríos de Campeche, and Costa Baja de Quintana Roo. A total of 420 larvae, 294 pupae, and 726 adults representing 13 genera and 41 species were collected. Two genera, three subgenera, and 11 species are new to the mosquito fauna of Quintana Roo State. Collection and bionomical data are included for species collected during the study, and a checklist of species newly and previously recorded from the state is provided.

Key Words: Culicidae, Mexico, Mosquitoes, Quintana Roo State.

 

RESUMEN

Un estudio de la distribución de los mosquitos del estado de Quintana Roo, México fue realizado por medio de colectas de estados inmaduros y adultos durante Septiembre y Octubre del 2006. Las colectas fueron realizadas en diferentes localidades de las tres provincias fisiográficas del estado: Carso Yucateco, Carso, Lomeríos de Campeche y Costa Baja de Quintana Roo. Un total de 420 larvas, 294 pupas y 726 adultos fueron colectados representando 13 géneros y 41 especies. Dos géneros, tres subgéneros y 11 especies son nuevos registros estatales para Quintana Roo.

Palabras clave: Culicidae, México, mosquitos, Quintana Roo.

 

INTRODUCTION

The family Culicidae is a diverse group of largely haematophagous insects with 3,523 species (Harbach 2007) distributed throughout the world, except in places that are permanently frozen. The majority of the species inhabit tropical and subtropical environments. A number of species are vectors of viruses, bacteria, nematodes, and protozoa that cause diseases in domestic animals and humans. In Quintana Roo State of Mexico, significant numbers of dengue and malaria cases have been reported by the State Secretary of Health in recent years (CENAVECE 2004). For this reason, it is important to know the mosquito faunal composition of Quintana Roo State so that mosquito control strategies can be targeted. Consequently, we made collections of mosquitoes in Quintana Roo State to obtain information about their ecology and distribution.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: Quintana Roo State is located in the Yucatan Peninsula in southeastern Mexico: northern boundary at 21° 73' N, western boundary at 89° 25' W, southern boundary at 17° 49' N, eastern boundary at 86° 44' W. It is bordered on the north by Yucatan State, on the south by Belize and Guatemala, on the east by the Caribbean and Antilles seas, and on the west by Yucatan and Campeche States. It has a total surface area of 53,344 km2 and is divided into three physiogeographical provinces: Carso Yucateco, Carso y Lomeríos de Campeche, and Costa Baja de Quintana Roo (INEGI 2007) (Table 1). The weather is temperate with rains in summer, annual precipitation of 1,200 mm, and annual average temperatures ranging from 25.5–26.5°C (INEGI 2007).

Mosquito collections. Immature and adult mosquitoes were collected during the months of September and October 2006. Larvae and pupae were collected from available ground–water habitats and containers. Measurements of pH, total dissolved solids, and temperature were taken. Adult mosquitoes were collected approaching and landing on collectors stationed in different locations of the state. The mosquitoes were killed with thriethylamine vapor. All larvae and pupae were reared to adults. Data collected for each collection included hour and date of capture, ambient weather, GPS coordinates, and habitat characteristics. The larvae and pupae were transported alive in bags for rearing in the Public Health Laboratory of Quintana Roo state and the Medical Entomology Laboratory of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL). A portion of the larvae were killed in hot water (60°C); the remaining larvae were individually reared to obtain adults with associated larval and pupal exuviae. Reared adults were killed as indicated above and mounted on paper points on pins. Larvae and larval and pupal exuviae were mounted in Euparal Mounting Medium (BioQuip® No.6372) on microscope slides. Male genitalia were dissected when necessary to assist identification. Specimens were identified using published keys and descriptions, and available voucher specimens.

 

RESULTS

A total of 1,440 specimens were collected (420 larvae, 294 pupae, and 726 adults) representing both subfamilies of Culicidae (Anophelinae and Culicinae), six tribes of subfamily Culicinae, 13 genera, 19 subgenera, and 41 species. Two genera, three subgenera, and 11 species are recorded in Quintana Roo State for the first time. A description of the different physiogeographic provinces of the state and all collection sites, with their GPS coordinate, are provided in Table 1. Species collected during the study, and the places where they were found, are listed below. The list includes species not known to occur in Quintana Roo State. Bionomical data associated with the species collected during the study are provided in Table 3. Specimens collected and identified in this study are deposited in the Insect and Mite of Medical Importance Collection of the Medical Entomology Laboratory, UANL. Table 2 should be consulted for species previously recorded from Quintana Roo State.

The Mosquitoes of Quintana Roo State

Subfamily Anophelinae
Genus Anopheles Meigen
All species of Anopheles collected during the study were previously recorded in Quintana Roo State (Table 2) except Anopheles (Anopheles) neomaculipalpus Curry, which represents a new record for the state.
Anopheles (Anopheles) apicimacula Dyar and Knab. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Mahahual.
Anopheles (Anopheles) crucians Wiedemann. Places collected: San Felipe, Sacxan, Playa del Carmen, Punta Esmeralda.
Anopheles (Anopheles) neomaculipalpus Curry. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Playa Punta Lagarto.
Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula Dyar and Knab. Place collected: Nuevo Becar.
Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis Dyar and Knab. Places collected: Sacxan, Puerto Aventuras, Playa Punta Lagarto.
Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann. Places collected: Mahahual, Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, Cocodrilo Dorado, San Felipe, Sacxan, Playa Punta Lagarto, Isla Mujeres, Chula Vista.

Subfamily Culicinae
Tribe Aedini
Genus Aedes Meigen
The traditional classification (Knight and Stone 1977) of genus Aedes, rather than the phylogenetic classification of Reinert et al. (2004, 2006, 2008), is used here. Equivalent taxa of the latter authors are included in square brackets for cross reference. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euplocamus Dyar and Knab, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), and Aedes (Protomacleaya) podographicus Dyar and Knab represent new records for the state (see Table 2 for previous records).
Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Díaz Nájera [Howardina cozumelensis (Díaz Nájera)]. Places collected: Buena Vista, Bacalar, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Limones, Vigía Chico, Chunyaxchen, Ocom.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) angustivittatus (Dyar and Knab) [Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) angustivittatus (Dyar and Knab)]. Place collected: Bacalar.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) bimaculatus (Coquillett) [Ochlerotatus (Chrysoconops) bimaculatus (Coquillett)]. Place collected: Ruinas Muyil.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euplocamus Dyar and Knab [Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) euplocamus (Dyar and Knab)]. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, La Unión, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus (Theobald) [Ochlerotatus (Protoculex) serratus (Theobald)]. Places collected: Bacalar, Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, La Unión, San Felipe, Nuevo Leria, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) [Ochlerotatus (Culicelsa) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann)]. Places collected: Mahahual, La Unión, San Felipe, Nuevo Leria, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Carrillo Puerto, Vigía Chico, Puerto Aventuras, Capitán Laffite, Chunyaxchen, Tulum, Ocom, Punta Lagarto, Luis Echeverría, Isla Mujeres.
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett) [Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett)]. Place collected: Nuevo Becar.
Aedes (Protomacleaya) podographicus Dyar and Knab [Ochlerotatus (Protomacleaya) podographicus (Dyar and Knab)]. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Chunyaxchen.
Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) [Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus)]. Places collected: Mahahual, Bacalar, Cacao, San Felipe, Limones, Ocom, Luis Echeverría, Punta Lagarto.

Genus Psorophora Robineau–Desvoidy
Seventeen species of Psorophora are known to occur in México. The species are divided into three subgenera, all three of which are represented in the country. Mosquitoes of the Psorophora (Grabhamia) confinnis Group are recorded from Quintana Roo State for the first time (see Table 2 for previous records).
Psorophora
(Grabhamia) confinnis Group. Place collected: Chula Vista.
Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox (von Humboldt). Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, La Unión, Nuevo Leria, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Sacxan.
Psorophora
(Psorophora) ciliata (Fabricius). Place collected: Ruinas Muyil.

Tribe Culicini
Genus Culex Linnaeus
The subgenus Anoedioporpa Dyar of Culex is recorded for the first time in Quintana Roo State; thus, Cx. restrictor Dyar and Knab, and also Cx. (Melanoconion) conspirator Dyar and Knab, are new records for the state. Also, we did not collect adult males of the Cx. (Culex) coronator Group, so it was not possible to identify the individual species of this group, which requires dissection of the male genitalia. Previous records of Culex species previously collected in Quintana Roo State are indicated in Table 2.
Culex (Anoedioporpa) restrictor Dyar and Knab. Places collected: Bacalar, Nuevo Becar, San Felipe, Chunyaxchen, Lago Ocom, Nueva Leria.
Culex (Culex) chidesteri Dyar. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, San Felipe.
Culex (Culex) coronator Group. Places collected: Buena Vista, Nuevo Becar, Huay–Pix, La Unión, Revolución, Cacao, Vigía Chico.
Culex (Culex) declarator Dyar and Knab. Places collected: San Felipe, Luis Echeverría.
Culex (Culex) interrogator Dyar and Knab. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Huay–Pix, San Felipe, Limones, Playa Punta Lagarto.
Culex (Culex) nigripalpus Theobald. Places collected: Mahahual, Nicolás Bravo, Huay–Pix, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Sacxan, Vigía Chico, Puerto Aventuras.
Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say. Places collected: Bacalar, Limones.
Culex (Melanoconion) conspirator Dyar and Knab. Places collected: La Unión, Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo.
Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar and Knab). Places collected: Mahahual, Chula Vista, Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, Curva Ho–May.
Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab. Place collected: Nuevo Becar.

Genus Deinocerites Theobald
Six species of Deinocerites are recorded from México, including two previously known to occur in Quintana Roo State (Table 2). One of the two species, Deinocerites cancer Theobald, was collected during the present study.
Deinocerites cancer Theobald. Places collected: Mahahual, Punta Maroma, Isla Mujeres.

Tribe Mansoniini
Genus Coquillettidia Dyar
Of the two species of this genus present in México, only one was found in Quintana Roo State. Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia) nigricans (Coquillett). Place collected: Playa Punta Lagarto.

Genus Mansonia Blanchard
Three species of Mansonia are recorded from México, but only two were previously known to occur in Quintana Roo State. Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann and Page is a new record for the state.
Mansonia (Mansonia) dyari Belkin, Heinemann and Page. Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, La Unión, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Sacxan.
Mansonia (Mansonia) titillans (Walter). Places collected: Nuevo Becar, La Unión.

Tribe Sabethini
Genus Limatus Theobald
This genus is represented by one species in México, which was found in Quintana Roo State. Larvae were observed preying on Ae. aegypti larvae.
Limatus durhamii Theobald. Places collected: Buena Vista, Bacalar, San Felipe, Nuevo Leria, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Limones, Vigía Chico, Capitán Laffite, Chunyaxchen, Ocom, Punta Lagarto, Playa Punta Lagarto.

Genus Sabethes Robineau–Desvoidy
Four species belonging to two subgenera (Sabethes and Sabethoides Theobald) of this genus have been reported in México. Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus (von Humboldt) was previously found in Quintana Roo State (Table 2). The subgenus Sabethes and Sa. gymnothorax Harbach and Petersen are recorded here for the first time.
Sabethes (Sabethes) gymnothorax Harbach and Petersen. Place collected: Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas.
Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus (von Humboldt). Places collected: Nuevo Becar, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas.

Genus Shannoniana Lane and Cerqueira
Three species of Shannoniana are known to occur in México. The following species is a new occurrence record for Quintana Roo State.
Shannoniana fluviatilis (Theobald). Place collected: La Unión.

Genus Wyeomyia Theobald
Our collections included two species of Wyeomyia that were previously recorded from Quintana Roo State (Table 2).
Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) celaenocephala Dyar and Knab. Places collected: Mahahual, Bacalar, La Unión, Curva Ho–May, Vigía Chico.
Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) mitchellii (Theobald). Places collected: Bacalar, Nuevo Becar, Nicolás Bravo, La Unión, Nuevo Leria, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Vigía Chico, Tulum.

Tribe Toxorhynchitini
Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald
This is the first record of an identified species of Toxorhynchites in Quintana Roo state. All previous records are listed as Toxorhynchites sp. Consequently, the subgenus Lynchiella and Tx. theobaldi (Dyar and Knab) are considered to be new records for Quintana Roo State.
Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) theobaldi (Dyar and Knab). Places collected: Vigía Chico, Ocom, Limones, San Felipe.

Tribe Uranotaeniini
Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga
Nine species of Uranotaenia are recorded from México. Two species of subgenus Uranotaenia, one previously known to occur in Quintana Roo State, were collected during the present study. Uranotaenia socialis Theobald is recorded here for the first time.
Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) lowii Theobald. Places collected: Mahahual, La Unión, Puerto Aventuras.
Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) socialis Theobald. Place collected: Nuevo Becar.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Jorge Ortiz del Prado for his valuable collaboration and the technical personnel (entomological, technical, and operational) of the Secretaría de Salud de Quintana Roo for their assistance in the field work.

 

LITERATURE CITED

CENAVECE (2004). México, D.F. Centro Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Control de Enfermedades (http://www.cenavece.gob.mx).        [ Links ]

Domínguez–Galera M. 2002. Evaluación del Piretroide Bifentrina sobre cambios conductuales de Anophles albimanus Wiedemann Diptera (Culicidae), mediante el rociado intradomiciliario en el sur del estado de Quintana Roo, México. PhD Tesis, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México. 62 pp.        [ Links ]

Harbach, R. E. 2007. Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory. http://mosquito–taxonomic–inventory.info/ (accessed 7 May 2009).        [ Links ]

Ibáñez–Bernal, S., O.Canul & J. F. Camal. 1990. Los Dípteros de la reserva de la biosfera de Sian Ka'an, Quintana Roo, México. Pp. 305–316. In: D. Navarro y Robinson, J.G. (Eds.). Diversidad Biológica de Sian ka`an, Quintana Roo., México. Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo y Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation. University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A.        [ Links ]

INEGI. 2007. México, D.F. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (http://www.inegi.gob.mx) (accessed 15 May 2007).        [ Links ]

Knight, K. L., & A. Stone. 1977. A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae). 2nd edition. Thomas Say Foundation, 6:1–611.        [ Links ]

Pletsch, D. J. 1986. A comparison of faunal list of mosquito species in Florida, in Cuba and in the state of Quintana Roo, Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Journal of the Florida Anti–Mosquito Association, 57(1):29–32.        [ Links ]

Reinert, J. F., R. E. Harbach, & I. J. Kitching. 2004. Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characters of all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142:289–368.        [ Links ]

Reinert, J. F., R. E. Harbach, & I. J. Kitching. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of Finlaya and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 148:1–101.        [ Links ]

Reinert, J. F., R. E. Harbach, & I. J. Kitching. 2008. Phylogeny and classification of Ochlerotatus and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 153: 29–114.        [ Links ]

Vargas, L. 1958. Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de anofelinos mexicanos. Boletín Epidemiológico, 22: 33–45.        [ Links ]

Vargas, L. & A. Martínez–Palacios. 1950. Estudio Taxonómico de los mosquitos Anofelinos de México. SSA. México, D.F. 142 pp.        [ Links ]