PACS: 02.30.Mv; 02.38.Gp

1. Introduction

The modified Bessel functions appear very often in Mathematics and Physics ^{1}^{,}^{2}^{,}^{3}^{,}^{4}^{,}^{5}. There are some approximations for these Bessel functions using polynomials, but each approximation is limited to a narrow interval of the variable ^{1} (p. 378). Here we are interested in the modified Bessel function *I*
_{1} (*x*) of the first kind and order one. This is an entire function with a power series of infinite radius of convergence, but a lot of terms of this series are usually needed to get good accuracy for large values of *x*. The asymptotic expansion is also well known, but good only for high values of the independent variable *x*. A precise analytic approximation for the modified Bessel functions is needed, valid for all positive values of the variable ^{6}^{,}^{7}. The procedure requires the simultaneous use of power and asymptotic expansions, in such a way that the approximant constitutes a bridge between both expansions. This technique is here applied to find a precise analytic approximant for the modified Bessel function *I*
_{1} (*x*). Some improvements to the method have been introduced to determine the approximants to *I*
_{1} (*x*). In particular we are selecting the auxiliary functions in such a way that the power series of the approximants have only odd-powers as in the case of the original power series of *I*
_{1} (*x*). This is one of the improvements on the form of previous approximants for Bessel functions *J* (*x*) published in the past ^{8}^{,}^{9}. This way to obtain new approximations is more efficient and produce the same accuracy with less parameters. Keeping this idea in mind, several approximants have been obtained, and here we are presenting the one with the best accuracy for a given number of parameters.

The form of the approximant is determined in Sec. 2, showing the criterion to select the auxiliary functions. The determination of the parameters is done in Sec. 3, and a discussion of the relative error is also performed. Finally the last Section is devoted to the Conclusion.

2. Approximant structure

The power series of *I*
_{1} (*x*) is

and the asymptotic expansion is

Now an analytic function must be created in such a way that it is a bridge between both series. Clearly this function should contain the exponential function, as well as rational functions as in Pade’s method. However now there is the important fact that the power series of *I*
_{1} (*x*) contains only odd powers, which means that the auxiliary function should also contain only odd powers, thus there are two possibilities *x*(*e*
^{
x
} + *e*
^{
-x
} ) or (*e*
^{
x
} - *e*
^{
-x
} ). Both possibilities have been considered here, but the best results are obtained for the second alternative. The second consideration is in relation with the fractional power *x*
^{-1/2} in the asymptotic expansions. An auxiliary function must be introduced in the approximant in such a way that this fractional power should appear at infinity, but not in the region of approximation, which in our case is the positive real axis *x* > 0. Furthermore, this auxiliary function should have only even powers in the power series around zero. All of these conditions are accomplished by the function

This approximant at infinity should be as

Now the parameters *I*
_{1} (*x*) and *I*
_{1} (*x*) must be 2*n*, if we leave free the choice of

3. Determination of parameters

Here the approximant

will be considered.

To obtain only linear equations to determine the parameters

Now we have to get the two first terms of the series for *I*
_{1} (*x*), *x*, and to equate coefficients, that is

In this way the parameters

The value of

Since we are interested in an approximant to *I*
_{1} (*x*) for positive values of *x*, then *q*
_{1} must be positive, and *q*
_{1} is zero, therefore

A graph of *q*
_{1} as a function of

From this graph, it is clear that

where in the equation the smallest number of decimals have been chosen such that the relative error is not modified. The relative errors

The accuracy of this approximant is high, as it can be also seen in Fig. 1.

The maximum relative error of this approximant is about 1%, but it is important to point out that the errors for small and large values of *x* are much lower.

In Fig. 2, the relative errors are shown for different values of

It is interesting to point out that there is a second way to obtain the parameters *p*
_{0}, *p*
_{1} and *q*
_{1}, which consist in leaving *p*
_{0} and *p*
_{1} as unknown, giving *q*
_{1} as a function of *p*
_{1}. In this way, after equating coefficients in the power series the value for *q*
_{1} as a function of

which is little different from our previous value. This way to obtain the coefficients of the approximant lead to a slightly different approximant, and the smallest relative error is for

In order to clarify the method, in Fig. 3 we have shown three plots: one for the best value

4. Conclusion

A simple and precise approximant has been found for the modified Bessel function

Although essentially the MPQA method has been used here, some improvements have been introduced comparing with previous papers, in order to improve efficiency in the approximants by using only auxiliary functions with a convenient form as, for instance, power series with only odd-powers. In this way, a good accuracy has been obtained with only a low number of parameters.

An analysis is also performed of the best way to choose the parameter