PACS: 82.80 Ej.

1. Introduction

Several X-ray diffraction measurements of textured polycrystal pole figures have shown that
density maxima of second order reflections are almost systematically larger than
those of first order reflections of the same sample plane. For example, the pole
density maximum of vacuum annealed silver with a conventional recrystallization
texture (dominant component [110] ⟨011⟩) is 6.1 for pole figure 111, and 9.2 for
pole figure 222, both measured with Kα Mo radiation. Alternatively, a similar
sample, annealed in oxygen atmosphere, shows maxima of 11.9 and 14.6 for pole
figures 111 and 222 respectively, when measured with Kα Cu radiation. It is expected
that pole figures have to be identical for different reflection orders because they
are produced by the same crystallographic planes. Consequently, measurements as
those above described have motivated the assumption that diffraction from
polycrystals is affected by the extinction phenomenon. This is clearly relevant for
single crystals where first order reflections are affected more strongly than second
order reflections. However in the case of polycrystals, if secondary extinction is
noticeable, it has to be one of the main causes on the above mentioned pole density
differences. This has led us to investigate systematically on the differences of
pole figures^{1}^{,}^{2}^{,}^{3} However, determination of pole figures requires
several steps of calculations, namely: background subtraction, defocusing correction
and normalization, and as result, error propagation could have different effects on
both first order and second order reflections, since they exhibit strong intensity
differences. Additionally normalization needs all measured intensity values. This
includes zones with poor statistics as pole figure edges, and this could have a
large influence in biasing pole density maxima.

A method has been devised here to verify if secondary extinction is present in textured polycrystals, by a detailed consideration of intensities of multiple scattering in a more direct way. This is justified to avoid large error propagation from lengthy calculations and normalization. As it is well known, secondary extinction in mosaic crystals is observed in rocking curves measurements, where the Ewald sphere presents essentially only one possible reflection, and the possibility of a second reflection only in a direction very close to the primary beam. In such a case, secondary extinction results as an absorption term of the form *gPQ* where *g* is inversely proportional to the width Δ of the crystallite orientation distribution, *P* depends on polarization, and *Q* is the integrated reflection per unit volume ^{4}. This absorption term is comparable to the true absorption coefficient *μ*, for characteristic Δ values of mosaic crystals, *i.e*. minutes or seconds of arch. In principle the extinction absorption term can be negligible for misorientation widths found in polycrystals even with a sharp texture. Nevertheless, the Ewald sphere becomes a set of concentric shells in polycrystals, and many other possible secondary reflections take place, contributing to the intensity loss as registered by the detector, *i.e*. to secondary extinction. Also, in textured polycrystals a rocking curve is not a sharp peak, but a “mountain” composed by several local texture components. It is therefore unsuitable for extinction determination. Instead a detector scan is appropriate. It should also be mentioned that the irradiated volume remains constant in a detector scan, as well as in pole figure measurements by the Schulz reflection method. This volume depends only on the beam cross section and *μ*.

In the following, the integrated intensity of secondary D-S rings of a textured sample is evaluated, and compared for first and second order diffraction conditions of a general plane (*hkl*) after normalization by corresponding two theta scans of powder samples. Such rings arise from the diffracted beam, of two theta scans of eflections *H* = (*hkl*) and 2*H* = (2*h*, 2*k*, 2*l*). Differences from these reflections would indicate the extent secondary extinction affects pole figure determination.

2. Theoretical procedure

Let a two theta X-ray diffraction scan be measured in a sample in the form of a conventional plate, oriented at the angles (*χ*, *φ*) as for the measurement of a pole figure point for a reflection *H* = (*hkl*), *χ* is the tilting angle and *φ* is the angle of rotation around the sample normal. Let this point be the maximum pole density of the pole figure, although it can be any other point of the pole figure, as long as sufficient intensity is obtained. Let the detector be in a position to receive the diffracted beam on the equatorial plane with wave vector *k* and *θ* the Bragg angle of reflection *H*, as shown in Fig. 1. Let also *ω* be an angle characterizing the points of any secondary D-S-ring, in the interval from 0 to 2π.

The intensity of reflection *H*, denoted here as
*I*_{H} (*χ*,
*φ*), is not uniform along the *D* -
*S*_{H} ring due to texture, and
therefore not given by the well known expression for the intensity of powder. It
must be modified by a factor *η*_{H}
(*χ*, *φ*) which is the ratio of the diffracting
crystallites volume *V*_{H}
(*χ*, *φ*) of the sample, to the diffracting
crystallites volume of powder. *η*_{H}
(*χ*, *φ*) is therefore the pole density appearing
in pole figures. *V*_{H}
(*χ*, *φ*) is the volume of the crystallites
diffracting in the direction of the detector, *i.e.* in a small
segment of the *D* - *S*_{H}
ring, proportional to the height of the detector slit. Since the aim of this
investigation is a comparison of two orders of reflections from the same planes,
only relative intensities are necessary, and so, we can write
*I*_{H} (*χ*,
*φ*) simply as

where *H*, and
*d*_{H} (*χ*) the
defocusing factor, which for a fixed Bragg angle depends only on *χ*. ^{5}):

with *F*_{H} the structure factor,
*p*_{H} the multiplicity factor and *H*. Particularly,
the absorption coefficient is considered constant, and therefore not included. This
does not mean that absorption is considered negligible. Also, since intensity is
measured as counts per second, no angular velocity of the detector is needed.

The intensity of the D-S ring of any of the secondary reflections *H*' of the
textured sample is also non uniform due to texture, *i.e*. it depends
on *ω*; the primary beam intensity is given by (1), and for the new
incident wave vector the sample orientation (*χ*, *φ*)
changes to some other orientation (*χ*', *φ*').
Furthermore, *χ*' and *φ*' become functions of
*ω*. As result for any of the secondary diffraction events, a
similar equation as (1) can be used, replacing
*η*_{H} (*χ*,
*φ*) by a function *ω* of the
D-S ring of radius 1, the diffracted intensity is

This ring is not measured by the detector, and consequently there is no need to include defocusing.

The integrated intensity of the secondary D-S ring,
*J*_{H'}, is then

where *H*' secondary D-S ring, relative to powder, when the incident beam comes from reflection *H*.

It should be noticed that in (3) and (4), the incident beam for the second diffraction process is taken as the diffracted beam from the first diffraction process. Therefore this has to be taken only as an approximation, since the diffracted beam from the first process is not homogeneous.

The integrated intensity of all secondary D-S rings is then

And the intensity passing through the receiving slit and registered by the detector is

where

Multiple scattering is also produced in powders. In this case

the corresponding intensity arriving at the detector is

The normalized integrated intensity giving the pole density at point (*χ*', *φ*') of the pole figure is from (6) and (9)

And the corresponding normalized integrated intensity for the second order reflection 2*H* is

Comparison of these two expressions leads to the following: Any difference between *i.e*. the total volume of the diffracting crystallites on every *H*' D-S ring. Actually, a difference in these quantities can be expected. The wave vector *k* generating the D-S rings for the first order diffraction, has a different direction as the one generating the D-S rings for the second order diffraction. However, in ^{4} becomes applicable. Nevertheless, since the crystallite misorientation breath is of the order of a degree, even for a very sharp texture, the absorption term due to secondary extinction is negligible. On the other hand, diffracted beam intensities are at least two orders of magnitude lower than the incident beam, and the second terms of Eqs. (7) and (8) should be negligible. This is certainly the case of (8) for a powder; however, every diffracting situation involves a large numbers of crystallite orientations in Eulerian space, defining a curve. If some of these curves cross zones of high pole density in the crystallite orientation distribution function (CODF) of a strongly textured sample, the second term of (7) could become significant. In the case of a powder, no volume differences are present because of the random orientation of the crystallites, and thus

3. Secondary extinction correction

To obtain a viable secondary extinction correction method is beyond the scope of this work,
although *J*_{D-S} in principle can fulfill
this task if the quantities ^{3} for the case of neutron
diffraction. The CODF used there was obtained by the conventional method of three
pole figures as an approximation.

4. Discussion and conclusions

Equation (6) states that the
integrated intensity of D-S rings is actually affected by secondary extinction.
Additionally, Eq. (10) indicates that
secondary extinction affects reflections of different order of a given set of planes
approximately in the same proportion. If the present result can be experimentally
verified, the implication is that observed systematic differences in the maxima of
pole figures of reflections of different order, are to be attributed to error
propagation. This can clearly affect both pole figures in different ways. Another
likely possibility can be a heterogeneous texture, since first and second order
reflections have small differences in penetration depth. If contrary to (10),
*i*_{H} and
*i*_{2H} show the same relation to
each other as in pole figures at the maxima, this would suggest that primary
extinction is present in those cases.

Two theta X-ray diffraction scans of rolled and annealed samples of cubic symmetry materials, whose textures are well known and consist of few dominant texture components, could be done to verify this theory.