versão impressa ISSN 0016-7169
Geofís. Intl v.47 n.4 México oct./dez. 2008
Application of the pseudoThellier technique to a paleomagnetic record from lake El Trébol (Patagonia, Argentina)
C.S.G. Gogorza1,2*, S. Torcida3, M. A. Irurzun1,2, M. A. E. Chaparro1,2 and A. M. Sinito1,2
1 IFAS. Instituto de Física Arroyo Seco, Universidad Nacional del Centro, Pinto 399, 7000, Tandil, Argentina. * Corresponding author: email@example.com
2 CONICET. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Rivadavia 1917, 1033, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Instituto Multidisciplinario de Ecosistemas y Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Nacional del Centro, Pinto 399, 7000, Tandil, Argentina
Received: September 19, 2007
Accepted: June 25, 2008
La técnica de pseudoThellier se aplicó con la finalidad de obtener registros de paleointensidades relativas utilizando un testigo de sedimentos del Lago El Trébol (Patagonia, Argentina).
En un conjunto de muestras, se llevaron a cabo mediciones de la magnetización remanente natural residual (NRMleft) luego del proceso de desmagnetización por Campos Alternos en función de la intensidad de la magnetización remanente anhistérica (ARM gained) en el mismo valor de campo. Dos versiones del método de remuestreo jackknife se usaron para estimar el error de los registros de paleointensidades.
Los resultados obtenidos mediante el método de pseudoThellier se compararon con trabajos previos de los autores en los cuales la magnetización remanente a 20mT (NRM20mT) fue normalizada usando la magnetización remanente anhistérica a 20mT (ARM20mT), la magnetización remanente isotérmica de saturación a 20mT (SIRM20mT) y la susceptibilidad magnética (k) (Gogorza et al., 2006). Los registros obtenidos a partir del método de pseudosThellier muestran un acuerdo razonable con los obtenidos mediante el método standard de normalización (NRM20mT/ARM20mT).
Palabras clave: PseudoThellier, paleointensidad relativa, lago El Trébol, remuestreo jacknife.
The pseudoThellier technique was applied to obtain relative paleointensity determinations using a sediment core from Lake El Trébol (Patagonia, Argentina).
Measurements of intensity of natural remanent magnetization left (NRMleft) after AF demagnetization versus intensity of anhysteric remanent magnetization gained (ARM gained) at the same peak were carried out on a set of samples. Two versions of a jackknife resampling scheme were used to get error estimates on the paleointensity.
The pseudoThellier paleointensity records were compared with the authors previous results where the remanent magnetization at 20mT (NRM20mT) has been normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent magnetization at 20mT (SIRM20mT) and the low field magnetic susceptibility (k) (Gogorza et al., 2006). The pseudoThellier record shows a reasonable agreement with the standard method of normalization (NRM20mT/ ARM20mT).
Key words: PseudoThellier, relative paleointensity, lake El Trébol, jackknife resampling, robustresistant slope estimation.
Many efforts have been made to recover the paleointensity from sedimentary records taking into account the potential that lake sediments have for providing continuous and highquality records of the past geomagnetic field.
The conventional method of extracting geomagnetic field information from the signal consists in normalizing the "cleaned" natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at some demagnetization level with some normalizer. Different normalizers have been proposed, such as the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and the magnetic susceptibility k (Tauxe, 1993). It is assumed that the normalizers minimize the effects of magnetic grainsize distribution and variation of magnetic input, for example, as determined by environmental effects.
Several studies have been carried out to recover the relative paleointensity from marine and terrestrial records (Brachfeld and Banerjee, 2000; Sagnotti et al., 2001; Nowaczyk et al., 2001; Pan et al., 2001; Stoner et al., 2002; Brachfeld et al., 2003; StOnge et al., 2003; Gogorza et al., 2004, 2006). Each study holds that their results represent the true geomagnetic field intensity and are free of environmental effects. Although the criteria summarized by Tauxe (1993) are strict, one must be aware that there might still be some climate influence left in the normalized NRM record and that we might not be looking at a purely geomagnetic signal (Kruiver et al., 1999).
Another way to obtain paleointensity records from sediments is the pseudoThellier method, based on AF demagnetization and ARM or IRM acquisition (Tauxe et al., 1995). The goal of this method is to diminish the environmental contamination of the paleointensity signal better than the conventional normalizing methods (Kruiver et al., 1999).
In this paper we compare the results of paleointensity records obtained from sediment cores of Lake El Trébol (Patagonia, Argentina) using a conventional normalizing method (Gogorza et al., 2006) and with the pseudoThellier method with ARM. Here, we investigate whether the pseudoThellier method yields different results for this sediment core.
The sediment core studied in this work is core lt982 from Lake El Trébol (41°04'S 71°29'W). Lake El Trébol, a closed basin, is an oligotrophic, small lake (surface area: 0.4km2, maximum depth=11m), located at 758m a.s.l. on the east side of the Andean Patagónica Cordillera, in a wooded area with moderate human influence. Presently, there are no perennial stream discharges into the lake and the hydrological budget is dominated by groundwater influx and losses by evaporation (Bianchi et al., 1999; Gogorza et al., 2006).
Lake El Trébol sedimentary stratigraphy shows strong similarities to others obtained by the authors from surrounding lakes (Gogorza et al., 1999; 2001; 2002). The push corer reached the basement (or erratic blocks), passing through a sedimentary column, which is represented by the cores (Irurzun et al., 2006; Gogorza et al., 2006).
Material and Equipment
The core investigated in this paper (lt982) was recovered at water depths of about 10 m from Lake El Trébol in 1998 using a push corer installed on a raft with a central hole (Gogorza et al., 2006).
One half of each core was subsampled with cubic plastic boxes of 8 cm3. A total of 281 samples were obtained.
A Spinner Fluxgate Magnetometer Minispin, Molspin Ltd. was used for measurements of remanent magnetization and a Shielded Demagnetizer Molspin Ltd. was used to isolate the magnetization components. A Pulse Magnetizer IM1030 AC Scientific and Shielded Demagnetizer Molspin Ltd. with an ARM device were used for IRM and ARM acquisition experiments, respectively.
In order to test the stability of the NRM and to remove any viscous overprints, progressive alternating field (AF) demagnetization was carried out. In the orthogonal demagnetization (Zijderveld) diagrams, we generally observed straight lines that passed through the origin of the demagnetization diagram, indicating a single component and stable characteristic remanent magnetization. A limited number of samples show a small viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) that is progressively destroyed at 10 or 15mT. Further steps revealed a high stability of the magnetization directions (Irurzun et al., 2006).
Paleointensity determinations were carried out according to Tauxe et al. (1995) with the pseudoThellier method on a group of 40 selected pilot samples from core lt982. The NRM is demagnetized using an alternating field (AF) in 13 steps up to 95mT using steps of 510mT. Then the ARM is imparted at the same field steps as the NRM demagnetization. The ARM acquired at 95mT AF was demagnetized in the same way as the NRM. Finally, the sample is subjected to an increasing field to analyze acquisition of IRM using the same field steps as the initial demagnetization of the NRM, continuing to saturation. This SIRM was also demagnetized (Tauxe et al., 1995). The results obtained after this procedure for sample 280 are plotted in Fig. 1. The average median destructive field (MDF) is 23+2mT for the NRM, 25.7+0.5mT for ARM and 26±1mT for SIRM. ARM acquisition and demagnetization curves show a crossing at about 37% and a comparable crossing for IRM data at about 27%. The ARM data are, thus, more stable against demagnetization than the IRM (Tauxe et al., 1995).
Rock Magnetic Analysis
In order to study the nature of the magnetic minerals in the sediments, a set of experiments were carried out by Gogorza et al. (2006). The following measurements were performed for all samples: NRM; magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (specific, X and volumetric, k); isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in increasing steps up to 1.2T, reaching the SIRM; back field, in growing steps until cancelling the magnetic remanence; anhysteric remanent magnetization (ARM100mT), with a direct field of 0. 1mT and a peak alternating field of 100mT. Associated parameters calculated by Irurzun et al. (2006) were also used: Sratio (IRM300mT JSIRM), remanent coercitive field (BCR), SIRM/ k, ARM100mT /k and SIRM/ARM100mT. In addition to these studies, hysteresis curves and temperature dependence of SIRM were obtained for a set of discrete samples. These studies show that the dominant remanence carriers are magnetite and titanomagnetite within the pseudosingle domain (PSD) grain size and that the concentration of these minerals varies between 0.01 to 0.1%. A more detailed description of these items is given in Gogorza et al. (2006) and Irurzun et al. (2006).
Fig. 2 graphically displays the linear behavior of ARM left (ARMleft) versus ARM gained (ARM gained) at the same peak field ("Arai Plot" of Nagata et al., 1963) and the marked curve behavior of IRM left (IRMleft) versus IRM gained (IRM gained) (sample 108). The slight deviation of the ARM . versus ARM . plot from the linear behavior may be due to the existence of a magnetic interaction. IRM acquisition curves and corresponding DC and AF demagnetization curves were analyzed to test the magnetic interaction (Henkel, 1964; Cisowski, 1981; Kruiver et al., 1999). Stepwise acquisition was carried out up to fields of 1.2T; then a progressive demagnetization was applied up to 1.2T for the DC experiment (Fig. 3a) and up to 95mT for the alternating field (AF) (Fig. 3b). Fig. 3a shows that about 90% of the SIRM is obtained between 200 and 300mT. From Fig. 3b we can see that the intersection of the acquisition and AF demagnetization curves is at about 30% of the SIRM. According to Cisowski (1981), if the point of intersection is at 50% of the SIRM, there is no magnetic interaction. It is necessary to take into account that the Cisowski (1981) investigation is focused on magnetic interaction for SD particles and his results might not be applicable to the PSD particles present in our samples (Kruiver et al., 1999). From the Henkel plot (Henkel, 1964), IRMgained vs. IRMleft, the occurrence of magnetic interaction can be verified (Wohlfarth, 1958). Nonlinearity in this plot is typically motivated by interparticle dipolar interactions in fineparticle systems (Cisowski, 1981). The behavior observed in the samples of Lake El Trébol (Fig. 3.c) suggests that no magnetic interaction would be present in our samples. Finally, all samples show similar behavior in the stepwise acquisition experiments (Fig. 3d), independent of the absolute IRM intensities. According to Kruiver et al. (1999), the degree of interaction between magnetic particles is dependent on concentration; for this reason, we would have to find different behaviors in samples which have different concentrations. However, all samples deviate to the same extent from the noninteraction line (slope 0.5) in the Henkel plot and the point of intersection in the Cisowski plot (app. 30%) is the same for all samples.
In summary, it is unlikely that magnetic interaction has occurred in the studied sediments. This is supported by the fact that magnetic interaction takes place when the concentration is higher than >0.1 1 % and the concentration in our sediments varies between 0.010.1% (Gogorza et al., 2006).
The sediments of lake El Trébol are dated by correlation between the Declination and Inclination curves obtained in Irurzun et al. (2006) and the PSV curves from lake Escondido (Gogorza et al., 2002). The dating is based on visual inspection of the curves (Fig. 10 in Irurzun et al., 2006). On the basis of this correlation, 44 tie points provide age estimates. Ages of the most distinct declination peaks are transferred to the lake El Trébol record and inclination features are matched. Minor changes in inclination and declination are then correlated.
The resultant age scale was tested by three accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates obtained for that work by the AMS Laboratory of the University of Arizona, which were converted into calendar years using the calibration curves of Stuiver and Reimer (1993). The information about each sample, including radiocarbon years before present (RCYBP) and calibrated ages, is listed in Table 1 in Irurzun et al. 2006.
The "pseudo Thellier" normalization
The pseudoThellier approach turned out to be successful in estimating relative paleointensities from sedimentary cores (Tauxe, 1995; Kok, 1998; Kruiver et al., 1999; Brachfeld and Banerjee, 2000; Pan et al., 2001; Snowball and Sandgren, 2004). In this paper, paleointensity determinations on 40 samples by the pseudoThellier method, following Tauxe et al. (1995), are achieved using ARM.
Fig. 4 shows the pseudoThellier results of the sample 176. Fig. 4a shows stepwise AF demagnetization of NRM and acquisition of ARM, with the intensities normalized to their peak values. The best fit slope (ma) is obtained from the Arai plot (Fig. 4b), the NRM intensity left after demagnetization versus the ARM acquisition intensity (at the same peak field), by using two versions of a jackknife resampling procedure (Efron, 1982). Fig. 4c represents a histogram of the calculated slopes (ma). The solid line represents the bestfit slope; dashed lines point out the upper and lower limits of 90% of possible ma values.
In one of the estimation procedures (Method 1), we followed the methods of Kok (1998) and Kruiver et al. (1999). The proposed method produced in every sample several regression slope estimates based on combinations of Jackknife subsamples (all, all but one, all but two and all but three, if possible) of field values lying between 20mT and 60mT (a minimum of three points in each subsample was required by the slope formulae) in most of the cases (Kok, 1998). In the other estimation procedure (Method 2), a modified version of that method was used to produce the slope estimates. In method 2, the Jackknife resampling was combined with Theil's complete method of robustresistant regression slope estimation (Glaister, 2005).
In both methods, the best slope estimate for each sample was identified as the slope using a specific optimizing criterion: for the first one, the slope estimate with minimum relative error (Kok, 1998); for the latter, the slope estimate achieving the minimum sum of absolute deviations between experimental values and the slope estimates.
In addition, two measures of estimation goodness were calculated for each method, to compare the results: i) a 90% bandwidth is obtained, as in Kok (1998), and the percentage of points lying inside that band was given (37.2% applying the robustresistant estimation method and 8% if the other method is used); ii) the sum of absolute deviations between the line joining best slopes and the experimental values is calculated. Based on both measures, it was observed that Method 1 (robustresistant estimation method) performed better.
In order to compare the results, the conventional paleointensity records obtained by Gogorza et al. (2006) taking NRM20mT/ARM20mT and the pseudoThellier paleointensity are shown in Fig. 5a using Method 1 and in Fig 5b using Method 2. With the aim of comparing them, both are normalized by their mean values. We have taken NRM20mT /ARM20mT as a conventional paleointensity estimate because the pseudoThellier method uses ARM as well (Kruiver et al., 1999).
It is necessary to note that both methods applied to the pseudoThellier data provide an estimate of errors in the paleointensity. This error constitutes the information enclosed in the sample about NRM and ARM acquisition (Kruiver et al., 1999).
Relative Paleointensity Results
Relative paleointensity profiles are shown in Fig. 6. Here, the results comparing 40 specimens, using Method 2, are compared with previous estimates of Gogorza et al. (2006). The three traditional normalization methods yield profiles with broad similarities but differ in the amplitude of peaks and troughs. The coherence analysis indicates that the parameter ARM20mT is the more appropriate normalization method in these sediments (not coherence frequency above the 95% confidence level) and that the NRM20mT/ARM20mT is not affected by climatic or lithologic factors, but represents a true geomagnetic signal (Gogorza et al., 2006). In order for comparison, each of the four data sets (NRM20mT /ARM20mT , NRM20mT /SIRM20mT , NRM20mT /k, ma) has been divided by its mean value. In the case of the pseudoThellier record, this results in positive values of ma. It is necessary to take into account that the different resolution observed in the records is because fewer samples were studied by the pseudoThellier method.
Here, we have found sufficient similarities between the pseudoThellier data and the average NRM20mT /ARM20mT profile (according to Brachfeld et al. (2000)) which is not surprising for young sediments unaffected by viscous overprint. The most conspicuous differences occur in features at 2600300014C years BP, 104501180014C years BP and 1680018350 14C years BP, which coincide with prominent dissimilarities in the grain size proxies (Figure 3, Gogorza et al., 2006). Changes in the ratios ARM100mT/k and ARM100mT/SIRM; higher ratios indicate smaller grain size and a higher proportion of singledomain (SD) grains (Hunt et al., 1995). If, for example, there is an increase in the proportion of finer grains, the NRM.20mT/ARM 20mT will decrease but the NRM20mT /SIRM20mT will increase, which is noticed at about 1180012800 14C years BP; on the other hand, if there is an decrease in the proportion of finer grains, the NRM20mT/ARM20mT will increase but the NRM20mT /SIRM20mT will decrease, as is observed at about 1680018100 14C years BP. There are other intervals where differences are observed, but further studies would be necessary in those cases (for ex. 26003100, 47005200, 67007500, 1350014350 and 1440015400 14C years BP). Unfortunately we do not have data in this respect in the pseudoThellier profile.
In this paper, we have applied the pseudoThellier method to 40 samples from Lake El Trébol and present the results. This technique not only conveniently separates VRM from DRM, but offers a means of assessing the uncertainty of the relative paleointensity estimate (Tauxe et al., 1995). The pseudoThellier record and the conventional method of normalization (NRM20mT/ ARM20mT) show a reasonable agreement. This similarity would support the conclusion that any technique for relative paleointensity of sediment samples produces reliable results, providing that the sediments meet the criteria for magnetic uniformity necessary for estimates of the relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field.
The advantage of using a robustresistant method of regression slope estimation in this type of research should not be surprising, as the influence of outliers, often present due to different kind of perturbations, is minimized.
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