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Medicina crítica (Colegio Mexicano de Medicina Crítica)

versão impressa ISSN 2448-8909


RUGERIO CABRERA, Andrea et al. A physicochemical approach to acid-base balance in critically ill patients after infusion of seven different types of balanced fluids. Med. crít. (Col. Mex. Med. Crít.) [online]. 2016, vol.30, n.5, pp.301-309. ISSN 2448-8909.


Acid-base status in a body fluid is physically determined by several independent variables. These are: pCO2, the «strong ion difference» (SID), all the strong anions (among them is Cl-), and concentrations of nonvolatile weak acids (ATOT). Normal acid-base status is achieved when the independent variables have normal (empirically established) values. The simplified Fencl-Stewart’s method can be used at the bedside of the patient and is more accurate in the assessment of acid-base balance. Omron developed a physicochemical model of the projected change in standard base excess (SBE) as a consequence of infused crystalloid solutions of common use (isotonic saline and balanced fluids); unfortunately this was a clinical simulation at standard physiological state. In addition, Kaplan evaluated acid-base balance after the administration of balanced fluids in trauma patients. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there are no other clinical trials that evaluate the administration of other types of balanced fluids.


To assess the acid-base status of critically ill patients after the infusion of seven different types of balanced solutions.

Material and methods:

This was a retrospective, observational and descriptive study conducted in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. We included all patients 18 years and older admitted to this department from January 2015 to July 2016. We evaluated the effects on acid-base balance after the infusion of seven different solutions: 1) Hartmann + 17.8 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) (SID 45.8), 2) Hartmann + 8.9 mEq/L NaHCO3 (SID 36.9), 3) Hartmann + 15 mEq/L NaHCO3 (SID 43), 4) Hartmann + 25 mEq/L NaHCO3 (SID 53), 5) Hartmann (SID 28), 6) normal saline 0.45% + 77 mEq/L NaHCO3 (SID 75), and 7) dextrose solution 5% + 154 mEq/L NaHCO3 (SID 154). Arterial blood gases, serum electrolytes, and proteins were measured in the same blood sample. Also SIDa, SEDe, SIG, ATOT, pCO2, change in standard base excess (SBE), pH, [HCO3], [Na]p and SOFA were calculated. pH, SBE and pCO2 were estimated with the ABL8000 FLEX blood gas analyzer. Data are mean ± SD or percents. We used the data analysis package SSPS.


One hundred ninety-eight patients were included. Of these, 54% were women and 45% men. The solutions most used were Hartmann (25%), Hartmann + 8.9 mEq/L NaHCO3 (21%), and Hartmann + 25 mEq/L NaHCO3 (18%). Before the infusion, SIDe was under 30 mEq/L in 30% of the patients and above in 23% of them. The effect on the SIDe was significant before the infusion of different solutions (p 0.01), SIDe > 30 ± 8 mEq/L. No metabolic alkalosis or greater decrease of SIDa/SIDe was observed.


This study assesses additional varieties of fluids that have a different SID in the clinical setting. No major acid-base disturbances were observed.

Palavras-chave : Strong ion difference (SID); simplified Fencl-Stewart´s method; balanced solutions.

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